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The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson Aug 2018

The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson

Dissertations

Struggling older readers often have difficulty with early decoding skills (Tolman, 2005; Toste, Williams, & Capin, 2017). If they are unable to master decoding, they may have difficulty with more complex skills, such as passage reading fluency. The current study extends research on reading fluency for older students by evaluating the combined effects of a phonics procedure and a fluency-building strategy on their reading fluency. Participants were older students with below grade level reading performance who had deficits in oral reading fluency and decoding. Dependent variables were the number of correctly sorted word patterns and the number of correct words per ...


Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain Aug 2018

Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain

Dissertations

The current study investigates whether treatment preferences prior to beginning treatment are different from treatment preferences at later points in treatment, and whether preferences are related to treatment outcome. While research to date supports the notion that matching clients to treatment in line with their preferences can improve retention and outcomes, results have been equivocal. Further, this research is typically conducted by measuring preferences just one time, prior to starting treatment. It is conceivable that preferences for treatment change over time as patients become more knowledgeable about their presenting problems and about the therapy process. A total of 969 participants ...


Teaching Matching-To-Sample To Low-Performing Children With Autism, Blaire E. Michelin Jun 2018

Teaching Matching-To-Sample To Low-Performing Children With Autism, Blaire E. Michelin

Dissertations

Matching-to-sample is a basic procedure used in most programs for pre-school children with autism. However, a few children fail to acquire this skill with standard matching-to-sample procedures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method for teaching matching-to-sample to those children when the traditional methods are likely to fail. First, simple discriminations with the matching materials were taught, then the discriminations were made more complex across successive sessions. Initially, all discriminations were taught using bins to separate the comparison stimuli. All three children acquired matching-to-sample, which generalized to matching novel two-dimensional stimuli, not placed in bins.


Effects Of Multi-Day Music Enrichment On Salivary Cortisol And Cage Behavior In Shelter Dogs, Stacy D. Engerbretson Jun 2018

Effects Of Multi-Day Music Enrichment On Salivary Cortisol And Cage Behavior In Shelter Dogs, Stacy D. Engerbretson

Dissertations

Rehoming shelters provide their animals with environmental enrichment with the expectation that modifying the physical space will improve kennel-related stress and subsequently abate undesirable behaviors. Although enrichment has shown moderate success at improving in-kennel behavior, increased use of physiological measurements of stress, such as cortisol, has garnered doubt as to which canine behaviors are truly elicited by a biological state of distress. Consequently, it is unknown if past examples of successful kennel enrichment decreased biological stress in addition to affecting behavior. This study explored music’s effect on salivary cortisol and music’s potential as a long-term, kennel enrichment strategy ...


Behavioral Contrast Using A Simulated Organizational Task, Brandon M. Ring Jun 2018

Behavioral Contrast Using A Simulated Organizational Task, Brandon M. Ring

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to bridge a gap between Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) and the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB). Although OBM’s historical and scientific roots are nested within EAB, OBM research does not always strictly follow or adhere to basic research definitions or procedures. That is, terms that have specific operational definitions in EAB and Applied Behavior Analysis are sometimes used incorrectly in OBM research. Similarly, these terms are often associated with specific experimental procedures in basic literature, yet OBM research procedures may not follow the strict procedural guidelines. The purpose of the present study ...


The Effects Of Peer Observation On Teacher Intervention Integrity, Garrett D. Warrilow Jun 2018

The Effects Of Peer Observation On Teacher Intervention Integrity, Garrett D. Warrilow

Dissertations

The observer effect is a term used to describe a process during which an observer's behavior changes as they measure the behavior of another individual. The observer effect has been widely studied in organizational behavior management but has limited research with teachers in schools. The current study sought to use the observer effect as part of a teacher training package by evaluating the effects of peer observations on an observing teacher's implementation integrity of components of a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) system. Participants were four middle school teachers of students in general education classrooms. The primary ...


Increasing Waiting And Turn-Taking Among Preschool Aged Children With A Verbal-Delay Diagnosis, Alexa Hill Apr 2018

Increasing Waiting And Turn-Taking Among Preschool Aged Children With A Verbal-Delay Diagnosis, Alexa Hill

Honors Theses

The goal of this thesis was to create and implement an intervention that used errorless teaching and focused on increasing a sharing and waiting response for a student who had a verbal delay diagnosis. The two students involved in the project were both two-year-olds who attended an early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom with other preschool-aged children who had similar diagnoses. A single-subject simple baseline design was used and involved several phases designed with multiple responses to show the effectiveness of icons to facilitate sharing among two non-verbal students. Each response was prompted (when necessary) and they were all reinforced ...


Assessment For Mild Cognitive Impairment: Striving For Best Practice, Julie Leigh Dalmasso Apr 2018

Assessment For Mild Cognitive Impairment: Striving For Best Practice, Julie Leigh Dalmasso

Dissertations

This dissertation is a series of three studies aimed at determining the best assessment practices for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that can employed by speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The first study was non-experimental and descriptive examining whether three commonly used assessment instruments yielded similar categorical results. The data were analyzed to determine whether the Eight-Item Interview to Differentiate Aging and Dementia (AD8), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Cognitive-Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT) identified the same participants from a neurotypical sample as having cognitive deficits. Very little agreement was found amongst the three tools.

Study two was modified to include two ...


Web-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment And Reinforcer Assessments For Videos, Hugo Curiel Apr 2018

Web-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment And Reinforcer Assessments For Videos, Hugo Curiel

Dissertations

Stimulus preference assessments and reinforcer assessments are integral components of positive reinforcement-based interventions. Web-based brief multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments have recently been shown to be effective in identifying preference hierarchies for videos (Curiel, Curiel, Li, Deochand, & Poling, 2018). The purpose of the current studies was to replicate Curiel et al.’s web-based MSWO assessment and assess the reinforcing function of the highest and lowest identified stimuli using novel web-based reinforcer assessments. Study 1 employed single-operant arrangements (SOAs) and Study 2 employed concurrent-operants arrangements (COAs) to assess the absolute and relative reinforcing function of the identified stimuli, respectively. The ...


Investigating Generalization Of Motorist Yielding To The Gateway Prompt From The Treated Leg Of The Intersection To The Untreated Adjacent Leg, Brian J. Crowley-Koch Apr 2018

Investigating Generalization Of Motorist Yielding To The Gateway Prompt From The Treated Leg Of The Intersection To The Untreated Adjacent Leg, Brian J. Crowley-Koch

Dissertations

Pedestrian safety continues to be an important research topic, especially since recent data show a small increase in pedestrian fatalities (USGAO, 2015). There have been several interventions that prompt pedestrians, but especially motorists, to yield properly at uncontrolled crosswalks (Van Houten, 1988; Van Houten & Malenfant, 1992; Nasar, 2003; Crowley-Koch, Van Houten & Lim, 2008). One low-cost intervention that has been successful is the R1-6 in road yielding sign (Kannel, Souleyrette, & Tenges, 2003). When this sign is laid out purposefully across a crosswalk (called a gateway), it has resulted in substantial increases in yielding compared to baseline conditions. In addition to being an effective ...


Sacrificial Dynamite: The Convergence Of Developed Empathy And Ongoing Relational Experience With God: A Grounded Theory, Toran Scott Apr 2018

Sacrificial Dynamite: The Convergence Of Developed Empathy And Ongoing Relational Experience With God: A Grounded Theory, Toran Scott

Dissertations

This grounded theory study examined how participants described and reflected on their lives and what led them to choose sacrifice. The study was grounded in a Christian understanding of sacrifice, defined as the willful giving up of one’s positions or possessions for the sake of serving others. Using in-depth, open-ended interviews and follow-up interviews to co-construct meaning, participants were asked to reflect on their childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood to reflect on and describe any messages, relationships, or experiences that they thought contributed to their eventual choice to sacrifice. The interviews were free-flowing and filled with beautiful and engaging ...


Further Development Of A Supervision System For Behavior Analysts To Support Evidence-Based Supervision Practices, Katie Lynn Garza Apr 2018

Further Development Of A Supervision System For Behavior Analysts To Support Evidence-Based Supervision Practices, Katie Lynn Garza

Dissertations

Effective supervision for individuals seeking certification from the Behavior Analyst Certification Board® (BACB) has been a recent focus in the field of behavior analysis (BACB, 2012). While the organizational behavior management (OBM) literature is rich with evidence for specific performance-improvement techniques, there is a lack of research on supervision systems specifically for supervising individuals seeking to obtain the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) credential. Furthermore, studies to date have not examined what it takes for systems to meet their missional objectives while simultaneously providing training and supervision to trainees. This descriptive, process-oriented study sought to analyze the disconnects within a ...


Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle Apr 2018

Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle

Dissertations

Lovaas (1987) applied behavior analysis to the treatment of autism and demonstrated a 47% “recovery” rate. He also reported that around 10% of the population that received his services made little-to-no improvement. The present study used a response-to-intervention framework to systematically identify and treat students in an early childhood, special-education classroom who were in danger of falling within that 10%. This study set out to identify, classify, and differentiate the treatment based on the student’s response to the standard classroom intervention. Improvements in multiple students’ rates of acquisition based on this system were recorded. This indicated a possibility of ...


Mixing Matching And Sabermetrics: Combining Advanced Analytics And The Generalized Matching Law In Nfl Football Play-Calling, Jacob Bradley Apr 2018

Mixing Matching And Sabermetrics: Combining Advanced Analytics And The Generalized Matching Law In Nfl Football Play-Calling, Jacob Bradley

Dissertations

The fields of advanced analytics in sports and quantitative analysis of behavior as it applies to sports have developed independently over the last several decades. Both fields share the common goal of using a quantitative approach to describe and predict behavior within sports beyond the common traditional verbal accounts. To date, the two fields have not directly intersected. The current study provides an overview of advanced analytics and quantitative analysis of behavior in sports, demonstrates how the two fields can be combined to better account for the behavioral processes involved in decision-making in sports, and identifies several possible ways the ...


The Abrahamics On Depression, Rhyan Wengorovious Dec 2017

The Abrahamics On Depression, Rhyan Wengorovious

Honors Theses

This study provides an understanding of the relationship between the Abrahamic religions and depression at Western Michigan University. It covers both causes and treatments from explanatory models of Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Interviews of clergy members from each religion (from the Kalamazoo, MI area) were conducted and analyzed. A large focus of the study regards aspects of each religion that provide protective factors from depression, beliefs on why depression occurs and treatment plans suggested for depressed individuals. Similarities and differences between the three religions are considered.


Teaching Students Who Have Difficulty Mastering Lmitation, Jennifer Mrljak Dec 2017

Teaching Students Who Have Difficulty Mastering Lmitation, Jennifer Mrljak

Dissertations

Some children with autism are unable to acquire imitation despite receiving early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) meant to teach that and other important skills. Many EIBI programs use physical-prompting hierarchies either as a component of the discriminative stimulus or the correction procedure following an error (Lovaas, 1981; Maurice, Green, & Luce, 1996). But even after lengthy exposure to these teaching techniques, some children still do not acquire imitative repertoires. In the present study, working with students who were not acquiring imitative repertoires, we started with shaping the initial imitative responses as a method to gain stimulus control and then introduced physical ...


Addressing Common Mental Health Issues Prevalent Among Honors College Students, Steven Pham Aug 2017

Addressing Common Mental Health Issues Prevalent Among Honors College Students, Steven Pham

Honors Theses

The prevalence and severity of mental health disorders on college campuses has been increasing nationwide. This review aims to address some of the prevalent mental health issues that continuously plague college students today. Recent trends in college student mental health are analyzed as well as literature regarding common disorders including depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. A comparison of honors and non-honors students is provided to contribute to an otherwise lacking area of research surrounding honors student populations. Effective practices and policies for colleges and universities to incorporate into their counseling services are also considered, with viable goals centering on the ...


Investigation Of A Mindfulness-Based Intervention With Survivors Of Interpersonal Violence, Laura Elise Stayton Aug 2017

Investigation Of A Mindfulness-Based Intervention With Survivors Of Interpersonal Violence, Laura Elise Stayton

Dissertations

Interpersonal violence is a widespread problem that includes intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control in 2010 reported that approximately 1 in 5 women and 1 in 59 men have suffered sexual assault in their lifetime (Breiding et al., 2014). In addition, 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been a victim of physical violence perpetrated by an intimate partner (Breiding et al., 2014). A number of potential negative consequences of interpersonal violence exposure include the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, substance ...


Examination Of The Effects Of Computer Assisted Mindfulness Strategies With Adolescents In An Alternative High School Setting, Justin A. Moore Aug 2017

Examination Of The Effects Of Computer Assisted Mindfulness Strategies With Adolescents In An Alternative High School Setting, Justin A. Moore

Dissertations

Based on growing evidence that suggests mindfulness practices may improve psychological functioning, recent decades have seen a surge in mindfulness interventions and the use of technology as a means for teaching them. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of four weeks of (twice weekly) training sessions using two computer-based strategies for teaching mindfulness-related skills to adolescents. The strategies included Breath Counting Training (BCT; Levinson et al., 2014) and Self-Compassion Training (SCT; Weng et al., 2013; Alberston, Neff, and Dill-Shackleford, 2014). Twenty adolescents (M age = 17.30; 40% male, 55% female, 5% gender neutral; 60% African ...


Sex Differences In Serotonergic And Dopaminergic Mediation Of Lsd Discrimination In Rats, Keli A. Herr Aug 2017

Sex Differences In Serotonergic And Dopaminergic Mediation Of Lsd Discrimination In Rats, Keli A. Herr

Dissertations

After decades of opposition, a resurgence of interest in the psychotherapeutic potential of LSD is gaining acceptance in the medical community. Future acceptance of LSD as a psychotherapeutic adjuvant may be predicated on knowledge about its neural mechanisms of action. Preclinical drug discrimination assay offers an invaluable model to determine the neural mechanisms underlying LSD’s interoceptive stimulus effects. Unfortunately, current preclinical literature on LSD discrimination is based on results obtained exclusively in male subjects. The present study represents the first known preclinical assessment of possible sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD.

Adult female (n=8) and ...


Effects Of Early Adolescent Exposure To D-Amphetamine In A Rodent Model Of Nicotine Reward, Eric Louis Harvey Aug 2017

Effects Of Early Adolescent Exposure To D-Amphetamine In A Rodent Model Of Nicotine Reward, Eric Louis Harvey

Dissertations

Previous studies with rodents have found that adolescent exposure to psychoactive drugs can alter neurophysiology and produce behavioral effects that persist into adulthood. While several studies have examined the effects of adolescent exposure to nicotine on the subsequent rewarding value of various drugs of abuse in adulthood, to date, no known studies have examined the converse of this relationship. d-Amphetamine (i.e., dextroamphetamine, ProCentra®) is a potent psychostimulant that is commonly used in the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. The present study assessed the effects of adolescent exposure to d-amphetamine on the rewarding value of ...


Implementing The Primary Care Behavioral Health Model In A Pediatric Setting: Description, Satisfaction, And Potential Economic Outcomes, Rachel A. Petts Aug 2017

Implementing The Primary Care Behavioral Health Model In A Pediatric Setting: Description, Satisfaction, And Potential Economic Outcomes, Rachel A. Petts

Dissertations

There is growing support for the value of integrating behavioral health consultants (BHCs) into primary care medical offices to address mental and behavioral health concerns; however, the actual practice of BHCs in pediatrics and associated patient and provider experience is largely unknown. Descriptive data from patient contacts with three BHCs in a large pediatric primary care practice examined the nature of, and patient and provider satisfaction with, the integrated behavioral health services provided. Over the course of 6 months of data collection, 109 patient contacts were recorded. The mean age of the patients served was 9.51 (SD = 4.38 ...


Evaluating The Effects Of A Self-Management Program With A Peer-Mediated Praise Procedure, Sean P. Field Jun 2017

Evaluating The Effects Of A Self-Management Program With A Peer-Mediated Praise Procedure, Sean P. Field

Dissertations

Research has shown self-management to be a powerful tool that can assist students in establishing and maintaining a range of targeted behaviors including increasing academic performance, increasing independence, and the reduction of problem behavior. However, researchers continue to seek means to implement self-management programs that further increase independence for the student as well as promote greater generalization of established skills. One potential means of achieving this is through the use of peers, as they may allow for greater access to reinforcement. Additionally, the use of peers allows for the reduction or removal of additional demands on teachers and classroom staff ...


Self-Management As A Class-Wide Intervention: An Evaluation Of The “Self & Match” System Embedded Within A Dependent Group Contingency, Andrew J. Bulla Jun 2017

Self-Management As A Class-Wide Intervention: An Evaluation Of The “Self & Match” System Embedded Within A Dependent Group Contingency, Andrew J. Bulla

Dissertations

The U.S. Department of Education (2015) indicated that about 95% of students with special education eligibility receive some form of education in the general education setting. Students with disabilities tend to engage in more disruptive behaviors than their non-disabled peers (e.g., Murphy, Beadle-Brown, Wing, Gould, Shah, & Homes, 2005). If teachers are spending more time managing disruptive behaviors, time allocated to instruction is lost. Self-management is one evidence-based intervention that has shown consistent effects on increasing on-task behavior and decreasing disruptive behaviors. Although feasible at the individual level, previous research has identified that class-wide self-management interventions may be efficacious ...


Effects Of Low Dose Mixtures Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And Cocaine On Locomotor Activity And Brain Monoamine Content In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Robert J. Kohler Jun 2017

Effects Of Low Dose Mixtures Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And Cocaine On Locomotor Activity And Brain Monoamine Content In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Robert J. Kohler

Master's Theses

Synthetic cathinones, known as “bath salts” on the illicit drug market, pose a significant and growing public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of the illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV + 5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline. Locomotor activity was assessed for one hour immediately ...


Toilet-Training A Child With Autism In A School Setting, Kristianna Ferrier Apr 2017

Toilet-Training A Child With Autism In A School Setting, Kristianna Ferrier

Honors Theses

Children with autism and developmental disabilities typically take longer to learn skills. Specific training that requires more repetition to obtain mastery should be used to teach specific tasks (MacDuff, Kratz, & McClannahan, 2001). Toilet training is no exception and must be directly taught to children with Autism. Toilet training is a fundamental skill for independent living and greatly reduces the work load of care givers (Chung, 2007). The child in this study was chosen based on a toilet training readiness checklist. The present study is a combination of the scheduled sitting protocol by Azrin and Foxx (1971) with the omission of ...


Within-Session Progressive Gestural-Prompt Delay To Teach Receptive Identification, Breanne Stiemsma Apr 2017

Within-Session Progressive Gestural-Prompt Delay To Teach Receptive Identification, Breanne Stiemsma

Honors Theses

Receptive identification skills are important for any child to learn. Without these skills, various aspects of development can become impaired. There are many ways to teach receptive identification. This project pulled ideas from previous studies on within-session progressive gestural-prompt delays as well as the different methods of teaching receptive identification skills, simple-conditional method and the condition-only method. The student was not acquiring receptive identification skills with the traditional methods used in the classroom. Within-session progressive gestural-prompt delay was used in this project to teach receptive identification of objects. An AB single-subject design was used in this project. The student responded ...


Teaching Two Children Diagnosed With Autism To Tolerate Physical Contact, Kelsey Webster Apr 2017

Teaching Two Children Diagnosed With Autism To Tolerate Physical Contact, Kelsey Webster

Honors Theses

It was hypothesized that the fading in of a prompt hierarchy coinciding with the delivery of tangibles, edibles, and attention or praise reinforcers would decrease problem behavior and noncompliance in two male children with autism who displayed problem behavior and resistance while being physically prompted. A single-subject research design was used to present the prompt hierarchy across various conditions in a school setting. Both participants initially engaged in problem behavior on 100% of the trials but quickly reduced in intensity of problem behaviors by the end of the intervention. There is no current research conducted on how to decrease problem ...


Increasing Shared Attention In Children With Developmental Delays, Shelby Esman Apr 2017

Increasing Shared Attention In Children With Developmental Delays, Shelby Esman

Honors Theses

Joint attention behaviors may be essential to the development of language and social interaction skills (Whalen and Schreibman, 2003). Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often lack these behaviors which may explain the difficulty many of them have communicating appropriately with others (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Previous research has shown that prompting procedures and social reinforcement have been successful in teaching children with ASD to shift their eye gaze between an adult and the object of interest when prompted to do so (Taylor and Hoch, 2008). This present study set out to create and test a procedure designed to teach ...


Teaching Imitation To Children With Autism Using Most-To-Least Prompt Fading In Front Of A Mirror, Giulia Avelar Apr 2017

Teaching Imitation To Children With Autism Using Most-To-Least Prompt Fading In Front Of A Mirror, Giulia Avelar

Honors Theses

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty acquiring imitative skills, which may serve as an important factor in developing social skills and language (Miller et al., 2015; Ledford & Wolery, 2010; Young et al., 1994). Research has shown that most-to-least prompting is most effective for children who do not learn quickly (Libby et al., 2008). The goal of this study was to discover whether the presence of a mirror affected the rate of acquisition of imitative behaviors compared to a no-mirror condition, using most-to-least within-session prompt fading. This study used a multiple baseline design across sets of behaviors. Sets of behaviors were ...