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Effects Of Aging And Reward Motivation On Non-Verbal Recognition Memory, Meagan D. Luttrell Oct 2016

Effects Of Aging And Reward Motivation On Non-Verbal Recognition Memory, Meagan D. Luttrell

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

There is a long history of research on the effects of reward motivation on memory, but there are still questions concerning how such motivational variables affect memory. In a study that examined the influence of reward anticipation on episodic memory, Adcock, Thangavel, Whitfield-Gabireli, Knutson, and Gabrieli (2006) found that memory was better for scenes preceded by high value reward cues than low value cues (see also Cushman, 2012; Spaniol, Schain, & Bowen, 2013). More recently, Castel, Murayama, Friedman, McGillivray, & Link (2013) observed that anticipation of reward influences selective attention to “to be remembered” (TBR) words and the memories that are formed ...


What Is Professionalism? The Validation Of A Comprehensive Model Of Professionalism, Andrew W. Rowland Oct 2016

What Is Professionalism? The Validation Of A Comprehensive Model Of Professionalism, Andrew W. Rowland

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Professionalism is a term frequently used in organizations yet perceptions of what it means differ from person to person. Given its frequent use and its link to various job outcomes, such as organizational commitment (Bartol, 1979), there is a need to have a universal definition of professionalism. While there are existing models of professionalism these models are typically developed for a specific field or industry. Thus, there is also a need for a comprehensive model of professionalism that can be used across multiple fields and industries. This study worked to develop a model of professionalism that creates a comprehensive model ...


Differences In Depression, Anxiety, And Life Satisfaction Between Intercollegiate Athletes, Intramural Participants, And Non-Athletes, Megan Wilson Oct 2016

Differences In Depression, Anxiety, And Life Satisfaction Between Intercollegiate Athletes, Intramural Participants, And Non-Athletes, Megan Wilson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

It is widely supported that participation in athletics is positively correlated with increased overall health. However, some research indicates that participation in increased levels of competition is positively correlated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. This means, that if compared, athletes competing nationally or internationally would report higher levels of both depression and anxiety than athletes competing at the intercollegiate level. Research indicates that this could be caused by increased amounts of pressure, personal cost, and expectation.

This study examines potential differences between intercollegiate, intramural, and non-athletes in these areas on a college campus. The first hypothesis is that ...


Student Dropout Indicators In Kentucky Kid-Friendly Race-To-The-Top Schools, Candace M. Elliott Jul 2016

Student Dropout Indicators In Kentucky Kid-Friendly Race-To-The-Top Schools, Candace M. Elliott

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined the trend of ten dropout indicators between various grade levels and focused on those indicators that can be changed, such as attendance or grades, versus those factors that cannot be changed by the student (i.e., their socioeconomic status). The study consisted of 111 Race-to-the-Top Schools from 22 districts in the Green River Regional Educational Cooperative (GRREC) and the Ohio Valley Educational Cooperative (OVEC) in Kentucky. A total of 18,072 students in fourth, sixth, eighth, ninth, and eleventh grades completed the 10-item dropout indicator survey. Results of the Chi-square analysis indicate that percentages of agreement on ...


Understanding Posttraumatic Stress And Academic Achievement: Exploring Attentional Control, Self-Efficacy, And Coping Among College Students, Ashley M. Cantrell Jul 2016

Understanding Posttraumatic Stress And Academic Achievement: Exploring Attentional Control, Self-Efficacy, And Coping Among College Students, Ashley M. Cantrell

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study examined differences in attentional control, attentional control self-efficacy, and coping as self-regulatory mechanisms among students with varying grade point averages (GPA) who experience posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Subjects included 58 college students from one large comprehensive university in the Mid-South who met the criteria for diagnosis of PTSS based on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Three groups were created based on college GPA and graduation requirements at the university (at-risk for graduation, on-track for graduation, and ontrack for graduating with honors). Participants completed a survey that included demographics and measures of PTSS, attentional control, attentional control ...


The Relationship Between Personal Factors, Work Factors, Ptsd, And Suicide Ideation In Emergency Medical Service Providers, Faith Joy Boldt Jul 2016

The Relationship Between Personal Factors, Work Factors, Ptsd, And Suicide Ideation In Emergency Medical Service Providers, Faith Joy Boldt

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

EMS providers work in a high-stress environment and are routinely exposed to critical incidents. Many providers are left to deal with the chronic stress on their own, either because of lack of effective employer-based programs or a culture that discourages its use. The extent to which these factors -- as well as personal characteristics such as resilience, PTG, and coping skills -- influence PTSD and suicide ideation among EMS providers has not been well studied among EMS providers. An online survey was administered to a convenience sample of EMS providers. Of the 2,683 respondents, more than one quarter (27.7%) met ...


Parent Predictors Of Infant Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Angelica Marie Soto-Freita Jul 2016

Parent Predictors Of Infant Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Angelica Marie Soto-Freita

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The development of emotion regulation skills is an imperative task early in development. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a physiological proxy of regulation, is indicative of one’s regulatory capacity and can be predictive of behavior in later life (Graham, Ablow, & Measelle, 2010; Moore, 2010). Children begin regulating their emotions at a physiological level early in infancy. Infants who are able to properly suppress RSA have higher quality social interactions in childhood (Graziano, Keane, & Calkins, 2007). Previous work has suggested that parents play a role in predicting infant RSA (Conradt & Ablow, 2010). For example, parent marital satisfaction is known to impact infants’ physiological regulation, such that infants whose parents are less satisfied with their marriages have a decreased ability to regulate physiologically (Moore et al., 2009; Porter, Wouden-Miller, Silva, & Porter, 2003). Previous research has found that parent personality impacts parenting strategies (Cummings & Davies, 1994; Prinzie, Stams, Deković, Reijntjes, & Belsky, 2009), however work examining how parent personality interacts with marital satisfaction to predict infant RSA is lacking. Moreover, the majority of previous work assessing the parent predictors of infant RSA focused on mothers (e.g., Moore et al., 2009). There are known differences in the way mothers and fathers interact with their infants, as well as differences in the way fathers and mothers respond to marital dissatisfaction (Forbes, Cohn, Allen, & Lewinsohn, 2004; Karney & Bradbury, 1995). The present study focused on examining how marital satisfaction and parent personality predicts infant RSA with mothers and fathers. The current study involved 38 families (6-month old infants, mothers, and fathers). Parents completed questionnaires measuring marital satisfaction and personality. Mother-infant and fatherinfant dyads participated in a baseline and face-to-face play task (Still Face Paradigm; Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978), where infant physiological regulation was assessed. Results involving mothers did not yield significant findings predicting ...


The Influence Of Happy Faces On Spatiotemporal Vision, Siera Nicole Bramschreiber Jul 2016

The Influence Of Happy Faces On Spatiotemporal Vision, Siera Nicole Bramschreiber

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Past research demonstrates that fearful faces lead to an increase in temporal and a decrease in spatial gap detection, an effect proposed to be caused by a flow of input to the magnocellular pathways from the amygdala to the visual system (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009). The amygdala is also active for positive and arousing stimuli, including happy faces. The current study extends past research by presenting happy facial cues just before a gap detection task. Facial stimuli (i.e., happy/neutral faces) were presented in the periphery of the receptive field and quickly followed by a Landolt circle. Half of the ...


Duration Of Time Spent Playing Online Video Games, Interpersonal Skills, And Introversion Personality Traits As Predictors For Social Anxiety Symptoms, James D. Bender Jul 2016

Duration Of Time Spent Playing Online Video Games, Interpersonal Skills, And Introversion Personality Traits As Predictors For Social Anxiety Symptoms, James D. Bender

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study sought to determine if time spent engaging in online gaming, interpersonal communication skills, and introvert personality traits are predictors of an individual’s likelihood of experiencing symptoms of social anxiety. A sample of 128 participants (82 males and 46 females) completed measures of demographics, interpersonal communication skills, problematic online gaming, social anxiety, and introversion. Participants were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. There were significant correlations among social anxiety and interpersonal communication skills, problematic online gaming, and introversion. There was no significant correlation among social anxiety and time spent playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG), a specific form ...


Evaluating Current Practices In Brief Experimental Analysis, Alex P. Isbill Jul 2016

Evaluating Current Practices In Brief Experimental Analysis, Alex P. Isbill

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Brief experimental analysis (BEA) has shown to be an effective method of rapidly testing the relative effects of two or more interventions in order to determine interventions that best supports a student’s learning. Little research has been found in regards to the consistency of methods across studies. A meta-analysis in 2008 by Burns and Wagner looked at BEAs that assessed oral reading fluency and provided recommendations for future practice. This study investigates the methods, procedures, and outcomes in BEA studies from 1994 to 2016. The findings of this study are compared to Burns and Wagner’s (2008) recommendations from ...


The Effect Of Emotional Faces On The Attentional Blink In Younger And Older Adults, Allison M. Sklenar Jul 2016

The Effect Of Emotional Faces On The Attentional Blink In Younger And Older Adults, Allison M. Sklenar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The attentional blink occurs when detection of a second target (T2) is impaired when it occurs between 180 to 450 ms after the first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). The attentional blink can be affected by relevant emotional stimuli, like emotional faces, such that an emotional T1 enhances the attentional blink, and an emotional T2 attenuates it. However, not all studies use the same type of face stimuli, and there is debate over whether schematic and photo-realistic faces are processed in the same way. Furthermore, the effect of emotion on the attentional blink should differ with ...


Self-Regulation In Preschoolers: Validity Of Hot And Cool Tasks As Predictive Measures Of Academic And Socio-Emotional Aspects Of School Readiness, Berenice Anaya Jul 2016

Self-Regulation In Preschoolers: Validity Of Hot And Cool Tasks As Predictive Measures Of Academic And Socio-Emotional Aspects Of School Readiness, Berenice Anaya

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Extensive research on the development of self-regulation has demonstrated that better executive functioning and effortful control during the preschool years are associated with greater kindergarten and early school achievement. Recent findings suggest that self-regulation tasks differ in their assessment of “hot” and “cool” regulation, how these processes map onto effortful control and executive functioning, and may predict school readiness. However, only a few studies have examined the validity of hot and cool regulation tasks (Allan & Lonigan, 2014; Di Norcia, Pecora, Bombi, Baumgartner, & Laghi, 2015; Willoughby, Kupersmidt, Voegler-Lee, & Bryant, 2011), and how they predict socio-emotional competence (Di Norcia et al., 2015) and academic performance (Kim ...


Effects Of Age, Task Type, And Information Load On Discrimination Learning, Morgan E. Brown Jul 2016

Effects Of Age, Task Type, And Information Load On Discrimination Learning, Morgan E. Brown

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The feature positive effect (FPE) is a phenomenon in discrimination learning by which learning occurs more quickly when the presence (Feature positive; FP), rather than absence (Feature negative; FN) of a stimulus indicates a response should be made. Although the FPE has been extensively corroborated, a reversal, or feature negative effect (FNE), has been found when a target stimulus comes from a smaller set of stimuli (Fiedler, Eckert, & Poysiak, 1988). Age differences in FP and FN learning indicate that older adults perform more poorly than young adults on both FP and FN tasks, and are likely related to decline in ...


Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Characteristics As Predictors Of A Suicide Attempt, Kandice M. Perry Jul 2016

Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Characteristics As Predictors Of A Suicide Attempt, Kandice M. Perry

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examines the impact features of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) have on predicting a suicide attempt in a sample of young adult self-injurers. Participants completed the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury, the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire and demographics questionnaires to assess lifetime self-injury frequency, number of different methods used, severity of methods, the desire to stop self-harming, functions, the experience of pain, and response latency. Results indicated that NSSI frequency, high severity methods, and endorsing more intrapersonal functions predicted the presence of a suicide attempt. Additionally, those who experienced pain while selfinjuring were found to be significantly more likely to report ...


Beauty In Snowflakes: Complexity And Visual Aesthetics, Olivia C. Adkins Apr 2016

Beauty In Snowflakes: Complexity And Visual Aesthetics, Olivia C. Adkins

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Experimental aesthetics research has been conducted since the nineteenth century. Interestingly, however, few studies have examined the perceived beauty of naturally shaped objects. In the current experiment, 204 participants were presented with a set of ten snowflake silhouettes that varied in complexity (perimeter relative to area); they were similarly presented with ten randomly-shaped, computer-generated, solid objects that also varied in complexity. For each stimulus set, the participants selected the single snowflake or object that was the most beautiful (Fechner’s method of choice). The results for the solid objects replicated the findings of earlier research: the most and least complex ...


An Analysis Of School Psychology Journal Articles And Annual Convenion Program Presentations, Katrina Lynn Handschuh Plowman Apr 2016

An Analysis Of School Psychology Journal Articles And Annual Convenion Program Presentations, Katrina Lynn Handschuh Plowman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Ethics is a topic of great importance for professional school psychologists. The National Association of School Psychologists’ (NASP) Principles for Professional Ethics is a document that originated in 1974 and was most recently revised in 2010. The function of this document is to guide school psychologists’ conduct in their professional careers. This study examines the content of school psychology journals, the NASP school psychology newspaper, and NASP convention abstracts from the last 16 years to evaluate the ethical topics being discussed within the school psychology community. A search of the publications related to ethics provides answers to several questions while ...


Improving Head Start Teachers' Concept Development: Long Term Follow-Up Of A Training Program And Differences In Program Impact, Amanda Kr Lipp Apr 2016

Improving Head Start Teachers' Concept Development: Long Term Follow-Up Of A Training Program And Differences In Program Impact, Amanda Kr Lipp

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Children from a low socioeconomic status (SES) home environment are typically exposed to less vocabulary during the first few years of life and experience higher rates of poor school readiness, particularly in emergent literacy skills, when compared to middle-class peers (Bowey, 1995; Hart & Risley, 2003; Whitehurst, 1997). Early childhood education programs designed to expose this group to cognitively challenging utterances have found that low SES children tend to make greater gains in vocabulary development compared to middle-class peers (Justice, Meier, & Walpole, 2005).


The Underlying Dynamics Of Student Engagement On Thesis Completion, Nikolaj Sivek Apr 2016

The Underlying Dynamics Of Student Engagement On Thesis Completion, Nikolaj Sivek

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Engagement is an increasingly important construct in organizational and educational settings. Research indicates that engagement is positively related to satisfaction, commitment, and performance in the workplace. This study investigated the relationship of Total Engagement to complete a thesis with Self-Determination Theory individual motivational constructs, the personality constructs of Psychological Capital and Core Self-Evaluations, and the experiential construct of Flow Propensity. The results indicated significant relationships between all constructs and engagement. Further, Psychological Capital and Flow Propensity explained 55% of the variance in Total Engagement to complete a thesis.


Insecurity Threat And Its Implications For Leadership Preference, Allen Lee Apr 2016

Insecurity Threat And Its Implications For Leadership Preference, Allen Lee

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

I investigated insecurity threat and its implications for employee leadership preferences. Preferences for three types of leadership style were examined: charismatic, relationship-oriented, and task-oriented leadership. It was anticipated that individuals’ salient work values would predict leadership preference more strongly after insecurity threat than under control conditions. Two different types of threats were investigated in comparison to a neutral control condition.

Results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in leader ratings between threat conditions. My results suggest that threat does not significantly influence preference for charismatic or task-oriented leaders. Work values did not significantly predict a preference for a ...


Impact Of Assumption Violations On The Accuracy Of Direct Range Restriction Adjustments, Austin J. Hall Apr 2016

Impact Of Assumption Violations On The Accuracy Of Direct Range Restriction Adjustments, Austin J. Hall

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

For decades researchers, analysts, and organizational professionals have utilized correction equations to adjust for the effects of various statistical artifacts. However, every correction method has certain assumptions that must be satisfied to work properly. These assumptions are likely rarely satisfied for range restriction corrections. As a result, these correction methods are used in a manner that can lead to incorrect results.

The current study employed a Monte Carlo design to examine the direct range restriction correction. Analyses were conducted to examine the accuracy of adjustments made with the direct range restriction correction when its assumption of perfect top-down selection was ...


The Communication Patterns And Experiences Of Children In Single Parent Families, Jessica Cherry Apr 2016

The Communication Patterns And Experiences Of Children In Single Parent Families, Jessica Cherry

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study gained the perspective of children from single parent families and explored their family communication patterns. An inductive, qualitative approach was used. Interviews were conducted with eleven participants gathered from undergraduate classes, who had lived with their single parent for a minimum of 3 years. Four major themes emerged from the data: communication, challenges and triumphs, structure, and how parents came to be single. The majority of participants appeared to exhibited pluralistic family communication patterns. Results also revealed the importance of open communication in single parent families and what they learned through their experiences living with their custodial parent ...


Developing A Measure Assessing Virtual Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Samuel Louis Galbraith Apr 2016

Developing A Measure Assessing Virtual Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Samuel Louis Galbraith

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In a time when technology is an integral part of life, virtual workplaces are becoming more of a staple in organizations and will likely continue to do so as technology use increases (Cascio, 2000). Due to the rise in virtual workplaces, employees are interacting face-to-face less, and organizations are requiring more from them. Employees must perform behaviors that are outside of their formal job description. These positive behaviors are considered to be organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), which are employee behaviors that promote organizational effectiveness that are not part of an employee’s formal job description and are therefore not formally ...


Suicidal Ideation In Patients Hospitalized For Emergency Medical Treatment Related To Physical Trauma: Effects Of Posttraumatic Stress And Depression, Erin E. Carney Apr 2016

Suicidal Ideation In Patients Hospitalized For Emergency Medical Treatment Related To Physical Trauma: Effects Of Posttraumatic Stress And Depression, Erin E. Carney

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Survivors of physical trauma may be at increased risk for developing suicidal ideation and behavior both during and after their inpatient hospitalization for medical treatment of wounds. It remains to be understood why a population hospitalized for nonpsychiatric reasons may ultimately develop a desire to take their own life. The current study sought to answer this question by hypothesizing that symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depression during the recovery period individually mediated the relationship between physical pain and suicidal ideation. Researchers assessed these relationships in 246 patients who were receiving emergency medical treatment for wounds associated with a physically ...


Participation In Organizational Health And Wellness Programs, Sarah C. Adams Apr 2016

Participation In Organizational Health And Wellness Programs, Sarah C. Adams

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Health and wellness programs are being utilized by organizations at growing rates. Research on health and wellness programs is typically confined to the program of a single organization and the employees participating in that specific program. Typically, this research examines the outcomes of health and wellness programs in organizations, such as return on investment in terms of medical costs, as well as improvements in the health of the employees. However, little information is known about those who choose to participate in health and wellness programs and the characteristics that may influence their participation.

This study examined the relationship between demographic ...


A Review Of Court Cases Involving Cognitive Ability Testing And Employment Practices: 1992-2015, Nicholas H. Morris Apr 2016

A Review Of Court Cases Involving Cognitive Ability Testing And Employment Practices: 1992-2015, Nicholas H. Morris

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This review is an extension of a study by Shoenfelt and Pedigo (2005). The purpose of this review is to help form an understanding of how the courts handle cases where an organization has used a cognitive ability test to select employees and consequently faced charges. Cognitive ability testing is the best known predictor of job performance for a wide range of jobs. However, cognitive ability testing also is known to lead organizations to select fewer members of protected groups, such as African Americans, Hispanics, and women. The cases that were reviewed were identified in the LexisNexis database. In order ...


The Consistency Of Ratings On The Cab-T Executive Functioning Scale As Compared To The Brief, Briese C. Chapman Apr 2016

The Consistency Of Ratings On The Cab-T Executive Functioning Scale As Compared To The Brief, Briese C. Chapman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Executive functioning is an umbrella term used to describe abilities that include self-monitoring, goal-setting, planning, organization, attention, and working memory. Broadband behavior rating scales are commonly used by school psychologists and the instruments often now include an executive functioning scale. It is unknown, however, how these scales, based on a few items, compare to more extensive rating scales that solely measure executive functioning. The current study examined the overall consistency between the executive functioning scale on one broadband instrument to another instrument that assesses multiple areas of executive functioning by having teachers complete both instruments at the same point in ...


The Relationship And Consistency In Ratings Between The Conners 3 Executive Functioning Scale And The Behavior Rating Inventory Of Executive Functioning, Lauren R. Lamar Apr 2016

The Relationship And Consistency In Ratings Between The Conners 3 Executive Functioning Scale And The Behavior Rating Inventory Of Executive Functioning, Lauren R. Lamar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Broadband behavior rating scales are commonly used in schools to gain data to help make critical decisions about a student’s educational programming and whether he or she is eligible to receive special education services. Several broadband behavior rating scales are beginning to include a scale that assesses executive functioning. This study investigated how scores from an executive functioning scale on a broadband behavior rating scale (Conners 3, Conners, 2008) compared to an established scale that only measures executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF], Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000). Teachers completed both scales at the same point ...


Do Psychological Contract Perceptions Mediate The Relationship Between Procedural Fairness And Prosocial Behavioral Intentions Under Conditions Of Uncertainty Threat?, Kayla D. Finuf Apr 2016

Do Psychological Contract Perceptions Mediate The Relationship Between Procedural Fairness And Prosocial Behavioral Intentions Under Conditions Of Uncertainty Threat?, Kayla D. Finuf

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Organizational justice and citizenship behaviors are important components that contribute to an organization’s overall effectiveness. Additionally, when an employee enters into a new organization, they form psychological contracts with their employer that consists of elements such as fairness and consultation. This study aimed to integrate the literature on organizational justice, psychological contract, and organizational citizenship behaviors, as well as look at the possible effects uncertainty may play. Specifically, it was proposed that psychological contract would mediate the moderating effects of uncertainty and justice in predicting prosocial behavioral intentions. Results did not support the hypothesis. Interestingly, however, identification with the ...


Mediating Factors In The Relationship Between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury And Suicide Attempt, Amanda Gail Williams Apr 2016

Mediating Factors In The Relationship Between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury And Suicide Attempt, Amanda Gail Williams

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is considered a strong predictor of suicidal behavior, although the exact relationship between NSSI and suicide is not clear. Several factors have been suggested in previous research, including attitudes toward one’s own body, thoughts and beliefs regarding death and suicide, and the ability to cause physical harm to oneself. In the current study, the researcher obtained data from 285 young adult participants who reported a history of NSSI. Two multiple mediation models were tested in which body protection, suicide-related concerns, and acquired capability for suicide were examined as mediators of the relationship between NSSI and suicide ...


Optimal Motivation And Cognitive Load For Enhanced Math Performance, Manooch S. Saeedi Apr 2016

Optimal Motivation And Cognitive Load For Enhanced Math Performance, Manooch S. Saeedi

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Educational research has a long history of investigating factors that are linked to improved academic performance. Here I examined research on three factors that impact academic performance—working memory (WM), cognitive load, and motivation. Although each of these factors were known to impact academic performance, there were no studies that examined the combined effect of these three factors on performance. The current study attempted to examine the potential connections between these factors, and their collective impact on strategies for learning in the context of math performance. Experiment 1 tested the impact of WM, cognitive load, and motivation for a math ...