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Essences And Transformations In Objects, Animals, And Humans, Alicia Brooke Smith Dec 2010

Essences And Transformations In Objects, Animals, And Humans, Alicia Brooke Smith

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Research as to how humans group natural kinds, such as animals, is essential to understanding categorization processes. However, it lacks conventional application and generalization to everyday life. Humans are social beings that encounter a wide array of individuals on a daily basis. In these situations, we are required to consider various properties that make up these people. As Keller (2005) suggests, the way we categorize is shaped by our theories about the world. Therefore, when we determine the rationale behind people’s social categorization processes, we are better able to understand people’s perceptions of their social environment. Moreover, when ...


Socio-Cultural Adjustment Of International Students As Expatriates In America, Li Zhao Dec 2010

Socio-Cultural Adjustment Of International Students As Expatriates In America, Li Zhao

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined the relationships between international students’ ethnic identity, self-efficacy, uncertainty avoidance, and their socio-cultural adjustment. A total of 65 international students (aged 18 to 33 years) from seven countries completed the online questionnaire. As hypothesized, path analyses demonstrated a positive relationship between students’ self-efficacy and their socio-cultural adjustment. International students’ uncertainty avoidance had a negative relationship with their self-efficacy, but a positive relationship with ethnic identity. The hypotheses that international students’ ethnic identity and uncertainty avoidance are negatively correlated to their socio-cultural adjustment were not supported in the present study.


Differentiating Anxiety And Depression Using The Clinical Assessment Of Depression, Zane K. Dempsey Dec 2010

Differentiating Anxiety And Depression Using The Clinical Assessment Of Depression, Zane K. Dempsey

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Anxiety and depression are two disorders frequently diagnosed in adults. Given serious adverse affects such as physical health problems, interpersonal relationship difficulties, and suicide, differentiation in treatment of these often comorbid disorders is a necessity in providing appropriate care. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression (Clark & Watson, 1991) proposes that these disorders are linked by a common trait (Negative Affect) and differentiated by a trait common to depression (lack of Positive Affect) and a trait common to anxiety (Physiological Hyperarousal). The Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD; Bracken & Howell, 2004), a recently published selfreport narrow-band measure of depression, includes a measure of anxiety related symptoms in its subscale structure. This study explores the validity of the CAD with two established measures: the Beck Depression Inventory – II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck, & Steer, 1993). College students ...


Learned Attention In Younger And Older Adults, Jared M. Holder Dec 2010

Learned Attention In Younger And Older Adults, Jared M. Holder

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A relatively new phenomenon in learning research called highlighting occurs when participants show a seemingly irrational preference to attribute a stronger cue-outcome association to a later presented perfect predictor when it is paired with an imperfect predictor than that of an earlier presented perfect predictor paired with the same imperfect predictor (Kruschke, 1996). Current research suggests that the highlighting effect depends on the ability to learn to shift attention away from an irrelevant cue toward a more relevant cue in order to reduce errors in causal judgment and preserve an earlier formed association (Kruschke, 2003). Much research has suggested that ...


Impact Of Stress Management On Learning In A Classroom Setting, Pankaj Mandale Dec 2010

Impact Of Stress Management On Learning In A Classroom Setting, Pankaj Mandale

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Stress is an important feature of the lives of college students and can impact negatively on learning. The effectiveness of an in-class stress management intervention for improving course content retention was tested with a cross-over design in two introductory graduate biostatistics classes. Each class met one day per week for the duration of the semester, and was taught by the same instructor, following the same syllabus. A pretest duplicating items on the midterm and final exam was administered to all students at the first class meeting. Identical midterm and final exams were administered in both classes. During the first half ...


Gritting Teeth: A Memoir Of Unhealthy Love, Samantha L. Day Dec 2010

Gritting Teeth: A Memoir Of Unhealthy Love, Samantha L. Day

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Originally intended to be modeled after Eula Biss’s creative nonfiction essay “The Balloonists”—which tackles the subject of marriage via fragmented prose poems— “Gritting Teeth: A Memoir of Unhealthy Love” is a piece that has taken on a subject and form of its own. A memoirist like Vivian Gornick might not claim the writer’s piece, as it hesitates to offer a “story” in places. A memoirist like Sue William Silverman might not claim the piece, as it hesitates to be courageous at times. But this collage of song lyrics, research snippets, and even Craigslist postings works in conjunction ...


School Counselors' Training, Knowledge, And Perceptions Of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Amy Reed Aug 2010

School Counselors' Training, Knowledge, And Perceptions Of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Amy Reed

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This investigation examined school counselors’ perceptions and levels of knowledge in regard to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), existing school prevention and protocol, resources and training opportunities available, as well as identified training needs. NSSI is the socially unaccepted, deliberate, self-inflicted harm of an individual’s body to reduce psychological distress with out the intention to die as a consequence (Simeon & Favazza, 2001). As a mental health professional in the schools, school counselors are often salient figures in adolescents’ educational environment. They are also many times the most appropriately qualified individuals to work with self-injuring adolescents in the school setting. While existing studies have identified some needs of school counselors, no studies have looked at the existing knowledge and the quality of knowledge (Kibler, 2009; Roberts-Dobie & Donatelle, 2007). The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey of practicing school counselors in order to obtain information about their knowledge, training opportunities, resources, and school responses in regard to NSSI. On a knowledge measure based on ...


Addressing Relationships Among Moral Judgment Development, Narcissism, And Electronic Media And Communication Devices, Meghan M. Saculla Aug 2010

Addressing Relationships Among Moral Judgment Development, Narcissism, And Electronic Media And Communication Devices, Meghan M. Saculla

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Recently, Thoma and Bebeau (2008) reported moral judgment developmental trends among various samples of undergraduates and graduates where increases in Personal Interests reasoning and decreases in Postconventional reasoning were observed. In an attempt to explain such trends, they cited recent trends in increased narcissism among college students (Twenge, Konrath, Foster, Campbell, & Bushman, 2008) and also noted that certain types of technological devices (i.e. social networking websites, cell phones, etc.) may have adverse effects social decision-making and self-presentation. The current study, therefore, addresses the relationships among moral judgment development, narcissism, and electronic media and communication devices (EMCD's). Analyses support ...


Cultural Differences In Relational Aggression In An Elementary School-Age Sample, Brittany L. Walker Aug 2010

Cultural Differences In Relational Aggression In An Elementary School-Age Sample, Brittany L. Walker

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study addressed whether there were differences in relational aggression in 9- to 10-year-old boys and girls in Hungarian and German samples. There has been very little empirical research conducted comparing children of diverse cultures in their use of relational aggression. The current study used teachers’ reports of different aggression styles observed in their 9- to 10-year-old students (N = 269). The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and styles of aggression used in a 9- to 10-year-old culturally diverse population, as it was hypothesized that culture would be a factor in the incidence of relational aggression ...


An Examination Of Student-Ahtletes' Perceptions Of Their Academic Abilities, Tiffany Ann White Aug 2010

An Examination Of Student-Ahtletes' Perceptions Of Their Academic Abilities, Tiffany Ann White

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A common stereotype in our society is that athletes are not as capable of performing well academically as their non-athlete counterparts; they are “dumb jocks”. Do athletes feel that others have lower expectations of them academically? This is important because previous research in education has shown that expectations play a role in academic achievement (for example, Rosenthal and Jacobson’s Pygmalion effect (1968) and self-fulfilling prophecy research). The current study examined student-athletes’ perceptions of this stereotype. Three areas were addressed: athletes’ perceptions of their peers’ awareness that the student is a student-athlete, perceptions of their instructors and peers academic expectations ...


Examining The Relationship Between Body Work And Muscle Dysmorphia Symptoms, Katharine J. Reynolds Aug 2010

Examining The Relationship Between Body Work And Muscle Dysmorphia Symptoms, Katharine J. Reynolds

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether men with a large amount of Muscle Dysmorphia symptoms had a more favorable outlook and opinion of body work. Participants in the current study were a convenience sample of men recruited from undergraduate classes at Western Kentucky University and the community of Bowling Green Kentucky and Somerset Kentucky. A total of 215 men completed the study. Participants completed the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI) and the Attitude-Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ). Results indicate scores on the MDI were significant predictors of scores on the ABQ. This suggests that men with a high number of ...


Social And Educational Functioning In College Students With A Chronic Physical Health Condition, Natalie Truba Aug 2010

Social And Educational Functioning In College Students With A Chronic Physical Health Condition, Natalie Truba

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of the current study is to examine the academic and social functioning of college students with a chronic physical health condition (CPHC). For the current study, chronic physical health condition will be defined as follows: “A physical [or mental] health condition that has lasted or is expected to last at least 6 months and interferes with their activities,” (Varni & Limbers, 2008, p. 107). The sample consisted of 174 participants attending Western Kentucky University. Two groups (CPHC vs. Healthy) were comprised based on the participants’ self-reported health status. Participants were solicited through Western Kentucky University’s department of Psychology ...


Willingness Of Individuals To Seek Mental Health Treatment: The Impact Of Gender And Parent Therapy Experience, Amanda Kristin Mcclure Aug 2010

Willingness Of Individuals To Seek Mental Health Treatment: The Impact Of Gender And Parent Therapy Experience, Amanda Kristin Mcclure

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether parent therapy experience and gender influenced men's and women's attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment. Participants included 207 women and 212 men ages 18 to 30 years attending Western Kentucky University. Participants completed a demographics survey and the Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Treatment. Results indicated that more favorable attitudes toward seeking mental health services were exhibited by participants who reported that a parent attended therapy. Additionally, a gender difference in attitudes toward mental health services was uncovered, in that women were found to display more positive ...


Knowledge Of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury In Populations That Self-Injure, Darcy Leanne Cates Aug 2010

Knowledge Of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury In Populations That Self-Injure, Darcy Leanne Cates

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Archived data was utilized for the present study which examined knowledge about non-suicidal self-injury, or NSSI, in individuals who engage in various degrees of the behavior and those who do not self-injure. Knowledge about NSSI was measured in three groups of respondents: those with no history of self-injurious behavior (no NSSI group), those with more limited experience with NSSI who reported 1-30 incidences of NSSI (limited NSSI group), and those with an extensive history (extensive NSSI group) who reported over 30 incidences of NSSI. To measure knowledge, participants were asked level of agreement with myths and facts about NSSI using ...


Exploration Of The Relationship Between Moral Judgment Development And Attention, Lauren I. Clark Aug 2010

Exploration Of The Relationship Between Moral Judgment Development And Attention, Lauren I. Clark

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Research in moral psychology has focused on understanding what factors assist in the development of moral action and decision making. The purpose of this study was to address whether variability in attention relates to moral judgment development. The reason for exploring moral judgment development was to further explore the research of Thoma and Bebeau (2008) who documented that the moral development scores of college and graduate students has been declining over time, with more college-aged students scoring in the lower levels of moral reasoning. Attention was chosen as a viable topic of research, based on the writings of Carr (2008a ...


Examining The Relationship Between Criticism And Muscle Dysmorphia Symptomotology In Collegiate Men, Lauren M. Menees Jul 2010

Examining The Relationship Between Criticism And Muscle Dysmorphia Symptomotology In Collegiate Men, Lauren M. Menees

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The goal of the current study was to examine the relationship between critical comments that men can recall others making about their bodies and their current level of Muscle Dysmorphia (MD) symptomotology. Participants (N = 118) were recruited via study board from a mid-Western university with a population of 20,674 students. The hypothesis of the current study was that men who can recall critical comments about their bodies will report more MD symptomotology than those who remembered no such comments. In addition, it was expected that out of those who recall critical comments, the more severe or threatening they remember ...


The Effects Of Picture Presentation On Male Body Shame And Muscle Dysmorphia, Samantha A. Wilson May 2010

The Effects Of Picture Presentation On Male Body Shame And Muscle Dysmorphia, Samantha A. Wilson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether picture presentation influenced men’s experienced body shame or Muscle Dysmorphia symptomatology, and whether there was a relationship between body shame and Muscle Dysmorphia. Participants were 112 men attending Western Kentucky University. Participants completed the Body Shame Questionnaire and Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory. Participants were randomly assigned to either view eight photographs of average men or eight photographs of muscular men. After viewing the photographs, the participants completed the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale and the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale. Although there was a trend, results indicate that men who view photographs of ...


Benevolent Vs. Hostile Sexism Impact On Work Performance For Women In Turkey, Crystal M. Bonneau-Kaya May 2010

Benevolent Vs. Hostile Sexism Impact On Work Performance For Women In Turkey, Crystal M. Bonneau-Kaya

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

All studies to date that have assessed the direct impact of benevolent vs. hostile sexism on performance outcomes have done so in the context of a Western society. Because of this void in the literature, it remained unknown how living in a low egalitarian and/or non-Western society may impact women's experiences of sexism. The purpose of this study is to address this gap in the literature. This study investigates the impact of benevolent vs. hostile sexism on women in four Turkish textile factories. 210 Turkish female textile factory workers were randomly assigned to the benevolent sexism, hostile sexism ...


An Evaluation Of The Impact Of A Thesis Colloquium On Self-Regulated Motivation Toward Thesis Completion, Frank Nicholas Reding May 2010

An Evaluation Of The Impact Of A Thesis Colloquium On Self-Regulated Motivation Toward Thesis Completion, Frank Nicholas Reding

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

What motivates one to write a thesis? This study assessed whether presenting one’s master’s thesis proposal at a thesis colloquium increased the probability of Industrial/Organizational I/O) Psychology graduate students completing their thesis on time (i.e., finishing their thesis as they finished their graduate coursework). This study also examined the relationship between presenting one’s thesis proposal at a thesis colloquium and different forms of motivated regulation and three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness).

Participants included 94 master’s level I/O Psychology alumni from four universities. As expected, students who presented at a ...


Potential Factors That Influence Team Identification: A Desire To Be Similar Or Different?, Courtney A. Clippert May 2010

Potential Factors That Influence Team Identification: A Desire To Be Similar Or Different?, Courtney A. Clippert

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of the current study is to determine whether eliciting the need for assimilation or the need for differentiation influences individuals’ identification with a given team. Team identification is defined as a fan’s psychological connection to a team; that is, the extent to which the fan views the team as an extension of him or herself (Wann, Melnick, Russell, & Pease, 2001). It is important to understand potential factors that may motivate and potentially increase one’s identification with a particular team.

The sample consisted of 106 participants attending Western Kentucky University. The participants completed the Sport Fandom Questionnaire (SFQ) and the Need for Affiliation (nAff) scale. Participants were presented with one of three randomly assigned scenarios, and were asked to transcribe two memories, dependent upon the previously assigned scenario. Following this, the gambling scenario was described. Participants rated how identified they were with both the underdog and favored team, regardless of their choice. It was hypothesized that those who are primed to experience the feelings of assimilation will wager more money on and be more highly identified with a team that is a prohibitive favorite. Also, it was hypothesized that those who are primed to experience the feelings of differentiation will wager more money on and be more highly identified with a team that is a large underdog.

Results indicated that the hypotheses were not supported; however, significance was approached, as participants who were primed for feelings of differentiation tended to choose the underdog football team. Regardless of condition, participants tended to wager more money on the favorite football team, as opposed to the underdog ...


The Effect Of An Overall Rating Item On Halo Error In Performance Evaluations, S. Elizabeth Hogue May 2010

The Effect Of An Overall Rating Item On Halo Error In Performance Evaluations, S. Elizabeth Hogue

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study focuses on how the presence or absence of an overall rating item on a performance evaluation form affects levels of halo error and satisfaction with the form. Participants included undergraduate college students who were randomly assigned to groups receiving a form with or without an overall rating item at the beginning of the form. A satisfaction item was included on both forms. The analyses included a z-test for correlations from independent samples to determine the difference between the two evaluation forms and a t-test to determine the difference between the satisfaction scores of the two forms. The analyses ...


The Content Validation Of An Employment Selection Process For Vehicle Mechanics, Michael Heighway May 2010

The Content Validation Of An Employment Selection Process For Vehicle Mechanics, Michael Heighway

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study is a significant portion of a content validation study conducted to evaluate new selection tools developed by an organization. In it I assessed the content validity of a structured interview through the following steps: conducting a literature review to establish best practices, reviewing the data gathering process, conducting data analyses, recommending item weights, evaluating the validity of the interview, suggesting standardized materials, creating a plan for training for interview use, and ensuring documentation is kept as required by law.

The data were collected internally by the organization and were provided for analyses. Analyses included one-way ANOVAs, and ...


The Validation Of A Structured Situational Interview For Registered And Licensed Practical Nurses, Nicholas L. Simmons May 2010

The Validation Of A Structured Situational Interview For Registered And Licensed Practical Nurses, Nicholas L. Simmons

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The profession of nursing is experiencing a shortage of qualified nursing professionals. Hospitals understaffed with nurses are likely to experience several negative consequences including low quality care, which places the health and safety of patients at risk. In order to ensure an effective selection process for hospital nurses, a structured situational interview, developed using a content validation approach, was validated using a criterion-related approach.

Interviews that have a high degree of structure consistently demonstrate higher predictive validities with job performance than do interviews with less structure. The structured situational interview in this study had a high degree of structure and ...


Labels For Anchors: The Good, The Bad, And The Endpoints, James Lee Hellrung Ii May 2010

Labels For Anchors: The Good, The Bad, And The Endpoints, James Lee Hellrung Ii

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study was designed to determine if any differences in internal consistency existed between different designs of scale anchors. The three different designs explored were properly designed scales, improperly designed scales, and endpoint only scales. Two-Hundred and thirty-five participants rated the frequency of which they performed various computer activities on a survey using one of the three different designs. Contrary to expectations, internal consistency did not differ across the three designs.


Diagnostic Decision-Making: How Much Do Behavior Rating Scales Influence School Psychologists?, Lesley Ann Higgins May 2010

Diagnostic Decision-Making: How Much Do Behavior Rating Scales Influence School Psychologists?, Lesley Ann Higgins

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Behavior rating scales are commonly used as part of the evaluation process throughout the field of psychology. Behavior rating scales help assess social, emotional, and/or behavioral problems in children, adolescents, and teens. Behavior rating scales indicate the severity of problem behaviors compared to a normative sample. Four scenarios were developed that varied scores on a behavior rating scale and the amount of other information that supported a specific diagnosis. A rating of the likelihood of a diagnosis was requested to see how much influence behavior rating scale scores have on diagnostic decision-making. Each of the four scenarios was sent ...


An Evaluation Of The Convergent Validity Of Multi-Source Feedback With Situational Assessment Of Leadership - Student Assessment (Salsa©), Heather Stroupe May 2010

An Evaluation Of The Convergent Validity Of Multi-Source Feedback With Situational Assessment Of Leadership - Student Assessment (Salsa©), Heather Stroupe

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study assessed the convergent validity of the Situational Assessment of Leadership – Student Assessment (SALSA©), a situational judgment test (SJT), with multi-source ratings. The SALSA© was administered to ROTC cadets via Blackboard; multi-source ratings, which paralleled the leadership dimensions of the SALSA©, were administered via paper. Each cadet completed the SALSA© and was rated by 10 peers, his/herself, and at least one cadre (superior). SALSA© scores were not correlated with any of the corresponding dimensions on multi-source ratings, with one exception. Cadre ratings of Consideration/Team Skills were positively correlated with SALSA© scores on the same dimension. This ...


Population Cross-Validity Estimation And Adjustment For Direct Range Restriction: A Monte Carlo Investigation Of Procedural Sequences To Achieve Optimal Cross-Validity, David Matthew Goins May 2010

Population Cross-Validity Estimation And Adjustment For Direct Range Restriction: A Monte Carlo Investigation Of Procedural Sequences To Achieve Optimal Cross-Validity, David Matthew Goins

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study employs Monte Carlo analyses to evaluate the effectiveness of various statistical procedures for determining specific values of interest within a population of 1,000,000 cases. Specifically, the proper procedures for addressing the opposing effects of direct range restriction and validity overestimation were assessed through a comparison of multiple correlation coefficients derived using various sequences of procedures in randomly drawn samples. A comparison of the average bias associated with these methods indicated that correction for range restriction prior to the application of a validity overestimation adjustment formula yielded the best estimate of population parameters over a number ...


A Content Validity Study Of The Water Training Institute Curriculum, Alicia Turner May 2010

A Content Validity Study Of The Water Training Institute Curriculum, Alicia Turner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Content validity methods, such as matching matrices, have been used to assist in the design and evaluation of training programs. In the present study, the Water Training Institute (WTI) curriculum was evaluated using a content validation approach. The purpose of the study was to identify topics that were being under-emphasized, over-emphasized, or receiving the correct amount of emphasis in the curriculum. A Job Knowledge Survey was developed and administered to subject matter experts to determine the importance of topics to the jobs that WTI graduates would most likely enter after graduation; the importance ratings were used as the criterion for ...


The Effects Of Rater Training On The Relationship Between Item Observability And Rater Agreement, Keaton Edwin Montgomery May 2010

The Effects Of Rater Training On The Relationship Between Item Observability And Rater Agreement, Keaton Edwin Montgomery

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study was an extension of a study conducted by Roch, Paquin, and Littlejohn (2009). They investigated the relationship between rater agreement and the observability of items on a rating form. The current study found similar results in that, as items became less observable, interrater agreement increased. The purpose of this study was to introduce frame of reference training as an extension to the Roch et al. study in order to reverse their findings. In other words, trained raters would be less likely to default to a general impression on less observable items and thus would demonstrate higher rater agreement ...


A Situational Assessment Of Student Leadership: An Evaluation Of Alternate Forms Reliability And Convergent Validity, Patricia Slack May 2010

A Situational Assessment Of Student Leadership: An Evaluation Of Alternate Forms Reliability And Convergent Validity, Patricia Slack

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The Situational Assessment of Leadership: Student Assessment (SALSA©) was developed in the spring of 2009 to be used as a measure of student leadership. Study 1 assessed alternate forms reliability of the SALSA using scores from 178 students. The overall scores on SALSA Form A and SALSA Form B showed a significant correlation (rAB = .906, p < .01). Dimension scores on the two forms ranged from rAB = .475 to rAB = .804. Study 2 evaluated the convergent validity between the SALSA and the Western Kentucky University Center for Leadership Excellence assessment center. SALSA scores as well as assessment scores from 53 students were analyzed. The overall scores on the SALSA and CLE assessment center had a significant yet moderate correlation (r = .513). Dimension correlations were significant but low, ranging from r = .310 to r = .392. The strong correlations in Study 1 indicate the two forms of the SALSA may be used as alternate measures such as in a pre and post-test of leadership. The convergent validities in Study 2 demonstrate that both the SALSA and assessment center may be used to assess leadership. However, the low convergent validities across dimensions indicate overall scores likely should be used rather than dimension scores.