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Components Of Mindfulness Training: Impacts On Attention And Affect, Maximilian Fey Dec 2019

Components Of Mindfulness Training: Impacts On Attention And Affect, Maximilian Fey

Theses and Dissertations

The literature on mindfulness supports a distinction between two components of non-judgmental acceptance and directed attention. The present research analyzed whether there are distinct differences in attentional capabilities or affect between mindfulness inductions which differed in either including only directed attention or directed attention and non-judgmental acceptance. I hypothesized that the acceptance component of mindfulness would increase participants sustained attentional capabilities relative to a control condition; furthermore, I hypothesized that the non-judgmental acceptance component of mindfulness would lead to significant increases in positive affect and decreases in negative affect relative to control. Lastly, I hypothesized that an individual difference measure ...


Investigation Of The Relationship Between Mindfulness And Empathy In Pre-Nursing Students Exposed To A Four-Week Mindfulness Training, Debra L. Klich Dec 2019

Investigation Of The Relationship Between Mindfulness And Empathy In Pre-Nursing Students Exposed To A Four-Week Mindfulness Training, Debra L. Klich

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To investigate the effects of a four-week mindfulness program on levels of mindfulness, empathy, and anxiety in a group of pre-nursing students.

Methods: This study utilized a multiple-baseline across subjects design. Results from nine study participants were examined.

Results: Data demonstrates that a detectable decrease in anxiety levels can result from participation in self-directed mindfulness program as short as four weeks. Results regarding mindfulness and empathy levels were less conclusive. A specific relationship between empathy and mindfulness cannot be determined from this study.

Conclusions: Because previous studies have demonstrated a persistence of skills, practice, and benefits acquired through mindfulness ...


Are Two Unmatched Minority Statuses Worse Than One? The Impact Of Social Status Similarities On Alliance In A Mock Clinical Interview, Roselee Jeannette Ledesma Dec 2019

Are Two Unmatched Minority Statuses Worse Than One? The Impact Of Social Status Similarities On Alliance In A Mock Clinical Interview, Roselee Jeannette Ledesma

Theses and Dissertations

Strengthening therapeutic alliance through social identity matching has been a strategy used to reduce psychotherapy dropout among racial/ethnic and sexual minority clients. Limited research has examined social identity match by manipulating social identity (e.g., race/ethnicity, sexual orientation) in an analogue therapy setting. This study (1) assessed whether self-reported alliance was positively associated with theoretical proxies of alliance and (2) examined the effects of racial/ethnic and sexual orientation match on therapeutic alliance (self-reported) and proxies of alliance (perceived similarity, liking, blame, empathy, closeness, microaggression proxies, verbal validation, and open body language). Participants (N = 71) were heterosexual White ...


Social Anxiety Reduction In The Context Of Social Modeling Utilizing A Placebo Alcohol Beverage, Kyle K. Jackson Dec 2019

Social Anxiety Reduction In The Context Of Social Modeling Utilizing A Placebo Alcohol Beverage, Kyle K. Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol misuse and elevated social anxiety are found to be highly comorbid, and being exposed to social models consuming alcohol can increase one’s consumption. Yet no research has thus far examined whether the internal experience of alcohol consumption (e.g., social anxiety reduction) can also be transmitted via social modeling. This bar-lab study examined the impact of social modeling behavioral cues of social anxiety on emerging adult drinkers. It was hypothesized that those exposed to a social model experiencing an apparent social anxiety reduction from drinking would themselves report lessened state social anxiety following a placebo drink, and that ...


Created For Connection: The Impact Of A Faith-Based Christian Marriage Enrichment Program, Chad N. Imhoff Dec 2019

Created For Connection: The Impact Of A Faith-Based Christian Marriage Enrichment Program, Chad N. Imhoff

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of Created for Connection (CFC), a faith based marriage enrichment program on relationship satisfaction, adult attachment style and adult attachment behavior. This study further adds to the existing knowledge base related to faith-based programs delivered in an intensive weekend format (Johnson & Sanderfer, 2016). Participants were volunteers from the local community who identified as Christian. To ascertain the effectiveness of CFC, three self-report measures were administered at three different intervals: two weeks before the program, two weeks following the program and a six-week follow-up. I measured attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, attachment behaviors and relationship satisfaction. I compared results using four repeated measure ANOVAs. CFC did have a statistically significant effect on relationship satisfaction and on attachment avoidance. Previous literature highlights the need for research on this type of intervention as well as the importance of the marriage relationship (Anderson, 2014; Berger & Hannah, 2014; Cole & Cole, 1999; Markman & Rhoades, 2012; Worthington, Johnson, Hook, & Aten, 2013). This research offers some insights as to the effects of this program and also establishes a base from which further research can be done on CFC.


The Feedback-Related Negativity Is A Time-Dependent Brain Mechanism That Facilitates Aversive Learning: Implications For The Reinforcement Learning Frn Hypothesis, Eric Rawls Dec 2019

The Feedback-Related Negativity Is A Time-Dependent Brain Mechanism That Facilitates Aversive Learning: Implications For The Reinforcement Learning Frn Hypothesis, Eric Rawls

Theses and Dissertations

Organisms encode rewarding and aversive experiences through reinforcement learning, capitalizing on prediction errors (PEs), which adapt action strategies over time. Computational theories are explicit that PE signals should update action weights continuously over the course of a behavioral task, an important time-dependent variation that is eschewed in traditional neuroscience studies that average over large numbers of trials. I examined variation in reaction times and feedback-locked cortical activity over time as a function of PE to critically examine theories indicating that PE signals drive time-dependent learning. We recorded EEG while participants completed a novel reinforcement task that varied prediction error on ...


Changes In Cortical Processing Following Unilateral Visual Cortex Deafferentation, Matthew Gannon Dec 2019

Changes In Cortical Processing Following Unilateral Visual Cortex Deafferentation, Matthew Gannon

Theses and Dissertations

After the loss of inputs, cells in visual cortex adapt and begin representing space beyond their classical receptive fields. This ability for functional reorganization is a phenomenon known as neuroplasticity. Homonymous hemianopia is a unique case of this scenario that results from hemispheric deafferentation, or when all visual inputs in to one hemisphere of the brain are lost. This condition occurs due to unilateral damage of the post-chiasmatic geniculo-striate pathway, the network that carries visual information from one side of visual space to the visual cortex for processing. Damage to this pathway causes perceptual blindness in the side of space ...


Early Behavioral And Physiological Markers Of Social Anxiety In Fragile X Syndrome, Conner J. Black Oct 2019

Early Behavioral And Physiological Markers Of Social Anxiety In Fragile X Syndrome, Conner J. Black

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Social Anxiety is diagnosed in approximately 10% of neurotypical children. If left untreated, negative outcomes are highly prevalent later in life. Thus, understanding the earliest features of social anxiety can help to mitigate detrimental outcomes. Fragile X Syndrome, which has a high prevalence of social anxiety, is a genetic syndrome which creates a unique opportunity to study the earliest predictors of social anxiety before formal diagnosis. Fragile X Syndrome presents with intellectual disability and an increased prevalence of maladaptive behaviors. The current study utilized a bio-behavioral approach to study the earliest marker of social anxiety in 12- month-old infants ...


Predicting Change In Autism Symptomatology In Young Children At Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder: Fragile X Syndrome, Down Syndrome And Non-Syndromic Asd, Kelly Elizabeth Caravella Oct 2019

Predicting Change In Autism Symptomatology In Young Children At Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder: Fragile X Syndrome, Down Syndrome And Non-Syndromic Asd, Kelly Elizabeth Caravella

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is comprised of two manuscripts which examine the longitudinal development of autism symptomatology in young children at risk for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD); individuals with Fragile x syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS). The first study is a within group analysis of the longitudinal development of ASD symptomatology in young children with FXS, and how diagnostic stability, language and non-verbal cognitive functioning may predict these trajectories. This paper provides insight into ASD diagnostic stability patterns within FXS, and how symptoms change over time across these groups. The second paper will extend this work by presenting a pilot ...


Sound-Evoked Activations Of Visual Cortex And The Principles Of Multisensory Integration, Spencer Lawrence Mac Adams Oct 2019

Sound-Evoked Activations Of Visual Cortex And The Principles Of Multisensory Integration, Spencer Lawrence Mac Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural processes that integrate information from multiple different sensory systems and follows three established principles: the spatial, temporal and inverse effectiveness principles. Evidence now suggests that MSI can occur at the earliest stages of sensory processing in primary sensory cortices, including audiovisual integration in primary visual cortex; however, the mechanism responsible for audio-visual MSI enhancements remains elusive. Recently, unimodally presented sounds have been shown to activate visual cortex; however, no research has been conducted to evaluate if these sound-evoked responses reflect the auditory contribution to audiovisual integration in primary visual cortex. Here we conducted ...


The Relations Between Adherence To Behavioral Treatments And Parent Stress In Families Of Children With Asd, Aimee Rovane Oct 2019

The Relations Between Adherence To Behavioral Treatments And Parent Stress In Families Of Children With Asd, Aimee Rovane

Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies suggest that parent involvement with behavior treatment for associated challenging behaviors (ACBs) may reduce parent stress in families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is not known whether high treatment adherence to protocols is associated with reduced parent stress, or which factors that may moderate this relation. The current study examined the relation between parents’ adherence to behavioral treatments and parent stress, and whether parents’ perceptions toward treatment moderate this association. Participants were 190 mothers, fathers, or caregivers of a child with ASD. A bivariate correlation matrix examined associations between each variable, and 3 separate linear regression ...


Planning For Healthcare Quality Using Procurement As A Strategy: A Case Study Exploring An Outcomes-Oriented Approach To Healthcare Procurement, Kassandra A. Alia Oct 2019

Planning For Healthcare Quality Using Procurement As A Strategy: A Case Study Exploring An Outcomes-Oriented Approach To Healthcare Procurement, Kassandra A. Alia

Theses and Dissertations

The United States has one of the most costly healthcare systems in the world, yet also ranks lower in patient outcomes in comparison with many other developed countries. A focus on quality implementation may help accelerate ongoing efforts to improve healthcare quality. The overall purpose of this study was to explore outcomes-oriented contracting as a mechanism for embedding quality implementation planning proactively into the process for procuring healthcare services. A single case study methodology was utilized to examine changes in procurements over time following implementation of an outcomes-oriented contracting approach within an organization that provides funding for behavioral health and ...


A Foundation For Understanding The Neurocognitive Processes That Underlie Mathematics Performance In Children, Christopher Anzalone Oct 2019

A Foundation For Understanding The Neurocognitive Processes That Underlie Mathematics Performance In Children, Christopher Anzalone

Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the prognostic utility of resting state EEG coherence in the prediction of standardized mathematics scores. Quantitative EEG analyses were performed for 60 school-aged children (ages 7 to 12 years) with and without math learning disabilities (MLD). Analyses assessing intrahemispheric coherence at rest were performed across the entire sample and several coherence networks were extracted.

Specifically, networks that included Brodmann area 40 (BA 40) -- a region of the brain heavily involved in the cognitive processes responsible for mathematics performance (Anderson, Betts, Ferris, & Fincham, 2011; Cohen, Dehaene, Chochon, Lehericy, & Naccache, 2000; Kroger, Nystrom, Cohen, & Johnson-Laird, 2008) -- and whose coherence was significantly correlated ...


Motivational And Physiological Dysregulation Due To Development And Onset Of Obesity Via Melanocortin 4 Receptor +/- Haploinsufficiency, Alex Steiner Oct 2019

Motivational And Physiological Dysregulation Due To Development And Onset Of Obesity Via Melanocortin 4 Receptor +/- Haploinsufficiency, Alex Steiner

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is one of the leading most health risks around the world, being especially problematic in the United States. A combination of high-fat diets and genetic abnormalities are to blame for the ever-growing number of obese individuals.

Melanocortin 4 receptors are vital for regulating energy expenditure and feeding behaviors; mutations of the receptors have been found to be the leading monogenetic cause of obesity. Using MC4R +/- haploinsufficient rats being fed a range of dietary fat, we investigated the physiological and motivational differences using a locomotor task, an operant task with fixed and progressive ratios, as well as a distraction operant ...


Mindfulness And Blood Pressure Across Demographics: Analyses From The Serenity Study, Gabrielle R. Chin Aug 2019

Mindfulness And Blood Pressure Across Demographics: Analyses From The Serenity Study, Gabrielle R. Chin

Theses and Dissertations

Mindfulness, as a state, trait, and training, is linked with myriad positive mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding the individual characteristics potentially influencing links between mindful traits, mindfulness training, and physical health, is therefore important, yet remains under-addressed. Utilizing data from the ongoing Serenity Study (NCT02371317), the current project examines if (1) at baseline, higher trait mindfulness relates to lower BP consistently as a function of demographics, (2) Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training lowers BP consistently across demographic subgroups and initial levels of trait mindfulness, and (3) if change in trait mindfulness following MBSR training correlates with change in BP ...


When Children Hurt You: Examining The Experiences Of Clinicians Who Work With Aggressive Young Children, Melisa Madsen Aug 2019

When Children Hurt You: Examining The Experiences Of Clinicians Who Work With Aggressive Young Children, Melisa Madsen

Theses and Dissertations

This grounded theory qualitative research study examined the experiences of mental health staff who work with aggressive young children under the age of 9. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, participants were asked about individual and organizational aspects that affect the care they provide to young children and their decision to stay with the organization. 14 mental health professionals from five different intensive outpatient programs for youth with behavioral concerns were interviewed. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin’s (1998) three-step data analysis process of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. In answer to the question “What experiences ...


Intersecting Realities: A Qualitative Study Exploring The Experiences Of Stress And Coping Among Transgender Latinx Immigrants, Silvia P. Salas Aug 2019

Intersecting Realities: A Qualitative Study Exploring The Experiences Of Stress And Coping Among Transgender Latinx Immigrants, Silvia P. Salas

Theses and Dissertations

Research on Trans immigrant communities of Latinx descent is underdeveloped, with even less emphasis on how this community experiences and copes with the stressors associated with their membership in multiple oppressed social groups (e.g., ethnicity, gender identity, and immigration status). Nativism, ethnocentrism, and cissexism all impact Trans Latinx immigrants, heightening their risk of being targets of community violence, hate crimes, and discrimination associated with their ethnicity, gender identity, and immigration status. These stressors and violence may be experienced by this community from within and outside their respective communities (e.g., Trans Community, Latinx Community, and Broader U.S. Community ...


Psychosocial Characteristics Of Children With And Without Toileting Dysfunction, Ellen Sejkora Aug 2019

Psychosocial Characteristics Of Children With And Without Toileting Dysfunction, Ellen Sejkora

Theses and Dissertations

Toilet training is a stressful time for parents and families; however, pediatric providers are often uncertain of how to guide parents through this period because of limited systematic research in this area. The current study investigated the role of timing and method of toilet training, use of physician and community resources, and parent and child psychosocial variables to better understand normative toilet training and clarify the role of family, parent, and child characteristics in the toilet training process. The literature regarding early childhood development and normative toileting was reviewed, followed by a discussion of voiding dysfunction and relevant psychosocial and ...


Deaf Cultural Socialization: Exploring The Role Of Parents In Deaf Cultural Identity Development, Macrae Husting Aug 2019

Deaf Cultural Socialization: Exploring The Role Of Parents In Deaf Cultural Identity Development, Macrae Husting

Theses and Dissertations

There is an assumption in the Deaf identity literature that suggests that parents’ hearing status determines the cultural identity and well-being of deaf and hard of hearing individuals. This dissertation challenges that assumption. It does so by proffering an alternative explanation of the role that parents play by introducing two forms of socialization as mechanisms through which parents influence their child’s cultural identity development and well-being. Deaf cultural socialization is the process by which parents transmit messages to children regarding the importance and meaning of Deaf culture and membership in the Deaf community. Minority status socialization is the process ...


The Impact Of Mother And Adolescent Offspring Distress Reduction Training On Maternal Anxiety And Alcohol Related Behaviors Following Conflict, Sarah Ann Bilsky Aug 2019

The Impact Of Mother And Adolescent Offspring Distress Reduction Training On Maternal Anxiety And Alcohol Related Behaviors Following Conflict, Sarah Ann Bilsky

Theses and Dissertations

Nearly half of people suffering from psychopathology meet criteria for more than one disorder. Scholars have focused on understanding factors that may simultaneously maintain multiple psychiatric problems. Elevated distress during interpersonal conflict is likely to maintain both alcohol use and anxiety psychopathology. Reducing distress elicited by normative mother-adolescent conflict holds particular promise. Conflict is common in families with problematic drinking and anxiety disorders and the affective impact of parent-offspring conflict is malleable. Distress reduction skills, such as cognitive reappraisal, are effective in reducing distress during conflict. The current study examined the unique and combined effects of training mothers and adolescents ...


How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian Aug 2019

How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian

Theses and Dissertations

Sexual assault among young adults is a highly prevalent public health concern. Alcohol is often implicated as a risk factor for sexual assault through its impairing effects on an individual’s ability to process and respond to social cues in the environment. The effect of alcohol myopia can result in greater focus of attention on salient environmental cues. The relationship between alcohol intoxication and resulting behavior may depend on what type of information is most salient. The current study examined the effects of alcohol on social information processing as it relates to sexual assault risk detection. Method: Participants were 48 ...


Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick Aug 2019

Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick

Theses and Dissertations

Research has demonstrated that hate is a protective emotional response to perceived evil, yet the dimensions by which people perceive evil have not been clearly identified. Research has also indicated that it is evil to feel hate, which presents an interesting paradox: if hate protects us from evil, then how can it be evil to feel hate? The present research attempts to identify the dimensions of evil and elucidate the relationship between hate and evil by comparing it to the relationship between dislike and evil. Study 1 tested how participants identified evil in third person scenarios. As predicted, evil was ...


Dynamics Of Momentary Perceived Self-Regulation Abilities As Novel Predictors Of Overeating In Daily Life, Kayla Dawn Skinner Aug 2019

Dynamics Of Momentary Perceived Self-Regulation Abilities As Novel Predictors Of Overeating In Daily Life, Kayla Dawn Skinner

Theses and Dissertations

Despite an increase of research in the realm of overeating - a well-known contributor to obesity - the psychological mechanisms that maintain overeating behaviors across time and context are still poorly understood. It may be that people’s perceptions of their self-regulation abilities fluctuate over time, and overeating results from momentary increases in negative mood eliciting negative perceptions of their self-efficacy and current willpower, stronger beliefs that cravings can be controlled and a greater ability to tolerate distress. The current study examined the dynamics of and momentary predictors of overeating using a 7-day EMA protocol to study unsuccessful restrained eaters (n = 94 ...


"I Like . . . Red Bone:" Colorism, Rappers, And Black College Sorority Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Whitney Frierson Aug 2019

"I Like . . . Red Bone:" Colorism, Rappers, And Black College Sorority Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Whitney Frierson

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, I examine black college sorority women’s views about skin tone bias in hip-hop culture. I conduct interviews with 12 black undergraduate women in Black Greek Letter Sororities at a predominantly white institution. Prior research finds that rap music sends skin color messages to adolescent women through lyrical content and music videos. I build on this work by exploring how the experiences of being in college shape black college sorority women’s views on skin tone bias and hip-hop. I find that time in college has been an important life stage in which black sorority women gained ...


Tattoo Narratives And Counseling, Danny Lane Mccarty Aug 2019

Tattoo Narratives And Counseling, Danny Lane Mccarty

Theses and Dissertations

Much research has been done on tattoos and on those who acquire them, but most of the research has focused on negative correlations that might exist with people who have tattoos. This current research, however, showed that people’s tattoo narratives can relate to how they view self, others, and the world, and to how they approach life. A narrative approach to qualitative research was used, and ten people participated in the study. Participants’ views of self, others, and the world were discussed as these views emerged from the narratives. Their possible approaches to life were also addressed. Themes that ...


Effects Of Multivitamin-Mineral Supplementation On Mental Health Among Young Adults, Ya-Hsuan Chang Aug 2019

Effects Of Multivitamin-Mineral Supplementation On Mental Health Among Young Adults, Ya-Hsuan Chang

Theses and Dissertations

The percentage of young adults who had mental illnesses has increased from 2008 to 2015. However, few existing studies investigating the potential benefits of multivitamin-mineral (MVM) supplementation on mental health focused on young adults (18-24 years of age), whose eating behaviors are often unhealthy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a MVM supplement on mental health in young adults. One hundred and thirty-three college students (Mage=20.59, SD=1.77; 80.15% female) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed either a MVM supplement or a placebo for 30 days. The supplement ...


Emotion Identification And Beliefs About Emotions As Mediators Of Ptsd And Parenting Meta-Emotion Philosophies, Maegan Calvert Aug 2019

Emotion Identification And Beliefs About Emotions As Mediators Of Ptsd And Parenting Meta-Emotion Philosophies, Maegan Calvert

Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 20% of women are sexually victimized and incarcerated women’s rates of victimization are much higher. In addition, women have a higher rate of PTSD and trauma-related sequelae than men. Interpersonal trauma experiences can have a negative impact on emotional processes such as alexithymia, recognizing others’ emotions, and healthy beliefs about emotional experiences. These difficulties are associated with problematic parenting. However, the mediational processes by which PTSD and disruptive emotional processes affect parenting is unclear. The current study examines the associations among PTSD, alexithymia, negative beliefs about emotions, emotion recognition in children, and parenting meta-emotion philosophies in incarcerated women ...


Implicit Bias And The Boundaries Of Belief: A Single-Representational Dual-Attitude Account Of Implicit Attitudes, Austin Dakota Synoground Aug 2019

Implicit Bias And The Boundaries Of Belief: A Single-Representational Dual-Attitude Account Of Implicit Attitudes, Austin Dakota Synoground

Theses and Dissertations

Since their inception, implicit attitudes have been defined as associative mental states, separate from beliefs, which are considered to be propositional in nature. Recently, several philosophers have challenged this distinction, arguing that implicit attitudes are actually unconscious beliefs. In turn, I argue that the attitudes detected by current experimental paradigms are blind to distinctions between implicit attitudes, which I define as the products of an associative learning mechanism, and unconscious beliefs, which are the products of a propositional learning mechanism. Specifically, I argue for a single-representational dual-attitude account of implicit bias.


The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson Aug 2019

The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. For example, after returning from war, a person might begin to experience fear in response to the sound of fireworks, a stimulus typically regarded as safe. When excessive, “overgeneralization” serves as a core feature of fear and anxiety-related disorders, such as PTSD. The present collection of studies sought to investigate the neural correlates and temporal dynamics of fear generalization in humans.

The first study sought to investigate the causal role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus in the generalization of fear. Contrary ...


Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race Aug 2019

Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race

Theses and Dissertations

Confidence can be a strong predictor of accuracy if circumstances are ideal (Wixted & Wells, 2017), but ideal circumstances are not always present. As such it is important to understand ways to ameliorate potentially negative effects on eyewitness metacognition. Rapport building, though seen as an important element of police/witness interaction (Vallano et al., 2015), can lead to some potentially negative memory effects (Wright et al., 2015). Additionally steering, or the process of directing a witness toward a particular suspect, can increase false identifications. Recently the researcher has developed a paradigm meant to better calibrate confidence by reinstating the context of ...