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An Erp Investigation Of Reward Signals For Differing Classes Of Reinforcing Stimuli, Darin R. Brown
In order to successfully traverse an actively complex environment, an agent is required to learn from the consequences of their actions. For over a century, models of behavior have been developed demonstrating these consequence-based learning systems. More recently, underlying biological systems have been found to adhere to these constructs of learning. The electroencephalographic signal known as the Reward Positivity (RewP) is thought to reflect a dopamine-dependent cortical signal specific to reward receipt. Importantly, this signal has been shown to adhere to an axiomatic (rule-like) positive reward prediction error, whereby it is evoked following outcomes that are better than expected. These ...
Mutability Of The Green-Eyed Monster: A Functional Approach To Understanding The Distinction Between Benign And Hostile Envy, Rachael G. Falcon
Envy functions in resource competition situations in which a competitor out-competes oneself in a fitness relevant domain (Hill & Buss, 2006, 2008). Research suggests that there are two types of envy, a hostile version, aimed at depriving the envied person of his or her advantage, and a benign version, aimed at gaining an advantage for oneself (Parrott, 1991; van de Ven, Zeelenberg, & Pieters, 2009). Three predictions were derived from the hypothesis that the selection of envy type is functional, taking into account the costs and benefits of a benign versus a hostile response: 1) Hostile envy was expected to be more likely when the advantage cant be acquired without taking it from the envied. 2) Benign envy was expected to be more likely when the relationship with the envied person is highly valuable to the envier. 3) Benign envy was expected to be more likely when the social environment favors the envied person. Additionally, the emotions experienced as part of envy were proposed to mediate the relationships between elements of the situation and responses to envy. Using a daily diary method, participants described their everyday experiences of envy, which were categorized as benign or hostile based on taxometric and latent class analyses. Prediction 1 was fully supported and prediction 2 was largely supported. Prediction 3 was not supported; instead participants' beliefs about the envied person's deservingness directly affected envy type. Mediation analyses supported the proposal that emotions mediate the relationships between situations and responses. The degree to which the envied person's possession of the advantage makes it harder for the envier to get emerged as an important factor in how one responds to hostile envy.