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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

Memory

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Note-Taking And The Decision To Externalize Memory, Anna Slavina Jan 2018

Note-Taking And The Decision To Externalize Memory, Anna Slavina

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between note-taking and learning, particularly as it relates to the use of technology in the classroom. Two laboratory studies explore how taking and saving notes on a computer impacts memory for facts and the folders where notes for those facts are stored. A qualitative study provided an updated look at how students think about note-taking and how technology affects their note-taking habits. Another laboratory study explored the difference in recall for facts and folders when notes were taken by hand on note-cards and saved in physical folders or on a ...


Emotional Memory For Affective Words In Manifest And Prodromal Huntington’S Disease, Patricia Lynn Johnson Jul 2017

Emotional Memory For Affective Words In Manifest And Prodromal Huntington’S Disease, Patricia Lynn Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) patients have been found to have specific deficits in emotional processing, most consistently demonstrating impairment recognizing the emotion expressed on a static face. The purpose of this study was to examine emotional memory in HD, which has not yet been investigated, and its relationship with executive functioning, emotional facial recognition, and the disease progression in HD. An emotional memory task with pleasant, neural, and unpleasant words was administered to control (n=26), prodromal HD (n=26), and manifest HD (n=29) participants in addition to executive function measures, an apathy scale, and emotional facial recognition task ...


The Relationships Among Emotion, Cognitive Dysfunction And Anosognosia In Huntington’S Disease, Danielle C. Hergert Jun 2017

The Relationships Among Emotion, Cognitive Dysfunction And Anosognosia In Huntington’S Disease, Danielle C. Hergert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Anosognosia, or lack of awareness of symptoms, is commonly observed in neurodegenerative disorders, including HD. Most theories suggest that emotion, executive functioning, and memory play important roles in self-awareness. There is limited research of anosognosia in HD and no theoretical model of how it manifests in the disease. The purpose of this study was to examine Metacognitive Knowledge, or overall beliefs about the self, and Online Awareness, or the ability to predict (Anticipatory Awareness) and evaluate (Emergent Awareness) task performance, in HD ...


Negation-Induced Forgetting: Is There A Consequence To Saying "No"?, Rachel Elizabeth Dianiska Jan 2017

Negation-Induced Forgetting: Is There A Consequence To Saying "No"?, Rachel Elizabeth Dianiska

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The negation effect refers to the cognitive detriment associated with correctly saying “no” (a negation), compared to correctly saying “yes” (an affirmation). A recent study has shown this detriment for item memory following the negation of a feature of an item (Mayo, Schul, & Rosenthal, 2014). This research examines the replicability of the negation effect using the original paradigm, as well as an adapted list-learning paradigm. Participants studied a set of objects and were then asked questions about features of objects that elicited “yes” or “no” responses. After a filler task, participants completed a final memory test during which they indicated ...


Does Access To External Storage Lead To Less Emphasis On Learning?, Anna Slavina Jan 2016

Does Access To External Storage Lead To Less Emphasis On Learning?, Anna Slavina

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of having access to external memory storage on what students encode in internal memory. The accessibility of external information makes it very easy to get to without having to exert a lot of mental effort. I investigated how typing and saving notes about facts on a computer would impact internal memory if participants knew they would have access to their notes when tested on the facts. In Experiment 1 participants heard trivia facts and took notes on each one, which they saved to one of six folders. Half of the participants were ...


Blue Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: A Cross Cultural Study On Color Perception And Memory, Mark Douglas Lowry Oct 2014

Blue Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: A Cross Cultural Study On Color Perception And Memory, Mark Douglas Lowry

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

According the linguistic relativity hypothesis, the language one speaks affects how one thinks. Because languages differ in how they categorize color, linguistic relativity has often been tested by conducting experiments on color perception and memory. This study examines the linguistic relativity hypothesis using ecologically valid stimuli: pictures of eyes. Because Russian-speakers are more likely to describe blue/grey eyes as grey, whereas English speakers are more likely to describe them as blue, English and Russian participants were asked to match the overall color of blue eyes to a color scale. There were three conditions. In the first condition (perception), participants ...


Delaying Feedback Is Beneficial, But Only When Curious About The Answer, Kellie Marie Mullaney Jan 2013

Delaying Feedback Is Beneficial, But Only When Curious About The Answer, Kellie Marie Mullaney

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

When students are tested, delaying feedback of the correct answer by a few seconds is more beneficial than providing it immediately (e.g., Brackbill & Kappy, 1962). The current study refers to this effect as the delay-of-feedback benefit. Little is known about the theoretical nature of the delay-of-feedback benefit. The current study investigated the hypothesis that a delay of feedback is beneficial because it allows a learner to anticipate--i.e., look forward to, or devote attentional resources to--the feedback when it arrives. Participants were asked a list of obscure trivia questions. Immediately after answering each question they were asked to indicate ...


Can Interpolated Testing Reduce Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?, Matthew R. Erdman Jan 2013

Can Interpolated Testing Reduce Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?, Matthew R. Erdman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Testing can improve retention of tested information (see Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a for review), but it can also impair memory for nontested, related information: an effect termed retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). To my knowledge, retrieval-induced forgetting has only been shown in experiments where participants study all exemplars and then perform one retrieval practice phase (see Anderson, 2003; Raaijmakers & Jakab, 2013; Storm & Levy, 2012 for reviews). Researchers have demonstrated that interpolating memory tests during the learning phase can reduce the amount of proactive interference one experiences when one learns new information (Szpunar, McDermott, & Roediger, 2008). In this dissertation, I examined how studying information in multiple blocks rather than one block influenced the buildup of proactive interference. Previous researchers (Szpunar et al., 2008) examined how testing can reduce the buildup of practice interference when all previously studied information was tested. I examined whether testing only a subset of the exemplars in a ...


Does Crowding Obscure The Presence Of Attentional Guidance In Contextual Cueing?, Steven William Fiske Jan 2012

Does Crowding Obscure The Presence Of Attentional Guidance In Contextual Cueing?, Steven William Fiske

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The contextual cueing effect was initially thought to be the product of memory guiding attention to the target location. However, the steep search slopes obtained in contextual cueing indicate an absence of attentional guidance. We hypothesized that crowding could be obscuring the presence of attentional guidance and investigated this possibility in 2 experiments. Crowding was manipulated by varying the density of items in the local target region in a contextual cueing task. We observed a significant reduction in search slopes between the novel and repeated conditions when crowding was reduced. Enhancing crowding eliminated the contextual cueing effect. These findings suggest ...


Initial Testing Reduces Eyewitness Suggestibility For Faces, Jessica Ann Lapaglia Jan 2011

Initial Testing Reduces Eyewitness Suggestibility For Faces, Jessica Ann Lapaglia

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Past research has demonstrated that verbally recalling the appearance of a perpetrator after witnessing a crime can hinder one's ability to identify that perpetrator in a subsequent lineup (verbal overshadowing; Schooler & Engstler-Schooler, 1990). A recent study by Chan, Thomas, and Bulevich (2009) revealed that taking an initial memory test for an event increases one's susceptibility to later misleading information. These findings contradict those from the testing effect literature, which indicate that initial testing should enhance memory performance (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). In the current study I investigated the effects of verbally describing a face on eyewitness suggestibility to later ...