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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

1995

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Job Aids To Improve Association For Behavior Analysis Convention Scheduling, Robert J. Schnarrs Dec 1995

Job Aids To Improve Association For Behavior Analysis Convention Scheduling, Robert J. Schnarrs

Honors Theses

The Association for Behavior Analysis holds an annual convention that includes over 800 events and presentations and 1500 participants. The annual ABA Convention also draws over 2400 attendees. The scheduling and coordination of the annual convention is complex, labor intensive, and expensive. Because of the large amount of information, errors can and do occur.


Cognitive Differentiation And Verbal Ability: A Test Of Two Judgmental Models, Kristine K. Siedis Dec 1995

Cognitive Differentiation And Verbal Ability: A Test Of Two Judgmental Models, Kristine K. Siedis

Student Work

Differences in judgmental models between highly differentiated individuals and poorly differentiated individuals were investigated. Level of cognitive differentiation was determined by participants’ responses to a Repertory Grid technique. Based upon previous research, it was predicted that highly differentiated individuals would engage in judgmental processes that reflected a nonadditive model, while poorly differentiated individuals would engage in more additive judgmental processes. While it was shown that highly differentiated individuals did engage in nonadditive judgmental processes and poorly differentiated individuals did engage in additive judgmental processes, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. The findings are discussed in context ...


The Relationship Among Parenting Styles, Home Environments, And Children's Curiosity, Amy Baldwin Crockett Dec 1995

The Relationship Among Parenting Styles, Home Environments, And Children's Curiosity, Amy Baldwin Crockett

Doctoral Dissertations

In this research, the relationships of parenting styles, attitudes, and child-rearing environments with children's curiosity, the relationships of parenting styles and attitudes with child-rearing environments, and the indirect relationships of parenting styles and attitudes with children's curiosity through child-rearing environments were explored. Seventy-four parent-child dyads were recruited from area day care centers. Oldest children between 3 and 6 years old were studied. Parents were administered a demographic information questionnaire, the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory--Revised (HOME), and the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR). Children were administered the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised (PPVT-R), the Complexity Task, the ...


Cardiovascular Responses To The Combination Of Caffeine And The Repeated Acquisition And Performance Procedure, Cristin L. Sullivan Dec 1995

Cardiovascular Responses To The Combination Of Caffeine And The Repeated Acquisition And Performance Procedure, Cristin L. Sullivan

Master's Theses

The present study examined cardiovascular responses to the combination of caffeine (250 mg) and the repeated acquisition and performance procedure (RAPP) in humans. Six male subjects were tested in a within-subject, double-blind design. Repeated measurements of frontalis electromyogram (EMO), hand-skin temperature, heart rate, respiration, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were obtained during pre-drug, post-drug, acquisition, performance, and recovery periods. Measures of rate, percent error, and true error were obtained during the acquisition and performance components of the RAPP. Drug conditions (caffeine and placebo) and test orders (acquisition before performance and performance before acquisition) were pseudo- random across subjects ...


The Experience Of Place, Rosemary Kehoe Peacher Dec 1995

The Experience Of Place, Rosemary Kehoe Peacher

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the human experience of place. A phenomenological approach was utilized employing an unstructured open-ended dialogical interview method. Twenty participants, including ten younger and older adults, were asked to describe places which were special to them.

Interpretation of the interview transcripts revealed five themes descriptive of one's experience of place: Identity, Connection, Security, Possibilities, and Beauty/Awe. The experience of time was interwoven with all five themes.

The theme of Identity comprises the way in which a place can strengthen one's sense of self, provide continuity across the developmental life span ...


Perceived Fairness Of A Child-Care Subsidy In A Temporary Agency: An Equity Theory Approach, Pamela Bermudez Dec 1995

Perceived Fairness Of A Child-Care Subsidy In A Temporary Agency: An Equity Theory Approach, Pamela Bermudez

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to extend research findings on perceived equity into the context of the contingent workforce by examining employees' perceived fairness of a child-care subsidy (i.e., distributive justice perception) in a temporary employment agency. The variables of interest to the study were perceived fairness, comparison other, input importance, organizational responsibility and family-friendliness. The variables were examined on three levels of subsidy status (i.e., subsidy group, parents/no-subsidy group, and nonparents group). A cover letter and a questionnaire regarding perceived fairness of the child-care subsidy were mailed to all employees who had worked for the ...


Loss Associated With Chronic Illness: Application Of The Roy Adaptation Model, Linda M. Dehaan Nov 1995

Loss Associated With Chronic Illness: Application Of The Roy Adaptation Model, Linda M. Dehaan

Masters Theses

The Roy Adaptation Model guided this pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study to test an intervention addressing loss associated with chronic illness. Differences in adaptation and well-being were evaluated between control (n = 20) and experimental groups (n = 20) 30 days after intervention. Adaptation was measured by PAIS-SR scores and analyzed using ANCOVA to adjust for pretest differences. T-test and Mann-Whitney U was used to evaluate well-being as measured by the Global Well-being Scale. Changes in adaptation were not significantly different between groups, but well-being improved 12.8% in the experimental group as compared with 1.4% in the control group. Inconsistency of results ...


Social Support As A Buffer Of The Relationship Between Work And Family Involvement And Work-Family Conflict, Tracy Lynn Monzon Nov 1995

Social Support As A Buffer Of The Relationship Between Work And Family Involvement And Work-Family Conflict, Tracy Lynn Monzon

Dissertations and Theses

With dual-career couples and single-parent families on the rise, adults may find themselves overloaded with work and family responsibilities, resulting in the experience of work-family conflict (WFC). Further, employers appear to be demanding more from their employees, while giving less. Therefore, it is important to discover ways in which to manage the conflict between the work and family domains. Since level of involvement within a particular domain has been previously demonstrated to have a positive effect on WFC, the present study examined the possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between work and family involvement and WFC. Surveys ...


Mmpi And Rorschach Findings Of Individuals Approved For Gender Reassignment Surgery, Gregory Ralph Caron Oct 1995

Mmpi And Rorschach Findings Of Individuals Approved For Gender Reassignment Surgery, Gregory Ralph Caron

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Both clinical experience and empirical data from psychological tests present a picture of extreme clinical variation among those individuals who request gender reassignment surgery. Results of past empirical studies utilizing the MMPI and the Rorschach Test have tended to be equivocal regarding the level and nature of psychopathology associated with samples of gender dysphorics. These past studies are considered limited particularly in terms of methodological problems related to statistical power. This present study examined the nature and degree of psychopathology in a sample of candidates approved for gender reassignment surgery as reflected on their MMPI-2 clinical scale values and scores ...


Views Of Feminist Family Therapy: A Q-Methodological Inquiry, Bronwen Cheek Oct 1995

Views Of Feminist Family Therapy: A Q-Methodological Inquiry, Bronwen Cheek

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The feminist critique of family therapy has had a growing impact on theory and practice for almost two decades (Hare-Mustin, 1978; Bograd, 1990). Writings on feminist family therapy (FFT) reveal both common and diverse opinions about what FFT is. The present study examined how views of FFT are segmented using Q-methodology (Stephenson, 1953; Brown, 1980; McKeown & Thomas, 1988), a small-sample empirical technique for identifying emergent viewpoints and studying their similarities and differences. A Q-sort instrument of 60 statements was constructed to sample diverse discourse on FFT. Magraw's (1992) interviews with leading experts in FFT served as a primary source for loosely structuring the Q-sort instrument into hypothesized areas of consensus and divergence in FFT; a smaller set of items sampled critiques of both FFT and feminism in the broader culture. A convenience sample of 29 experienced and novice family therapists, 12 of whom were experts in FFT, ranked the statements by sorting them into 10 categories along a ...


Affective Reactions, Social Support And Willingness To Self-Disclose To Hiv Seropositive Individuals: Impact Of Sexual Orientation And Responsibility For The Infection, Susan Paige Sherburne Oct 1995

Affective Reactions, Social Support And Willingness To Self-Disclose To Hiv Seropositive Individuals: Impact Of Sexual Orientation And Responsibility For The Infection, Susan Paige Sherburne

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

An attributional model of controllability suggests that perceptions of someone's controllability of an event lead to anger and rejection, whereas perceptions of uncontrollability lead to pity and helping. This study examined the impact of an HIV victim's sexual orientation and "responsibility" for infection on subjects' affective responses, self-disclosure to the person, social support, and liking and trust for the person. Subjects received messages from their "partner" (a confederate) stating that he had just learned he was HIV positive. The message either stated that he was heterosexual or homosexual, and that he had either only one partner or many ...


A Comparison Of High School Student And Adult Expectations Of Leader Behavior, Charles Edward Beyer Sep 1995

A Comparison Of High School Student And Adult Expectations Of Leader Behavior, Charles Edward Beyer

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of activity or type of role played within an activity influenced expectations of leader behavior. One-hundred forty-five adult leaders, student leaders, and student group members of high school basketball teams, bands, journalism staffs, and student government associations were surveyed regarding their expectations of ideal adult leaders, student leaders, and leaders in general across eight leadership constructs. Multivariate analysis of variance results suggest that the type of activity influences group expectations of adult activity leaders. Results also suggest that women expect more consideration from student leaders and leaders in general ...


Intentions To Cooperate With Court Appointed Special Advocates (Casas) In Child Protective Proceedings: The Role Of Perceived Social Pressure In The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Yuko Sato Spofford Aug 1995

Intentions To Cooperate With Court Appointed Special Advocates (Casas) In Child Protective Proceedings: The Role Of Perceived Social Pressure In The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Yuko Sato Spofford

Dissertations and Theses

Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior with the addition of Perceived Moral Obligation was used to investigate the behavioral intentions of 65 caseworkers of the Children's Services Division (CSD) to cooperate with Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASAs) on cases involving abused or neglected children. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the subjective norms and perceived moral obligation constructs were significant predictors of the three behavioral intention categories and of all three categories combined. The two constructs, however, seem to have a considerable amount of overlap, suggesting that they may be measuring what is broadly called "social pressure to perform/not ...


The Health Belief Model As A Predictor Of Gynecological Exams: Does Sexual Orientation Matter?, Lynn Elizabeth Kunkel Aug 1995

The Health Belief Model As A Predictor Of Gynecological Exams: Does Sexual Orientation Matter?, Lynn Elizabeth Kunkel

Dissertations and Theses

Screening and early detection are essential for the management and control of most diseases. It is important for women to practice routine health care that includes both clinical and self examinations. Today, many women go without health care due to barriers which prevent them from obtaining adequate care. The present study was designed to investigate, using the Health Belief Model, whether there is a difference between heterosexual and lesbian women in obtaining gynecological exams. Responses from 23 8 participants, 70 heterosexuals and 168 lesbians, indicated that the Health Belief Model was a significant predictor of whether women complied with recommended ...


Assessing Pediatricians' Diagnostic Practices: An Analogue Study Of Responses To Adhd-Like Presentations In Preschoolers, Helle Augustesen Aug 1995

Assessing Pediatricians' Diagnostic Practices: An Analogue Study Of Responses To Adhd-Like Presentations In Preschoolers, Helle Augustesen

Dissertations

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been considered one of the most chronic behavior disorders observed in the preadolescent population and is one of the most frequently diagnosed childhood disorders in North America. Currently, however, there is little consistency in terms of identifying specific criteria which need to be present in a child's behavior to make a diagnosis of ADHD. This difficulty is even more pronounced in very young children of preschool age. This study utilized a three year old male child shown to 80 subjects on a videotape engaging in either a high or a low level of ...


Evaluation Of A Computer Simulation To Assess Subject Preference For Different Types Of Incentive Pay: Part Two, Stephen Mark Sundby Aug 1995

Evaluation Of A Computer Simulation To Assess Subject Preference For Different Types Of Incentive Pay: Part Two, Stephen Mark Sundby

Dissertations

This study further investigated the use of a computer simulation to assess subject preference for different types of pay systems. Subjects were eight undergraduates recruited from psychology classes at Western Michigan University. The dependent variable was the subjects’ choice of pay system, either simulated hourly pay or base pay plus incentive. Simulated work performance was determined by the computer with 0.50 probability of low or high performance. For Experiment 1, the independent variable was the maximum amount of simulated pay that subjects could earn under each pay type. For Experiments 2 and 3, the independent variable was the percentage ...


The Effects Of Intensive, Structured Study On Gre Verbal And Quantitative Scores, Jan Marie Miller Aug 1995

The Effects Of Intensive, Structured Study On Gre Verbal And Quantitative Scores, Jan Marie Miller

Dissertations

This research served as a follow-up to previous research (Goodyear-Orwat and Malott, 1994) in which students engaged in self-study utilizing various study materials. Three courses (spring, summer, and fall) were offered to further examine the effects of intensive, structured study on Graduate Record Examination verbal and quantitative scores.

Twenty undergraduates enrolled in Graduate Record Examination preparatory courses studied from 66 to 105 hours. An attendance and participation contingency was established to encourage adequate study time. The courses were structured to allow students to assess and manage their own performance, utilizing standard, self-instructional texts and computerized drill programs. Students worked at ...


Autocorrelation In Single-Subject Data: A Meta-Analytic View, Laura L. Methot Aug 1995

Autocorrelation In Single-Subject Data: A Meta-Analytic View, Laura L. Methot

Dissertations

Recent work by Huitema and McKean (1991, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c, in press) has shown that the most frequently used statistical methods for performing conventional time-series analyses lead to gross distortions of results when these approaches are applied in the context of the typical behavioral research study. Most of these problems could be avoided if researchers were aware that the time-series methods recommended in many areas are not generally needed. The appropriate evidence regarding the need for complex time-series methods requires a meta-analysis of the autocorrelation present in behavioral studies. The project involved: (a) sampling several hundred research articles published in ...


The Interactive Effects Of Caffeine And Phase Of Menstrual Cycle On The Recall Of Prose Passages, Jacqueline Marie Mcpherson Aug 1995

The Interactive Effects Of Caffeine And Phase Of Menstrual Cycle On The Recall Of Prose Passages, Jacqueline Marie Mcpherson

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has yielded inconsistent results regarding the effects of caffeine on memory. Such inconsistency is likely to a large extent a function of the complex interaction effects of caffeine and other variables such as estrogen. The purpose of the present study was to discern possible variation in the effects of caffeine on the recall of prose for females tested during days 1-5 or 9-13 of their menstrual cycle. One hundred and seven subjects received either O mg/kg, 2 mg/kg, or 4 mg/kg of caffeine. Following an absorption period, subjects read six passages from a computer terminal ...


Verbal Learning And Memory In Adults With Mild, Moderate And Severe Closed Head Injury, Paula J. Bergloff Aug 1995

Verbal Learning And Memory In Adults With Mild, Moderate And Severe Closed Head Injury, Paula J. Bergloff

Theses and Dissertations

One of the most prevalent of cognitive dysfunctions associated with closed head injury is impaired_memory function. The current study examined qualitative and quantitative aspects of learning and memory to define the effects of mild head injury in comparison to moderate and severe head injury and a sample of normal controls.

Forty five survivors of severe (n=15), moderate (n=15) and mild (n=15) closed head injury were compared with age and education matched controls (n=15) on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). On CVLT learning trials, head injured groups recalled less than ...


The Relationship Among Self-Reported Aggression, Locus Of Control, Expectancy For Success, And Dream Content, Stephen James Mccullough Jul 1995

The Relationship Among Self-Reported Aggression, Locus Of Control, Expectancy For Success, And Dream Content, Stephen James Mccullough

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This study examined the relationship between elements of two dream content analysis systems, and between dream content variables and self-report measures. One hundred and five college students from two universities in Virginia completed the following self-report measures: Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale (Fibel & Hale, 1978), Internal Control Index (Duttweiler, 1984), Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979), Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (Infante & Wigley, 1986), and Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis & Spencer, 1982). They recorded any dreams they could remember over the subsequent three weeks in a dream journal. Only the data of participants who reported five or more dreams were included (n = 83). Dream ...


From Realist To Constructivist Theory In Public Administration: Development Of A Quality Perspective, Ernest Edward Sides Iii Jul 1995

From Realist To Constructivist Theory In Public Administration: Development Of A Quality Perspective, Ernest Edward Sides Iii

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Management

The purpose of this study is to formulate a behavioral theory of public organization development and administration that replaces positivism with constructivism as its underlying paradigm. This study contends that the level of maturity with respect to quality is a function of the degree to which an organization's latent thinking and conceptualization has advanced toward constructivism. The underlying thesis is that public administration and organization behavior stems from multiple realities not possible under positivism. Efficiency is not an appropriate criterion for analysis under the tenants of constructivism and should be replaced with quality as a criterion.

The use of ...


The Association Between Perceived Family Support And Psychological Well-Being In Infertile Couples, Linda Marquardt Mintle Jul 1995

The Association Between Perceived Family Support And Psychological Well-Being In Infertile Couples, Linda Marquardt Mintle

Health Services Research Dissertations

A correlational research design utilizing a cross-sectional survey methodology was used to investigate the association between perceived family support and psychological well-being in infertile couples. Family stress theory and the construct of boundary ambiguity were conceptual frameworks applied to the developmental family life cycle. Respondents were 35 married infertile couples with primary infertility recruited from a private For-profit infertility clinic located in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Responses on the Moos and Moos (1984) Family Environment Scale and from the SCL-90-R developed by Derogatis (1977) measured perceived family support and psychological distress respectively. Major findings indicated that infertile couples rated their families ...


The Effects Of A Realistic Job Preview On An Applicant's Ability To Self-Select Into Organizations, Melissa Lynn Burton Jun 1995

The Effects Of A Realistic Job Preview On An Applicant's Ability To Self-Select Into Organizations, Melissa Lynn Burton

Dissertations and Theses

In typical selection processes organizations gather information about an applicant. Rarely, however, do applicants collect equal information about the job or organization. This unequal exchange can inhibit an applicant's participation in the selection process. Studies have shown that realistic job previews (RJPs) positively influence applicants' job expectations, job satisfaction, turnover, selfselection, etc. Applicant self-selection can benefit both the organization and the applicant in terms of time, money, and energy required during the selection process and after organizational entry. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between RJPs and self-selection. The study assessed the influence of ...


The Effect Of Psychological Gender And Self-Monitoring On Leader Emergence And Leader Behavior, Janet Day Goldsmith Jun 1995

The Effect Of Psychological Gender And Self-Monitoring On Leader Emergence And Leader Behavior, Janet Day Goldsmith

Dissertations and Theses

Three aspects of renal function were measured in the toad, Bufo marinus (N=lO): (1) effect of rate of blood volume expansion on renal functions (UFR; GFR; urine and plasma ion concentrations; and ion excretion rates), (2) effect of hypo- and hyperosmotic blood volume expansions on renal functions, and (3) role of GFR and tubular processes in the differential response of UFR under different osmotic expansion stresses. Renal responses to differential rates of blood volume expansion have not been investigated in amphibians. Rate responses will be analyzed considering effects: ( 1) during infusion (neural, or, short term regulation of extracellular fluid ...


The Origins Of Caring: A Study Of The Development Of Coding Categories For Prosocial Behaviors In Very Young Children, Mark W. Schuster Jun 1995

The Origins Of Caring: A Study Of The Development Of Coding Categories For Prosocial Behaviors In Very Young Children, Mark W. Schuster

Dissertations and Theses

There has a great deal of research regarding the positive social (prosocial) behaviors of young children. Children have been observed performing a number of different prosocial behaviors, including helping, showing, sharing, and responding to the distress of another. However, most of the previous research was conducted in laboratory settings. In order to describe the first manifestations of prosocial behaviors more accurately, research needs to be conducted in a natural setting. The purpose of the current study was to observe the origins of the prosocial behaviors of young children in a child development center. To accomplish this goal, a research team ...


Lesbian Identity Development And Career Experiences, Mary Jo Thiel Jun 1995

Lesbian Identity Development And Career Experiences, Mary Jo Thiel

Dissertations

This study used a qualitative research design to explore the experiences of lesbian women with respect to identity development and career issues.

Using the Stage Allocation Measure (SAM) (Cass, 1984), twenty lesbian women who were in the Synthesis Stage (Stage 6) of identity development were identified. In face-to-face, one and a half to two hour interviews, using a semi-structured interview guide developed by the researcher, respondents were asked open-ended questions about their coming out process and their career development .

Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed and the transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory coding techniques. Themes and patterns were identified ...


The Language Of Sport And The Social Construction Of Gender, Katherine L. Mcdowell May 1995

The Language Of Sport And The Social Construction Of Gender, Katherine L. Mcdowell

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Student Scholarship

Feminist scholars have argued that through the exclusion of women and the association of men with physical competence, power and even violence, the institution of sport has traditionally provided men with a homosocial sphere of life that bolsters the ideology of male superiority (Messner, Duncan, & Jensen, 121). Feminists have also argued that as the experiential and moral expression of our culture, common English vocabulary - and the language of sport in particular - powerfully reinforces, protects, and perpetuates patriarchal and sexist social order (Miller 55-56). In essence, feminists hold that if everyday language is a critical constituent of social reality and of ...


A Comparative Study Of Integrity Tests: The Effect Of Situational And Individual Variables On Response Distortion, Nannette Shayne Searles May 1995

A Comparative Study Of Integrity Tests: The Effect Of Situational And Individual Variables On Response Distortion, Nannette Shayne Searles

Dissertations and Theses

The paper-and-pencil integrity test, which is used in industry as an employee selection device, has been largely developed outside the mainstream of psychological testing. The result has been that some testing programs have inadequately standardized testing conditions and/or other safeguards to ensure valid test results. Studies have shown that response distortion, or faking, is a problem with all types of tests, integrity tests being no exception. A correlation between the construct underlying integrity testing, such as the personality trait of conscientiousness, has yet to be investigated. The primary purpose of the present study was to determine how response distortion ...


A Child's Perception Of Bullies In Grades 3-4, And 7-8, Kristine E. Nebeling May 1995

A Child's Perception Of Bullies In Grades 3-4, And 7-8, Kristine E. Nebeling

Theses, Dissertations & Honors Papers

The study was conducted to determine if differences exist in bullying behavior between elementary and middle school students. The sample consisted of 192 children: 57 third graders, 29 girls and 28 boys; 40 fourth graders, 26 girls and 14 boys; 47 seventh graders, 20 girls and 27 boys; and 48 eighth graders, 26 girls and 22 boys . A rural school district in central Virginia was used. A likert scale survey containing 10 questions was administered to determine the perceptions children hold regarding fear of bullying, the number of bullying experiences, why children are bullied, and what adults do or can ...