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Hadza Hunter-Gatherers And The Evolution Of Human Cooperation: Evidence Against Partner Choice Models, Kristopher Michael Smith Jan 2019

Hadza Hunter-Gatherers And The Evolution Of Human Cooperation: Evidence Against Partner Choice Models, Kristopher Michael Smith

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Human cooperation is exceptional in the animal kingdom, and explaining its evolution is a puzzle. One hypothesis is that the ability to track others’ reputations and to choose our cooperative partners created biological markets, and competition within these markets selected for cooperators. Here, I test this hypothesis from the Hadza of Tanzania, one of the last remaining foraging populations. In Chapter 1, I use longitudinal data tracking cooperation in an economic game and residence patterns. In every year, contribution levels to the public good are similar within residence camps, fulfilling a necessary condition for the evolution of cooperation. However, cooperators ...


Event Structure In Vision And Language, Alon Hafri Jan 2019

Event Structure In Vision And Language, Alon Hafri

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Our visual experience is surprisingly rich: We do not only see low-level properties such as colors or contours; we also see events, or what is happening. Within linguistics, the examination of how we talk about events suggests that relatively abstract elements exist in the mind which pertain to the relational structure of events, including general thematic roles (e.g., Agent), Causation, Motion, and Transfer. For example, “Alex gave Jesse flowers” and “Jesse gave Alex flowers” both refer to an event of transfer, with the directionality of the transfer having different social consequences. The goal of the present research is to ...


The Role Of Intuitive Arithmetic In Developing Mathematical Skill, Emily Maja Szkudlarek Jan 2019

The Role Of Intuitive Arithmetic In Developing Mathematical Skill, Emily Maja Szkudlarek

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Symbolic mathematics allows humans to represent and describe the logic of the world around us. Although we typically think about math symbolically, humans across the lifespan and a wide variety of animal species spontaneously exhibit numerical competence without reference to formal mathematics. This intuitive ability to approximately compare, estimate, and manipulate large non-symbolic numerical quantities without language or symbols is called the Approximate Number System. The four chapters of this dissertation explore whether non-symbolic, approximate calculation can function as a bridge between our Approximate Number System and symbolic mathematics for children at the beginning of formal math education and university ...


Attributions Of Mental State Control: Causes And Consequences, Corey Cusimano Jan 2019

Attributions Of Mental State Control: Causes And Consequences, Corey Cusimano

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A popular thesis in psychology holds that ordinary people judge others’ mental states to be uncontrollable, unintentional, or otherwise involuntary. The present research challenges this thesis and documents how attributions of mental state control affect social decision making, predict policy preferences, and fuel conflict in close relationships. In Chapter 1, I show that lay people by-and-large attribute intentional control to others over their mental states. Additionally, I provide causal evidence that these attributions of control predict judgments of responsibility as well as decisions to confront and reprimand someone for having an objectionable attitude. By overturning a common misconception about how ...


(When) Do Consumers Prefer Uncertainty? Consumers' Reactions To Uncertain Advice And Uncertain Promotions, Celia Gaertig Jan 2019

(When) Do Consumers Prefer Uncertainty? Consumers' Reactions To Uncertain Advice And Uncertain Promotions, Celia Gaertig

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Research has shown that, although uncertainty is often disliked, consumers sometimes seem to prefer uncertainty to certainty. The goal of this dissertation is to further understand the circumstances under which consumers prefer, rather than dislike, uncertainty across different domains. In Chapter 1, we investigate preferences for uncertainty in the domain of advice giving. There is a widespread belief that advisees prefer, and thus reward, advisors who offer certainty, even for events that are inherently uncertain. In contrast, we find that consumers do not dislike, and sometimes prefer, uncertain advice. Specifically, they do not dislike advisors who express uncertainty by providing ...


A Multilevel Factor Analytic Investigation Of The Learning-To-Learn Scales: A More Child-Centered Look At Dimensionality, Benjamin Pratt Brumley Jan 2019

A Multilevel Factor Analytic Investigation Of The Learning-To-Learn Scales: A More Child-Centered Look At Dimensionality, Benjamin Pratt Brumley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Children from low-income households are at risk for entering school behind their more economically advantaged peers across major domains of school readiness. The Head Start program represents the federal government’s response to these achievement gaps by mandating the use of scientifically based assessments and curricula to provide children with the necessary school readiness skills. Routine teacher-report assessment of children’s school readiness using scientifically validated assessments is key to effectively guide early childhood education. Approaches to Learning is one of the five domains of school readiness targeted by Head Start. The Learning-to-Learn Scales (LTLS) is currently the only multidimensional ...


Assessing Credibility In Subjective Probability Judgment, Joshua Daniel Baker Jan 2019

Assessing Credibility In Subjective Probability Judgment, Joshua Daniel Baker

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Subjective probability judgments (SPJs) are an essential component of decision making under uncertainty. Yet, research shows that SPJs are vulnerable to a variety of errors and biases. From a practical perspective, this exposes decision makers to risk: if SPJs are (reasonably) valid, then expectations and choices will be rational; if they are not, then expectations may be erroneous and choices suboptimal. However, existing methods for evaluating SPJs depend on information that is typically not available to decision makers (e.g., ground truth; correspondence criteria). To address this issue, I develop a method for evaluating SPJs based on a construct I ...


Relating Conceptual Structure With Flexible Concept Use, Sarah Solomon Jan 2019

Relating Conceptual Structure With Flexible Concept Use, Sarah Solomon

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Our mental words are populated with concepts — rich representations of knowledge about things in the world (e.g., diamonds, pumpkins). In language, words are used to refer to these concepts (e.g., “diamond”, “pumpkin”) and to communicate with others. This is quite impressive given that a word does not activate the same information each time it is used: conceptual information is flexibly activated based on the context. For example, the phrases “raw diamond”, “baseball diamond”, and “diamond eyes” evoke different kinds of diamond information. This flexible concept use is not only exemplified in creative language, but in creative thought and ...


The Role Of Mentalizing In Information Propagation, Elisa C. Baek Jan 2019

The Role Of Mentalizing In Information Propagation, Elisa C. Baek

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

What are the psychological drivers that lead to successful information propagation between communicators and receivers of shared messages? What factors lead communicators to share information with others, and receivers to be successfully influenced by the information? The current dissertation focuses on the role of mentalizing, or considering other people’s mental states, as one factor that leads to successful information propagation between communicators and receivers. Study 1 of this dissertation focused on the role of mentalizing in communicators of influence and provided behavioral evidence suggesting that mentalizing causally increases communicators’ likelihood to share information. Specifically, instructing information sharers to consider ...


Affiliation With Aggressive Peer Groups, Autonomy, And Adjustment In Chinese Adolescents, Lingjun Chen Jan 2019

Affiliation With Aggressive Peer Groups, Autonomy, And Adjustment In Chinese Adolescents, Lingjun Chen

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Affiliating with an aggressive peer group has various negative implications for individual development and adjustment, and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to negative peer influence. It is crucial to identify factors that serve to protect adolescents who are members of aggressive peer groups. Autonomy is an important individual characteristic worth exploration because it captures adolescents’ differences in navigating their group experiences and it is closely related to their developmental tasks during this period. Moreover, autonomy has become increasingly important in Chinese society in recent years during the rapid social change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations ...


Self-Consistency In Sequential Decision-Making, Long Luu Jan 2018

Self-Consistency In Sequential Decision-Making, Long Luu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Human decisions are rarely made in isolation. We typically have to make a sequence of decisions to reach a goal. Studies in economics and cognitive psychology have shown that making a decision may result in several biases in subsequent judgments. Similar biases have also recently been found in human percepts of low-level stimuli such as motion direction. What lacking is a principled framework that can account for several sequential dependencies between judgments. Towards that goal, in my thesis, I propose and experimentally test a self-consistent Bayesian observer model that assumes humans maintain self-consistency along the inference process. In Chapter 2 ...


Biological Research On Behavior As Extra-Legal And Discretionary Factors In Sentencing And Punishment, Colleen Margaret Berryessa Jan 2018

Biological Research On Behavior As Extra-Legal And Discretionary Factors In Sentencing And Punishment, Colleen Margaret Berryessa

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In recent years, there has been an increase in empirical literature regarding how and why neuroscience and genetics research on behavior may influence criminal punishment. This dissertation aims to add to this growing body of literature specifically on types of evidence and aspects of sentencing and punishment that have not yet been studied. This dissertation consists of three papers that examine how the presentation of biological evidence in court or knowledge of the biological influences to behavior may act as extra-legal and discretionary factors in sentencing. The first paper, utilizing a multi-factorial experiment with the death-qualified jury-eligible public, examines how ...


Racial Socialization, Stress, Climate And Coping: An Examination Of Educator Perceptions Of Classroom Management And Motivation Of Students And Colleagues, Brian Tinsley Jan 2018

Racial Socialization, Stress, Climate And Coping: An Examination Of Educator Perceptions Of Classroom Management And Motivation Of Students And Colleagues, Brian Tinsley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

RACIAL SOCIALIZATION, STRESS, CLIMATE AND COPING:

AN EXAMINATION OF EDUCATOR PERCEPTIONS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND MOTIVATION OF STUDENTS AND COLLEAGUES

Brian Tinsley

Howard C. Stevenson

Understanding and addressing school faculty stress experienced in primary and secondary school contexts is important in efforts to attract and retain capable teaching staff. With increasing student and staff diversity, issues of race are more present. Experiencing issues of race can cause stress for many teachers and administrators. The distress that results from racial interactions is referred to as “racial stress”.

Few studies have explored the relationship between racial socialization, race-related stress, and coping ...


Approaches To Learning In The Ecls-K: Measurement And Growth From Kindergarten To Grade 2, Kathy Buek Jan 2018

Approaches To Learning In The Ecls-K: Measurement And Growth From Kindergarten To Grade 2, Kathy Buek

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Children’s Approaches to Learning (AtL) has been identified in research and policy as a key domain of children’s school readiness. Nevertheless, there remains a lack of consensus around the exact definition and specific dimensions of AtL. Additionally, relatively little is known about the child and family factors that shape early AtL, how it varies in the general population, or how it develops and changes through the early years of schooling. This exploratory study examined measurement and growth of children’s AtL over six occasions spanning kindergarten through second grade in the ECLS-K Class of 2010-2011. Large statistically significant ...


Exploring Diverse Profiles Of Identity, Risk Taking, And Health Risk In Urban Black Emerging Adult Men, Lloyd Matthew Talley Jan 2018

Exploring Diverse Profiles Of Identity, Risk Taking, And Health Risk In Urban Black Emerging Adult Men, Lloyd Matthew Talley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Young adult African-American men face some of the most challenging social and health disparities compared to other age, race, and gender groups. They must endure the stress of emerging adulthood through the intense and clashing demands of race and masculinity politics.  An unaddressed question in the literature is “Do distinct racial-gender identity subgroups of Black emerging adult men experience different patterns of risk taking and health risk?” Drawing on the baseline data of a “Barbershop-Based HIV/STD Risk Reduction for African American Young Men” (Jemmott, Jemmott, Coleman, Stevenson, & Ten Have, 2009; Jemmott, Jemmott, Lanier, Thompson, & Baker, 2017), a cluster-randomized comparison of two risk-reduction interventions (sexual health risk and violence retaliation) with 597 African American men aged 18 to 24, this secondary analysis study was conducted. Using the method of latent profile analysis, the results of this study found (a) four distinct identity profiles of Black men based on three key identity factors (manhood stress, hypermasculinity, and awareness of Black manhood vulnerabilities) representing distinct subgroups of Black men (diffuse, 4.5%; balanced, 62%; strained, 30%; and distressed, 3%); (b ...


Actually Embodied Emotions, Jordan Christopher Victor Taylor Jan 2018

Actually Embodied Emotions, Jordan Christopher Victor Taylor

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation offers a theory of emotion called the primitivist theory. Emotions are defined as bodily caused affective states. It derives key principles from William James’s feeling theory of emotion, which states that emotions are felt experiences of bodily changes triggered by sensory stimuli (James, 1884; James, 1890). However, James’s theory is commonly misinterpreted, leading to its dismissal by contemporary philosophers and psychologists. Chapter 1 therefore analyzes James’s theory and compares it against contemporary treatments. It demonstrates that a rehabilitated Jamesian theory promises to benefit contemporary emotion research. Chapter 2 investigates James’s legacy, as numerous alterations ...


Investigating Hybrid Models Of Speech Perception, Robert Jonathan Wilder Jan 2018

Investigating Hybrid Models Of Speech Perception, Robert Jonathan Wilder

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The ability to perceive sounds as words involves a transformation from detailed speech signals to invariant meanings, which are separate from information about the speaker of a particular word. The nature of this transformation is a central issue in the field of speech perception. A particular focus of ongoing debate concerns talker-specific details: are they causally relevant to lexical perception, or are they useful only for tasks like speaker recognition?

One common way to investigate the impact of voice information is to examine the time-course of its effects on future perceptual events. Early research reported no consistent long-lasting effects, implying ...


Treatment Selection: Understanding What Works For Whom In Mental Health, Zachary Daniel Cohen Jan 2018

Treatment Selection: Understanding What Works For Whom In Mental Health, Zachary Daniel Cohen

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Individuals seeking treatment for mental health problems often have to choose between several different treatment options. For disorders like depression and PTSD, many of the available treatments have been found to be, on average, equally effective. Research on precision medicine aims to identify the most effective treatment for each patient. This work is based on the idea that individuals respond differently to treatment, and that these differences can be studied and characterized. The push for personalized and precision approaches in mental health involves identifying moderators - variables that predict differential response into treatment recommendations. Unfortunately, there has been little real-world application ...


Young Children’S Understanding Of Learning And Its Relation To Their Own Learning, Jeein Jeong Jan 2018

Young Children’S Understanding Of Learning And Its Relation To Their Own Learning, Jeein Jeong

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The current dissertation examines how young children aged from 3 to 6 years come to understand learning from a mentalistic perspective, and how this understanding is related to their own learning. Study 1 found that preschoolers’ prediction of learning is influenced by the informant’s knowledge state, and that there is an age-related increase in the expectation of learning from another and sensitivity to an informant’s knowledge state. Children’s prediction of another’s learning was applied to their actual learning in Study 2, showing that children’s perception of an informant’s knowledge state affects how much information ...


Building The Hive: Corporate Personality Testing, Self-Development, And Humanistic Management In Postwar America, 1945-2000, Matthew J. Hoffarth Jan 2018

Building The Hive: Corporate Personality Testing, Self-Development, And Humanistic Management In Postwar America, 1945-2000, Matthew J. Hoffarth

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation explores the creation, distribution, and use of five personality tests found extensively in corporate America from the mid-1940s to the end of the 20th century. The management techniques in which these tests—the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, California Psychological Inventory, Thematic Apperception Test, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Stanford Shyness Survey—were embedded helped create a corporate environment that seemed at once more considerate of individual differences in personality and behavior and yet somehow also more constraining in the ways people were encouraged to live and work both inside and outside the office. In light of this tension, the problem ...


The Interpersonal Consequences Of Humor, Thomas Bradford Bitterly Jan 2018

The Interpersonal Consequences Of Humor, Thomas Bradford Bitterly

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Humor is a fundamental part of personal and professional interactions. Yet, prior psychology and management literature has largely overlooked humor. By using field and experimental methods, I explore the interpersonal consequences of the use of humor. I find that humor significantly shapes interpersonal perception and behavior. In order to understand organizations, we must first understand humor.


Essays In Labor Economics, Weilong Zhang Jan 2018

Essays In Labor Economics, Weilong Zhang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This thesis consists of three chapters. They explore develop and estimate economic models to analyze questions of interests to public policies.

Chapter 1 develops and estimates a spatial general equilibrium job search model to study the effects of local and universal (federal) minimum wage policies. In the model, firms post vacancies in multiple locations. Workers, who are heterogeneous in terms of location

and education types, engage in random search and can migrate or commute in response to job offers. The model is estimated by combining multiple databases including the American Community Survey (ACS) and Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI). The estimated ...


Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder In Adults: Descriptive Psychopathology And Measure Development, Hana Flynn Zickgraf Jan 2018

Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder In Adults: Descriptive Psychopathology And Measure Development, Hana Flynn Zickgraf

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a new diagnosis, added to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 2013. ARFID is diagnosed in individuals whose limited food intake or narrow diet leads to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, dependence on nutritional supplements, or significant interference with daily functioning. ARFID is diagnosed when the eating restrictions are not caused by dissatisfaction with body shape or weight, but by 1) rejection of foods based on their sensory properties (picky eating), 2) limited appetite or apparent lack of interest in eating, or 3) fear of negative consequences, such as choking ...


What Process Works For Whom: Individual Differences And The Impact Of Therapy Techniques And Treatment Mechanisms, John Raymond Keefe Jan 2018

What Process Works For Whom: Individual Differences And The Impact Of Therapy Techniques And Treatment Mechanisms, John Raymond Keefe

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

While psychotherapy treatment manuals define the broad structure and targets of a therapy, therapists must decide how to implement treatments with a specific patient. Yet, patients are heterogeneous even within a disorder class, and there is little systematic research to guide a therapist to make principled adaptations. We examined the question of whether individual differences moderate the treatment effects of therapist interventions and both in-session and between-session processes of change, using data from a randomized controlled trial for panic disorder comparing panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP) to cognitive-behavioral therapy. In Chapter 1, adherence to PFPP (n = 65) was observer rated in ...


Childhood Adversity: Measurement And Impacts On Academic Goals And Outcomes, Lauren Danzi Brumley Jan 2018

Childhood Adversity: Measurement And Impacts On Academic Goals And Outcomes, Lauren Danzi Brumley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Exposure to childhood adversity – such as maltreatment, violence, and living in poverty – is related to problems with health and wellbeing across the lifespan. The present research aimed to improve measurement of one form of childhood adversity (maltreatment) and explore the role of adversity in one developmental process (goal setting and appraisals) through which it may impact outcomes. Chapter 1 compared two methods of measuring maltreatment using retrospective self-report items in a nationally representative dataset. Both a cumulative index and a two-factor solution showed evidence of convergent validity, but the latent factors explained more variance in many outcomes even controlling for ...


The Role Of The Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex In Value-Based Decision-Making, Linda Qinhe Yu Jan 2018

The Role Of The Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex In Value-Based Decision-Making, Linda Qinhe Yu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to correlate with the subjective value for options, across reward type and across hundreds of functional neuroimaging studies. Despite the prominence of its role in preference-based decision-making, its specific contributions to how decisions are made have not yet been well-characterised. Study 1 addresses what the vmPFC signal represents during decision-making. While the vmPFC signal has been shown to correlate highly with subjective value in past studies, this signal is also consistent with mental navigation through a conceptual attribute space using a grid-like code. We found that the mental navigation model lacked support ...


Response Inhibition In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder And Co-Occuring Psychopathology, Sarah Morris Jan 2018

Response Inhibition In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder And Co-Occuring Psychopathology, Sarah Morris

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating, chronic condition that affects up to 3% of the population. A significant number of patients do not respond or still have residual symptoms even after completing empirically supported treatments. The study of neurocognitive functioning has been identified as one path toward developing a better understanding of underlying mechanisms and identifying new treatment targets. Response inhibition (RI), the ability to suppress inappropriate or irrelevant responses, is a neurocognitive process that may be particularly relevant to OCD. RI deficits have been found in adults with OCD, however questions remain regarding the nature and specificity of ...


The Effective Borrowing Of A Phonemic Contrast, Gudrun Gylfadottir Jan 2018

The Effective Borrowing Of A Phonemic Contrast, Gudrun Gylfadottir

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Language change often leads to the merger of phonemic categories, but the addition of new categories is rarely attested. In the Spanish city of Seville, as in other cities across the southern region of Andalusia, contact with the prestigious standard variety to the north is leading to the emergence of a contrast between /s/ and /θ/.

The 24 young adult speakers from Seville analyzed in this dissertation produce a mixture of [s] and the incoming sound [θ] in standard /θ/ contexts. However, when naturalistic production is examined individually, a systematic pattern is revealed: most of the speakers categorically limit [θ ...


The Nature Of Natural, Sydney Elizabeth Scott Jan 2017

The Nature Of Natural, Sydney Elizabeth Scott

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In the modern Western world, consumers prefer natural foods, medicines, and personal care products and have a desire to connect with the natural world. Despite evident consumer demand for natural products, little research has been devoted to the psychological underpinnings of the natural preference. The present dissertation will examine the psychology of the natural preference and its implications in three chapters. Chapter 1 will expand the scope of explanations of opposition to genetically modified food by applying established theories about naturalness, sacred values and the law of contagion. Chapter 2 will examine how inferences about safety and efficacy of natural ...


Dissociable Neural Contributions To Prospection During Decisions About The Future, Trishala Parthasarathi Jan 2017

Dissociable Neural Contributions To Prospection During Decisions About The Future, Trishala Parthasarathi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Humans often make decisions that involve tradeoffs between immediate and delayed consequences, and tend to devalue or discount future outcomes. This phenomenon, known as delay discounting, has several real-world implications. A high discounter, indicating more impulsive behavior, is more likely to engage in risky behavior such as smoking or gambling, while a low discounter, exhibiting more patient behavior, is more likely to attain better educational and financial outcomes. Recent studies demonstrate that under certain conditions, imagining the future reduces discounting. The goal of this thesis is to examine the cognitive role and neural basis of imagination during intertemporal choice, and ...