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Emotion

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Emotion And Inhibition: Pride Versus Happiness, Emery K. Hilles May 2012

Emotion And Inhibition: Pride Versus Happiness, Emery K. Hilles

Scripps Senior Theses

The central question of my thesis is how different positive emotions affect inhibition. Katzir, Eyal, Meiran, and Kessler (2010) addressed this question using an antisaccade task and found that happiness decreased inhibition compared to pride, which they attribute to the links between pride and long-term goals and happiness and short-term goals. I attempted to generalize their results to a color-naming Stroop task and predicted that their results would not generalize because their study had little supporting research and their method had several limitations. I tested 45 students of the Claremont Colleges and found partial support for Katzir et al. Participants ...


Examination Of The Limbic System's Role In Emotional Experience Using A Human Lesion Model, Justin Stanich Feinstein May 2012

Examination Of The Limbic System's Role In Emotional Experience Using A Human Lesion Model, Justin Stanich Feinstein

Theses and Dissertations

The current prevailing notion is that the limbic system is inextricably linked to emotion, and indeed, most textbooks, research articles, and scientific lectures tout the limbic system as being the predominant purveyor of emotional processing in the brain. Yet, more than a half-century of research has produced surprisingly little evidence in support of such a notion, suggesting that the concept of an emotional limbic system is overly simplistic. The primary objective of this thesis is to determine whether the limbic system is necessary for one aspect of emotion, namely, its conscious experience. Neurological patients with focal damage to different regions ...


Associations Between Binge Eating And Executive Functioning Among Young Women, Nichole Kelly Apr 2012

Associations Between Binge Eating And Executive Functioning Among Young Women, Nichole Kelly

Theses and Dissertations

Binge eating is a pervasive disordered eating behavior associated with numerous psychological and physical comorbidities. Preliminary research indicates that emotion regulation difficulties, behavioral impulsivity, and executive dysfunction may contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of these behaviors. However, few studies have utilized neuropsychological measures to examine this link, and the assessment of behavioral and cognitive emotion regulation strategies are limited in scope. The purpose of the current study was to gain a deeper understanding of the emotional, behavioral and cognitive processes associated with binge eating behavior. Greater clarity regarding how these factors relate to binge eating is critical to ...


Inclusive Fitness, Reciprocal Altruism And Emotion: Testing A Social-Functional Model Of Anger And Gratitude Across Kin And Non-Kin Relationships, Harris Rubin Apr 2012

Inclusive Fitness, Reciprocal Altruism And Emotion: Testing A Social-Functional Model Of Anger And Gratitude Across Kin And Non-Kin Relationships, Harris Rubin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Guided by the theories of inclusive fitness (Hamilton, 1964) and reciprocal altruism (Trivers, 1971), two studies tested hypotheses related to the notion that emotions are part of an evolved psychological system that functions, in part, to regulate social exchange. Emotional experience and exchange behaviors were predicted to vary based on both the structure of the situation and the type of relationship one has with a partner. Due to an absence of inclusive fitness effects, interaction with non-kin (compared with kin) exchange partners was expected to trigger more intense emotional responses. Study 1 found that, as expected, unfair offers led to ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Standardized And Personally Relevant Stimuli In Two Mood Induction Procedures, Kathleen Hazlett Apr 2012

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Standardized And Personally Relevant Stimuli In Two Mood Induction Procedures, Kathleen Hazlett

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The experience of emotion is a critical component of behavior, cognition, and general human functioning. In order to better understand emotional experience, researchers have utilized mood induction procedures (MIPs) to elicit specific emotional responses. Previous studies have reviewed the effectiveness of various MIPs; however, these studies do not account for more recently developed picture datasets and are limited in their examination of the impact that personal relevance has on MIP effectiveness. The present study examined changes in emotion using four different MIPs that varied based on stimuli type (either Picture or Vignette) and relevance to the participant (Personally Relevant or ...


The Neural Correlates Of Emotion Regulation, Brandy Nicole Tiernan Jan 2012

The Neural Correlates Of Emotion Regulation, Brandy Nicole Tiernan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Antecedent-focused strategies of emotion regulation involve modifying thoughts shortly after an emotional stimulus is encountered. Cognitive reappraisal and distraction represent two forms of antecedent-focused emotion regulation. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine whether

regulation interacts with the content of emotional information (Experiment 1), the neural correlates of these two forms of emotion regulation and their effectiveness in decreasing negative emotion (Experiment 2 and 3), the pattern of neural recruitment during regulation (Experiment 1, 2, and 3), and role of working memory and

metacognition in regulation (Experiment 3). In each experiment, individuals were asked to first view ...


Predator-Based Fear Conditioning: A Novel Approach To The Study Of The Neurobiology Of Memory, Joshua D. Halonen Jan 2012

Predator-Based Fear Conditioning: A Novel Approach To The Study Of The Neurobiology Of Memory, Joshua D. Halonen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This series of experiments developed novel paradigms involving the integration of conventional and ethologically relevant forms of reinforcement in the study of fear conditioning in rats. Experiment 1 compared the effects of foot shock, immobilization and predator exposure, alone and in combination, on the expression of conditioned fear memory and extinction. The combination of all 3 reinforcers produced a significantly stronger fear memory and greater resistance to extinction, compared to when each reinforcer was administered alone. Furthermore, whereas conditioning with foot shock, alone, resulted in rapid extinction of the fear memory, the combination of immobilization and cat exposure, or all ...


An Examination Of Ceo Emotion's Relationship With Organization-Level Performance, Elizabeth J. Peyton Jan 2012

An Examination Of Ceo Emotion's Relationship With Organization-Level Performance, Elizabeth J. Peyton

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

My study examined the relationship between CEO emotions and organization-level performance. I also tested the feasibility of using FACS in a business setting. Lastly, I explored the nature of CEOs' expressive styles. I found support for a relationship between CEOs' positive emotion displays and organization-level performance, but not a relationship between CEOs' negative emotion displays and organization-level performance. My results also supported the idea that CEOs have a unique and consistent expressive style that remains independent of displayed emotion and that researchers can use FACS to measure this expressive style.


The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk Jan 2012

The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Mood And Creativity: The Mediating Role Of Attention, Viktoria Tidikis Jan 2012

Mood And Creativity: The Mediating Role Of Attention, Viktoria Tidikis

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Within literature there are two opposing views regarding the role of emotions in the creative process. The most commonly held view contends that positive emotions enhance creativity, while negative emotions stifle it; yet, some studies show an opposite trend. To help resolve this conundrum, this research examined the mediating effect of attention on the relationship between mood and creativity. The results showed that positive deactivating and negative activating emotions led to broader attention, while positive activating and negative deactivating emotions caused narrowing of attention. Furthermore, the creative process is not uniform in its requirements of attentional breadth; some creative tasks ...


The Role Of Emotional Expression On Person Identity Recognition, Kristen Paris Jan 2012

The Role Of Emotional Expression On Person Identity Recognition, Kristen Paris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Facial information concerning person identity and emotional expression is vital to human social interaction, and therefore, we find it beneficial to remember the faces we see. Little is known, however, about whether emotional expressions facilitate or inhibit recognition for person identity. The present studies examined the role of emotional expression on person identity recognition by manipulating whether such information was presented at encoding (i.e., initial perception of the actor) or at recognition (i.e., later memory for the actor). In Experiment 1, participants recognized more actors displaying an angry rather than a happy expression, when they initially saw actors ...


Effects Of Menstruation On Women's Likeliness To Forgive, Brittany K. Gaillard Dec 2011

Effects Of Menstruation On Women's Likeliness To Forgive, Brittany K. Gaillard

Honors Theses

The effect the secretion and ovulation phases of the menstrual cycle has on forgiveness was examined in this study. It was hypothesized that women in either phase of their menstrual cycle would be less likely to forgive than those not in either phase of their menstrual cycle. Participants (N = 146) completed three questionnaires, one measuring their likeliness to forgive, one measuring their forgiveness of others, self, and situations, and the last collecting demographic information and information about their periods. The results showed no significant difference in woman's likeliness to forgive when experiencing a period and when not experiencing a ...


The Effects Of Facial Expression On Out-Group Discrimination, Charles Brendan Clark May 2011

The Effects Of Facial Expression On Out-Group Discrimination, Charles Brendan Clark

Dissertations

The current paper sought to test the hypothesis that the facial expression of smiling would mitigate the effects of out-group discrimination. Study 1 examined the influence of facial expression (smiling or frowning), gender (man or woman), and race (Black or White) on resource allocation decisions. Participants were shown arrays of facial photographs. The arrays all contained eight photographs and were counterbalanced to contain all combinations of the variables of interest (i.e., each group had a smiling man of each race, a smiling woman of each race, a frowning man of each race, and a frowning woman of each race ...


An Attack On One Is An Attack On All: Factors That Influence Responses To Witnessing Discrimination, Hilary E. Slover Jan 2011

An Attack On One Is An Attack On All: Factors That Influence Responses To Witnessing Discrimination, Hilary E. Slover

Master's Theses

Witnessing discrimination against a racial minority should be threatening to both racial minority and majority group members, but for different reasons. One's racial group membership and one's relationship with the perpetrator could both serve as sources of threat to a third party observer. Ninety-two participants identified as racial majority group members (i.e., White) and 48 identified as racial minority group members (i.e., Asian, Black, and other). Each participant was asked to report one instance of discrimination perpetrated by a close other and one by a distant other. Some differences between minority and majority group members' responses ...


Gender Differences In Emotional Responses To Hooking Up, Kelsey Malone Jan 2011

Gender Differences In Emotional Responses To Hooking Up, Kelsey Malone

Honors Theses

The present research looked to explore the relationship between the emotional responses of college students to different hooking up behaviors. Seven hundred and nine undergraduates participated in a web-based survey that included a demographic questionnaire, SDS, PANAS, AUDIT, and a measure of hooking up. This measure examined the frequency with which they participated in eight different types of hooking up varying by degree of familiarity to their hook partner and whether or not the hook up was coital or non-coital, as well as their emotional responses to the behavior and their perception of the emotional responses of their partner. Results ...


The Dirty Work Of Law Enforcement: Emotion, Secondary Traumatic Stress, And Burnout In Federal Officers Exposed To Disturbing Media, Amanda Harms Jan 2011

The Dirty Work Of Law Enforcement: Emotion, Secondary Traumatic Stress, And Burnout In Federal Officers Exposed To Disturbing Media, Amanda Harms

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

The present study adds to past research on exposure to disturbing media as a driver of burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Research has shown that exposure to this type of media can lead to secondary traumatic stress (STS), burnout, as well as other negative outcomes (Burns, Bradshaw, Morley, & Domene, 2008; Divine, 2010; Krause, 2009; Perez, Jones, Englert, & Sachau, 2010; Stevenson, 2007). In addition, I discuss this type of work as a form of "dirty work" (Ashforth & Kreiner, 1999). I examined the role of various emotional responses and stigma as mediators and moderators of the relationship between exposure and STS and burnout. It was found that neither the number or cases nor length of time working with disturbing media cases (child pornography and sexual violence) were related to STS, burnout, or emotions, contrary to the findings of past research (Divine, 2010; Perez, et al. 2010). However, emotions were related to the negative outcomes, suggesting they play a role in the development of burnout and STS.


Affective Consequences Of Sleep Deprivation, Jared D. Minkel Aug 2010

Affective Consequences Of Sleep Deprivation, Jared D. Minkel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Surprisingly little is known about the effects of sleep deprivation on affective processes. Although clinical evidence and introspection suggest that emotional function is sensitive to sleep loss, there are only three published studies that have experimentally manipulated both stress and emotion in a single experiment, the earliest of which was published in 2007. This dissertation presents findings from three studies that were designed to improve our understanding of the influence of sleep loss on affective functioning in healthy adults. Study 1 (Sleep and Mood) measured the effects of sleep loss on affect in the absence of specific probes. Three facets ...


The Hierarchical Structure Of Emotional Expressivity: Scale Development And Nomological Implications, John Jeffrey Humrichouse May 2010

The Hierarchical Structure Of Emotional Expressivity: Scale Development And Nomological Implications, John Jeffrey Humrichouse

Theses and Dissertations

Integrating existing models of emotional expressivity, the 3-level hierarchical model contains a general factor of emotional expressivity vs. inexpressivity at the highest level; relatively independent factors of positive and negative expressivity at the second-order level; and discrete expressivity factors of sadness, hostility, guilt/shame, fear, joviality, confidence and amusement at the lowest level. The bottom-up analytic strategy consisted of identifying first the structure of the discrete affects; subsequent second-order factor analyses supported the existence of the higher order factors. The Iowa Scales of Emotional Expressivity (ISEE)--a hierarchical set of scales--systematically incorporate the level of abstraction of the items to ...


The Role Of Racial Information In Infant Face Processing, Angela Nicole Hayden Jan 2010

The Role Of Racial Information In Infant Face Processing, Angela Nicole Hayden

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The present research addressed the development of specialization in face processing in infancy by examining the roles of race and emotion. An other-race face among own-race faces draws adults’ attention to a greater degree than an own-race face among other-race faces due to the “other-race” feature in other-race faces. This feature underlies race-based differences in adults’ face processing. The current studies investigated the development of this mechanism as well as the influence that this mechanism has on emotion processing in infancy.

In Experiment 1, Caucasian 3.5- and 9- month-olds exhibited a preference for a pattern containing an Asian face ...


The Contribution Of Nmda Receptors Within The Central Nucleus Of The Amygdala To The Suppression Of Pain Affect, Catherine Ann Spuz Jan 2010

The Contribution Of Nmda Receptors Within The Central Nucleus Of The Amygdala To The Suppression Of Pain Affect, Catherine Ann Spuz

Wayne State University Dissertations

The amygdala processes stimuli that threaten an individual and organizes the execution of affective behaviors designed to cope with the threat. The prototypical threat to an individual is exposure to a noxious stimulus. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) receives nociceptive afferents and exhibits neuronal activation in response to noxious peripheral stimulation. NMDA receptors within CeA mediate this noxious-evoked neural excitation, and previous studies in the laboratory have shown that blockade of CeA NMDA receptors via the antagonist APV elevates the threshold for noxious tail-shock-induced vocalization afterdischarges (VADs), a validated measure of pain affect in the rat. The present ...


Emotion Recognition In Schizotypy, Laura Brown Jan 2010

Emotion Recognition In Schizotypy, Laura Brown

LSU Master's Theses

Deficits in social cognition are repeatedly found in individuals with schizophrenia. Facial emotion recognition is a major aspect of social cognition in which individuals with schizophrenia show consistent deficits. However, many questions about these deficits remain unanswered including whether they occur in individuals with schizotypy—those at high risk for the disorder that do not manifest full pathology. Examining emotion recognition in schizotypy eliminates many of the confounds associated with schizophrenia research such as medication effects, chronic institutionalization, and generalized cognitive deficits, and allows for the examination of whether emotion recognition deficits reflect vulnerability to schizophrenia. Prior research in this ...


The Influence Of Individual Differences In Emotional Clarity On Sensitivity To Situational Cues, Elizabeth Lauren Foreman Jan 2010

The Influence Of Individual Differences In Emotional Clarity On Sensitivity To Situational Cues, Elizabeth Lauren Foreman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The influence of individual differences in emotional clarity on the use of situational cues in decision making was investigated. Accuracy of situational cues was manipulated in the form of ostensible previous ratings given to participants while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant pictures. Of importance to this study was whether persons low in emotional clarity would rely more on situational cues, regardless of their accuracy, than would persons high in this trait. Personality was assessed using two scales which measure emotional clarity. Self-monitoring was also examined as a possible moderator of any findings. Contrary to predictions, our findings indicated that individuals ...


Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen Dec 2009

Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen

Theses and Dissertations

Most research investigating vocal expressions of emotion has focused on one or more of three questions: whether there exist unique acoustic profiles of individual encoded emotions, whether the nature of emotion expression is universal across cultures, and how accurately decoders can identify expressed emotions. This dissertation begins to answer a fourth question, whether there exist unique patterns in the types of acoustic properties persons focus on to identify vocalized emotions. Three hypotheses were tested: first, whether acoustic patterns are interpreted idiographically or nomothetically as reflected in a comparison of individual vs. group lens model identification ratios; second, whether there exists ...


2008 U.S. Presidential Election: Persuasive Youtube Interactions About War, Health Care, And The Economy, Lindsey Zimmerman Dec 2009

2008 U.S. Presidential Election: Persuasive Youtube Interactions About War, Health Care, And The Economy, Lindsey Zimmerman

Psychology Theses

Persuasive appeals posted to United States presidential candidates’ YouTube videos were coded using a grounded theory mixed-methods design. 37,562 comments about education, energy, Iraq, health care, the economy, and the presidential debates were randomly collected by date and time for three studies using coding analysis: pilot, presidential primaries, and the presidential election. Seven argument types were identified and theoretically refined according to dual process models of persuasion: reason-based, candidate-based, emotion-based, endorsements, enthusiasmheuristic, other-interest and self-interest. Theoretical comparisons and hypothesis testing of argument types were conducted by issue and election event. Consistent with impression involvement, reason-based appeals were more frequent ...


Emotional Regulation In Infants Of Postpartum Depressed Mothers, Christina Louise Franklin Dec 2009

Emotional Regulation In Infants Of Postpartum Depressed Mothers, Christina Louise Franklin

Theses and Dissertations

A large body of evidence has accumulated which indicates that infants of postpartum depressed mothers are at risk for negative sequelae including later psychopathology. However, methodological difficulties including discordant definitions of postpartum depression and the use of paradigms which used the mother-infant relationship to assess infant emotional expression and regulation have decreased the ability to reach a consensus regarding the nature and transmission of that risk. This study sought to address those methodological difficulties by employing an established paradigm designed to elicit emotionality in infants, the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith & Rothbart, 1999).

Participants were 30 women who met ...


An Empirical Investigation Of The Adaptive Nature Of Shame, Elizabeth Jacqueline Dansie May 2009

An Empirical Investigation Of The Adaptive Nature Of Shame, Elizabeth Jacqueline Dansie

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the empirical psychological literature on emotion, the general consensus is that shame is maladaptive, while guilt is the adaptive moral emotion. Conversely, evolutionary psychology concludes that all emotions serve adaptive functions. Specifically, shame serves an appeasement function in social relationships. In order to investigate the true nature of shame, the current study used an experimental design. Specifically, a 2 (high shame, no shame) X 2 (high guilt, no guilt) design with a no-mistakes control group was implemented, and shame and guilt were operationalized through an evolutionary lens (i.e., shame as a nonverbal display, guilt as verbalizations of apology ...


Exploration Of Specific Learning Disability Subtypes Differentiated Across Cognitive, Achievement, And Emotional/Behavioral Variables, Lisa A. Hain Jan 2009

Exploration Of Specific Learning Disability Subtypes Differentiated Across Cognitive, Achievement, And Emotional/Behavioral Variables, Lisa A. Hain

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

The emphasis on the ability-achievement discrepancy approach for SLD identification diminished the importance of robust examination into patterns of cognitive strengths and weaknesses as related to achievement deficits. This approach directed attention away from related psychosocial deficits previously reported in this population by concentrating on the quantitative differences between standard scores. The cognitive and academic deficits of children with SLD have been well studied, but little is known about the emotionaVbehavioral functioning of children with SLD, and even less about the interconnections between the neurocognitive and emotional/behavioral systems. Children with disparate types of neurocognitive assets and deficits may experience ...


The Influence Of Emotional Stimuli On Cognitive Performance In Relation To Delusion Intensity In Schizophrenia, Diana Orem Jan 2009

The Influence Of Emotional Stimuli On Cognitive Performance In Relation To Delusion Intensity In Schizophrenia, Diana Orem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has suggested that there are multiple psychological processes underlying delusional thought. While it appears that cognitive biases in certain reasoning and attention processes are related to delusion-proneness, the influence of emotion on these processes is not well understood. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of emotional content on performance on tasks thought to measure attentional bias, preferential recall, and probabilistic reasoning in individuals with schizophrenia and demographically matched controls. In order to account for level of delusion-proneness, participants also completed a multidimensional measure of delusional thought. It was hypothesized that individuals with schizophrenia ...


Individual Differences In Video Game Experience: Cognitive Control, Affective Processing, And Visuospatial Processing, Kira Bailey Jan 2009

Individual Differences In Video Game Experience: Cognitive Control, Affective Processing, And Visuospatial Processing, Kira Bailey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Independent groups of researchers have investigated video game effects on cognitive control (Mathews et al., 2005), affective processing (Kirsh & Mounts, 2007), and visuospatial processing (Green & Bavelier, 2003). However, no published research has studied all three domains in the same sample of gamers and non-gamers. In the current study nonviolent and violent gamers, and non-gamers performed two tasks tapping each of these three domains; the Stroop and N-back tasks for cognitive control, the picture rating and emotion search tasks for affective processing, and the enumeration and the visual short-term memory tasks for visuospatial processing. Consistent with past research (Bailey, West, & Anderson, 2009), there was a negative relationship between video game experience and proactive cognitive control that was more pronounced in the violent gamers than nonviolent gamers. There was a fundamental shift in the processing of violent and positive affective information in the violent gamers relative ...


The Development And Validation Of The Ares: A Measure Of A Person's Proclivity To Attribute Responsibility To Others For Their Emotions, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen Mar 2008

The Development And Validation Of The Ares: A Measure Of A Person's Proclivity To Attribute Responsibility To Others For Their Emotions, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen

Theses and Dissertations

Research involving attribution theories typically surrounds attributions of responsibility for actions in general. However, people also regularly attribute responsibility to themselves, others, or environmental circumstances for emotions. This research aims to develop a measure of a person's proclivity to attribute responsibility to others for their emotions—the Attributions of Responsibility for Emotions Scale (ARES). The research involves two studies, the first designed to develop items for inclusion in the ARES, and the second designed to validate and determine the reliability of the ARES. Participants in Study 1 included 71 (30 male and 41 female) undergraduate students from Brigham Young ...