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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

William & Mary

2016

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Neurometric Profiling Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using The Brief Neurometric Battery: A Novel Eeg Based Task, Leigh Catherine Gayle Oct 2016

Neurometric Profiling Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using The Brief Neurometric Battery: A Novel Eeg Based Task, Leigh Catherine Gayle

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Autism spectrum disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by heterogeneous deficits in social communication and interaction, as well as repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Due to the dramatic increase in prevalence, a major theme in contemporary research has been the identification of biomarkers for ASD that can shed light on etiological factors, facilitate diagnosis and serve as markers for tracking the efficacy of behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Electroencephalography (EEG) metrics, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), resting state oscillatory activity (OA), and resting state complexity (multiscale entropy), are well-suited for the measurement of such biomarkers. Due to the complexity and ...


Investigating The Relationship Between Event-Related Potentials And Response Kinematics, Kenneth Juston Osborne Oct 2016

Investigating The Relationship Between Event-Related Potentials And Response Kinematics, Kenneth Juston Osborne

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Movement is one of the most important functions of our nervous system. Recent research has shown that cognitive and perceptual functions ranging from our perception of others’ emotions to the planning of goal-directed behaviors depends critically on brain areas once thought to be primarily motor in nature. Given the important role our motor system plays in understanding and interacting with the world around us, it is surprising that the majority of cognitive neuroscience research using electroencephalogram (EEG) has focused primarily on perception and cognition irrespective of its relationship(s) to the execution of movement. One possible explanation for this is ...


Testing The Unconscious Effect Of Visual Context Illusions, Evan Douglas Jones Jun 2016

Testing The Unconscious Effect Of Visual Context Illusions, Evan Douglas Jones

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This study tested the effects of a visual context illusion when it was suppressed from the subjects conscious awareness. Using a mirror stereoscope and a particular form of binocular rivalry, subjects made estimations of size with and without awareness of the presence of the illusory elements. No differences were found, suggesting that effect of the illusion may require conscious awareness and perhaps is not a product of early visual processing. Keywords: Ebbinghaus, Consciousness, CFS, Illusion


The Role Of Parental Smoking On Children's Attentional Bias To And Evaluation Of Smoking-Related Cues, Sarah Volz May 2016

The Role Of Parental Smoking On Children's Attentional Bias To And Evaluation Of Smoking-Related Cues, Sarah Volz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The goal of the current study was to examine whether exposure to parental smoking affects implicit cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to smoking initiation in children. To achieve this aim, the current study used a dot probe task to measure attentional bias and the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) to measure evaluation of smoking-related cues in 8-12 year-old children. In addition, a modified Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ) was used to assess smoking outcome expectancies to determine if outcome expectancies related to these implicit measures. Results revealed that children of smokers (n = 67) showed an attentional bias away from smoking-related cues ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of The Four-Step Assessment Model In Structural Family Therapy, Edmund Maxwell Lichter May 2016

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of The Four-Step Assessment Model In Structural Family Therapy, Edmund Maxwell Lichter

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The study examined the effectiveness of the four step model of structural family therapy developed by Minuchin, Nichols, and Lee (2007). It also examined the role of empathy in the therapy process, as well as sex differences. Seven therapy recordings were used, which were obtained from the archives of the Minuchin Center for the Family. Three undergraduate raters rated how the adult clients responded in regards to each of the four steps. Two undergraduate raters and an expert structural family therapist rated the therapists on their implementation of the four step model, and their empathy towards each adult client. Results ...


Coming Home: Challenges Related To Reentry And Recidivism For Previously Incarcerated New Mothers, Sarah Ross Perry May 2016

Coming Home: Challenges Related To Reentry And Recidivism For Previously Incarcerated New Mothers, Sarah Ross Perry

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores the intersection of motherhood, recidivism, and the reentry process for recently incarcerated new mothers. Women were recruited from the Healthy Beginnings Project, a program that works with pregnant, incarcerated women from correctional institutions in the Williamsburg area to provide perinatal education and support. Completed intake and postpartum surveys (n=103) were analyzed for quantitative data on the incremental ability of maternal, psychological, and contextual stressors to predict new mothers' likelihood to recidivate. 34.3% (n=34) of the new mothers recidivated when the child was one to twelve months old. None of the summed stressor variables were ...


Breastfeeding Initiation Among Women Who Have Experience With Incarceration, Natalie R. Libster May 2016

Breastfeeding Initiation Among Women Who Have Experience With Incarceration, Natalie R. Libster

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The psychological effects of breastfeeding may be especially beneficial to incarcerated mothers, who are an at-risk population. The current study examines factors impacting breastfeeding initiation among a sample of women who have experience with incarceration. In the first study, 117 incarcerated pregnant women participated in the William and Mary Healthy Beginnings Project, a research and intervention program that works with local correctional facilities to improve the birth outcomes of pregnant inmates. Results reveal that factors associated with incarceration, such as delivering in jail, longer duration of incarceration during pregnancy, and being shackled during delivery, significantly impacted decisions not to initiate ...


Bittersweet Recollection: An Ecological Study Of Nostalgia, Justin Leroy Thibault May 2016

Bittersweet Recollection: An Ecological Study Of Nostalgia, Justin Leroy Thibault

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Nostalgia has recently grown as a popular subject of study. Much of the research on it, however, has not been conducted in a naturalistic way. The current experiments use a diary study to analyze aspects of nostalgia in a natural setting, including its emotional timeline and self-relevance. Results found that nostalgia can behave like an involuntary memory and indeed has an emotional curve. Results support previous research showing that nostalgia is most often positive and most often involves missing others. Some results also suggest that nostalgia may be relevant to one’s self-identity. Success of this diary study model illustrates ...


Unpacking The Psychosocial Effects Of Institutional Racism, Ebony A. Lambert May 2016

Unpacking The Psychosocial Effects Of Institutional Racism, Ebony A. Lambert

Undergraduate Honors Theses

My project investigated the effects of institutional racism on Black students at the College of William and Mary. I interviewed twenty Black William and Mary students and analyzed existing data from the Stand Up and Be Counted survey created by Dr. Anne Charity Hudley and Dr. Cheryl Dickter between June 2015 and April 2016. The purpose of this study centered on evaluating the extent to which exposure to institutional racism at the college affects the psychological, social, and academic realities of Black students who walk the college’s campus today. I also explored the relationship between institutional racism, stereotype threat ...


The Effect Of Diversity Ideology On The Perception Of Political Candidates Varying By Race, Karyne Nichelle Williams May 2016

The Effect Of Diversity Ideology On The Perception Of Political Candidates Varying By Race, Karyne Nichelle Williams

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous research on person perception has examined how stereotypes can affect people’s judgments of outgroup members. Research has also shown that ideology is related to prejudice and judgments about outgroups. In the current study, we examine how judgments of outgroup members are affected by a colorblind ideology versus a multicultural ideology. In Study 1, we had a national sample of participants recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 107) rate a fictional Black and White candidate on judgments related to political qualities and personal traits and complete explicit attitude measures. Results indicated that colorblind attitudes led to more negative political ...


Fed Up: Do Diet Violations Affect Implicit And Explicit Wanting And Liking In Restrained Eaters?, Gabrielle Brett Mecca May 2016

Fed Up: Do Diet Violations Affect Implicit And Explicit Wanting And Liking In Restrained Eaters?, Gabrielle Brett Mecca

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Dietary restraint is defined as a tendency to consciously restrict or control food intake. When restrained eaters consume a “forbidden food,” or a preload, they experience a diet violation that often is followed by overeating. The goals of this study were to examine whether the perception of a diet violation influences restrained eaters’ implicit and explicit liking and wanting – and whether their liking and wanting of food stimuli is related to subsequent eating patterns. We recruited female participants (n = 135) who were asked to consume a high calorie milkshake (a preload). Half of the participants were told that the preload ...


Memory, Narrative, And Identity Shifts In Modern Ireland, Erik David Nelson Apr 2016

Memory, Narrative, And Identity Shifts In Modern Ireland, Erik David Nelson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Collective memory is defined as any shared memory held by two or more members of a given social group. This type of memory has been studied intensely since Maurice Halbwachs’ introduction of the idea at the beginning of the 20th century. Until recently, cognitive scientists have not participated in the conversation on collective memory; however, one group of researchers recently introduced a model that compares individual and collective memory consolidation as analogous processes on different levels (Anastasio et al, 2012). This paper uses Anastasio’s model to explore the process of collective memory consolidation in contemporary Ireland (especially 1950-present ...


Mirror Neuron Activation Priming In Novice Versus Expert Ballet Dancers, Vanessa Duffie Apr 2016

Mirror Neuron Activation Priming In Novice Versus Expert Ballet Dancers, Vanessa Duffie

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The mirror neuron system (MNS) includes a collection of neurons in the brain that respond to the performance and observation of similar motor actions. Exploration of this system has furthered the understanding and representation of learning through imitation, action understanding, motor system activation, empathy, and language processing, among other fields of interest in cognitive neuroscience. This study explores activation of the MNS by video or audio cueing in expert ballet dancers versus non-dancers in order to demonstrate how visual and audio presentation of familiar and non-familiar movements can prime an individual’s performance on a serial motor response task. It ...


Political Attitudes And The Facial Feedback Hypothesis, Josh Albertson Apr 2016

Political Attitudes And The Facial Feedback Hypothesis, Josh Albertson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Current research has suggested that facial expressions may not only be the result of emotional experiences, but they may also play a role in shaping emotion itself. This idea, known as the Facial Feedback Hypothesis, has been supported in a number of various areas of psychology. The weak version of the hypothesis tested in this study suggests that facial feedback may intensify or inhibit an underlying emotion already present. One area of psychology untouched by the facial feedback hypothesis appears to be political evaluations. We hypothesized that activation of the zygomatic major muscle in the face (normally present when expressing ...


Emotion Regulation And Friendship: The Shield And Sword Against Adolescent Depression, Laurel Olivia Brockenberry Apr 2016

Emotion Regulation And Friendship: The Shield And Sword Against Adolescent Depression, Laurel Olivia Brockenberry

Undergraduate Honors Theses

During adolescence, the frequency of depression increases sharply, particularly for girls (Pratt & Brody, 2014). Relatedly, research indicates an association between emotion regulation skills and depression (Sanders, Zeman, Poon, & Miller, 2014), and between peer relationships and depression (Parker & Asher, 1993). The present study examined longitudinal and concurrent relations between the potential protective factors of emotional competencies and friendship quality against the development and maintenance of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Data were collected at two time points (M = 22 months) from 109 youths (T1, Mage = 12. 66 years; T2, Mage = 14. 50 years, 55. 9% female, 77. 8% White), who responded to questions assessing friendship quality with a reciprocated same-sex best friend, emotional competencies, and depressive symptomology. To gain an additional perspective, mothers reported on their child’s depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses indicated that anger dysregulation longitudinally positively predicted child-reported depressive symptoms for girls only. Sadness regulation and anger inhibition negatively predicted concurrent child-reported depression in boys only, and sadness dysregulation negatively predicted mother-reported depressive symptoms in boys only. For boys and girls, poor ...


The Role Of Impulsivity In Dietary Restraint And Counter-Regulation, Wen Winnie Zhuang Jan 2016

The Role Of Impulsivity In Dietary Restraint And Counter-Regulation, Wen Winnie Zhuang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Dietary restraint, or chronically controlling one's weight through diet, is a difficult pursuit. When faced with tempting foods, only a minority of restrained eaters manage to regulate their intake. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct implicated in addictive behaviors, may be a factor that predicts regulation. The goals of the current study were twofold: firstly, we examined the effect of consuming a diet-violating preload on state impulsivity, and secondly, we examined how dietary restraint and changes in state impulsivity interact to influence subsequent overeating. In a laboratory study, female participants (n=146) with differing levels of dietary restraint provided measures of ...


Contact And Explicit And Implicit Bias Towards Latinos/As, Jasmine Maria Koech Jan 2016

Contact And Explicit And Implicit Bias Towards Latinos/As, Jasmine Maria Koech

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The positive effects of intergroup contact on prejudice reduction have been well established, with prior research demonstrating that real or imagined contact with outgroup members can reduce implicit and explicit racial bias (e.g., Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006; Turner, Crisp, & Lambert, 2007). The current research assessed non-Latinos’ to more closely examine the relationship between contact and explicit bias (Study 1) and implicit bias (Study 2) towards Latinos. Additionally, this work examined if imagining a contact scenario with a Latino stranger was sufficient in reducing bias compared to those imagining contact with a stranger of unspecified race/ethnicity and if this effect could be mediated by alleviation of each integrated threat theory classifications (realistic threat, symbolic threat, intergroup anxiety, and negative stereotypes; Stephan & Stephan, 1996). Study 1 results indicated that the individuals with more close, current contact with Latinos exhibited lower explicit bias towards this racial/ethnic group. Study 2 replicated Study 1’s finding that current, close contact predicted explicit bias to an extent, although Study 2 provided little evidence to support that current, close contact is a predictor of implicit bias (i.e ...


Bayesian Mind: Making Sense Of Probability-Based Decision Making Strategies, Kunjoon Byun Jan 2016

Bayesian Mind: Making Sense Of Probability-Based Decision Making Strategies, Kunjoon Byun

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Bayesian probability problems are notoriously difficult for people to solve accurately. Base rate neglect refers to the hypothesis that people ignore base rate information in preference for individuating information when making these probability judgments (Kahneman & Tversky, 1973). Correct answers to base rate neglect problems often require complex Bayesian calculations involving probability information embedded within realistic event descriptions. The past research emphasis on base rate neglect responses for such problems has overlooked the fact that responses can actually vary widely across participants and within participants from one problem to the next. The verbal protocol analyses of participants’ decision making processes found ...


Individual Differences In Social Cognitive Processes Between Neurotypical College Students High And Low In Autistic Traits, Catherine Irene Mitchell Jan 2016

Individual Differences In Social Cognitive Processes Between Neurotypical College Students High And Low In Autistic Traits, Catherine Irene Mitchell

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The autism spectrum may extend into the general population, as previous work has suggested that there is a normal distribution of subclinical autistic traits among neurotypical individuals. Individuals with high levels of autistic traits display interpersonal challenges that are qualitatively similar to those exhibited by individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In ASD, social challenges may be mediated by differences in social cognition. The current study investigated to what extent social cognitive differences exist between individuals with high and low levels of subclinical autistic traits. Participants were 171 undergraduate students who scored high or low on the Autism Spectrum ...


Longitudinal Links Among Adolescent Friend Emotion Socialization, Emotion Regulation, And Internalizing Symptoms: The Role Of Gender, Kara Braunstein Jan 2016

Longitudinal Links Among Adolescent Friend Emotion Socialization, Emotion Regulation, And Internalizing Symptoms: The Role Of Gender, Kara Braunstein

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Emotion socialization is the process through which individuals learn acceptable forms of emotional expression within their particular social contexts. Although it is widely recognized that peers are a critical influence on adolescent development, most research on emotion socialization has examined parental influences on their children’s emotions (Zeman et al., 2013) with little attention paid to how friends socialize each other’s emotions. One form of emotion socialization occurs in the responses to emotional disclosures. Initial evidence indicates that specific friend emotion socialization responses to negative emotions are related to adolescents' own psychological functioning, concurrently and longitudinally (Klimes-Dougan et al ...