Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

How Does Sport Team Identification Compare To Identification With Other Social Institutions?, Shelley Elizabeth Smith Dec 2009

How Does Sport Team Identification Compare To Identification With Other Social Institutions?, Shelley Elizabeth Smith

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

As social beings, people naturally form identifications with various social groups within their environment. Individuals gain benefits by forming identifications with groups, such as increased self-esteem and psychological support. Past research has examined the identification people form with various social groups, but no research has examined with which of these social groups people form the strongest identification. This study examines the strength of identification with various social groups within one’s life. It is predicted that individuals will indicate a stronger identification with a sport team than with any other social group. Secondly, it is predicted that identification with a ...


Personality As A Gestalt: A Cluster Analytic Approach To The Big Five, Thomas John Reece Dec 2009

Personality As A Gestalt: A Cluster Analytic Approach To The Big Five, Thomas John Reece

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

There has been a recent resurgence in interest in the study of personality types. This personality type research has focused on the uncovering of statistical types, rather than relying on rationally developed types. Using the method of cluster analysis, I investigated whether such statistical types could be uncovered and whether they correspond to the types described in previous analyses. The expected number of personality types was uncovered and, while these types resemblanced the personality types discussed in the literature, the patterns of scores for these types were not exactly as hypothesized.


An Examination Of Body Dissatisfaction And Media Exposure, Richard H. Kirchmeyer Dec 2009

An Examination Of Body Dissatisfaction And Media Exposure, Richard H. Kirchmeyer

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The goal of the current study was to examine the relationship between muscle magazine consumption and body dissatisfaction. The study also examined the relationship between muscle magazine consumption and the amount of disparity between ideal and real body shape. Participants (N = 108) were recruited via study board, and also on a volunteer basis, from a mid-Western university with a population of 20,674 students. The first hypothesis stated that men with greater exposure to muscle magazines would indicate that their actual body shape falls further away from their ideal body shape, in terms of both muscularity and fat level, than ...


Evaluating The Reliability And Validity Of The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory, Rebecca Sue Cubberley Dec 2009

Evaluating The Reliability And Validity Of The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory, Rebecca Sue Cubberley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Throughout the years, women have been the focus of eating disorders and body image research. With women being the focus of research in these areas, disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) have caught the eyes of researchers. With this new discovery, there has been a recent surge of research on body image issues and men. Originally termed reverse anorexia or bigorexia, Muscle Dysmorphia (MD) has gained the attention of researchers for about a decade (Grieve, 2007; Pope, Katz & Hudson, 1993; Pope, Gruber, Choi, Olivardia & Phillips, 1997).
The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI) was created to measure the symptoms of MD and provide clinicians with an inventory that would aid them in the diagnosis and treatment of MD (Short, 2005). The MDI is a 34-item scale that uses the etiological model proposed by Grieve (2007) and assesses or evaluates the four proposed diagnostic criteria of MD (Short, 2005). Short (2005) developed questions using the four criteria of MD outlined by Olivardia (2001).
While the MDI has shown good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .87; Short, 2005), no other psychometric properties have been assessed. The goal of ...


The Influence Of Affective Ties On Children's Consequential Reasoning About Ambiguous Provocation Situations, Jennifer R. Maulden Nov 2009

The Influence Of Affective Ties On Children's Consequential Reasoning About Ambiguous Provocation Situations, Jennifer R. Maulden

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Past models (i.e., Crick and Dodge, 1994) of children’s social information processing (SIP) have neglected to include the role of emotions in children’s reasoning during social situations. A recent reformulation (Lemerise and Arsenio, 2000) updated Crick and Dodge’s model to incorporate emotions and their impact on children’s processing. Since then, studies have examined the influence of emotion in children’s SIP, but few have investigated the impact of children’s affective ties with their peers. This study explores the effect of the participant’s relationship with the provocateur on subsequent consequential reasoning concerning possible hostile ...


The Impact Of Friendships And Mutual Antipathies On Children's Social Behavior And Social Cognition, Elizabeth M. Boulie Aug 2009

The Impact Of Friendships And Mutual Antipathies On Children's Social Behavior And Social Cognition, Elizabeth M. Boulie

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mutual antipathies are rare among preschoolers and are common among older school age children, but little is known about the prevalence of mutual antipathies among younger school age children. One goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of mutual antipathies among first graders to determine if they are common among younger children. A second goal of the study was to examine the impact of friendship and mutual antipathies on children’s social behavior and social cognition. A sample of first, third, and fifth graders (N = 512) first completed rating and nomination sociometric assessments to assess participation in friendships ...


Social Support Domains For Parents Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Assessing Perceived Needs And Stress Levels, Rachel N. Wolf Aug 2009

Social Support Domains For Parents Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Assessing Perceived Needs And Stress Levels, Rachel N. Wolf

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study investigated types of social support needs through a number of domains reported by parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) along with the relationship of these needs to reported parental stress. Female participants (N = 35) in the South Central Kentucky region responded to a number of measures regarding perceptions of their current stress levels on the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI-SF) and their perceptions on social support needs through a modified version of the Family Needs Questionnaire (FNQ). The results indicated that there was a moderately strong correlation between social support needs and parental stress ...


Behavior Rating Scales As Screeners For Autism? A Closer Look At The Cab-P And Cbcl/1.5-5, Brandy Mickele Mcreynolds May 2009

Behavior Rating Scales As Screeners For Autism? A Closer Look At The Cab-P And Cbcl/1.5-5, Brandy Mickele Mcreynolds

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In recent years, autism diagnoses have steadily increased, putting a substantial emphasis on early identification as a crucial component for intervention. Autism diagnoses, however, often require a thorough and comprehensive assessment from a highly trained practitioner. Although ideal, such assessments are often time consuming and expensive, creating a need for a quicker, more simplistic method of screening for autism. Clinicians customarily used behavior rating scales to identify a number of various problem behaviors and/or disorders. The purpose of the present study is to examine the utility of two common behavior rating scales in accurately discriminating between a group of ...


Fan Perception Of Justice In Team Disciplinary Decisions, Lauren Cathryn Gruchala May 2009

Fan Perception Of Justice In Team Disciplinary Decisions, Lauren Cathryn Gruchala

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study examined procedural and distributive justice outcomes of discipline in an athletic team setting. A 2 (Consistency of Punishment: consistent vs. conditional) x 2 (Violation Severity: moderate vs. severe) x 2 (Punishment Severity: moderate vs. severe) x 2 (Decision Maker: head coach vs. team captains) factorial design was used. Participants responded to four of the 16 hypothetical scenarios resulting from the design. Participants included 354 fans in attendance at a several university athletic events and students in psychology courses. The results indicated that consistent punishment was perceived as more fair to the punished athlete, teammates, and fans than ...


Peer Perceptions Of Self-Injurious Behavior, Fantom Shakeria Smith May 2009

Peer Perceptions Of Self-Injurious Behavior, Fantom Shakeria Smith

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Students of a south central university provide data for this study investigating knowledge of self-injury (SI), experiences with those who self-injure, and perceptions of SI. This study proposes that college peers of those who self-injure have higher levels of SI knowledge than professionals who work with individuals who self-injure. In addition, the study proposes that individuals who have experience with others who self-injure have higher levels of SI knowledge than individuals who do not have experience with others who self-injure. An additional purpose of this study is to explore information regarding experiences people have with others who self-injure and their ...


Facilitation Of Social Cognitive Constructs In An Employee Wellness Exercise Intervention Program, Juliana D. Middleton May 2009

Facilitation Of Social Cognitive Constructs In An Employee Wellness Exercise Intervention Program, Juliana D. Middleton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on physical activity and proposed an intervention for an 8-week physical activity promotion program. Four specific components were examined: implementation intentions, goal commitment, barrier self-efficacy, and value. Participants included faculty and staff enrolled in a university Employee Wellness Program. Participants in the treatment group received goal-setting prompts focused on developing implementation intentions, identifying the value of outcome expectancies, and overcoming self-efficacy barriers. Participants in the control group did not receive goal-setting prompts. The use of goal-setting prompts did not result in significantly more minutes spent exercising. Overall, participants who received ...


Effects Of Social Support On The Social Self-Concepts Of Gifted Adolescents, Caroline S. Cochran May 2009

Effects Of Social Support On The Social Self-Concepts Of Gifted Adolescents, Caroline S. Cochran

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study investigates the relationship between social support and the social self-concepts of gifted adolescents. Participants include 245 gifted students who had completed the fifth through the tenth grade during the previous academic year. Social self-concept was measured using the Self-Description Questionnaire II (Marsh, 1990). Social support was measured using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki & Demaray, 2002). Results indicate multiple relationships between perceived social support and social self-concept, as well as a significant gender difference for the frequency of close friend social support. No gender differences were found for the parent, teacher, classmate, or school social ...


Attentional Uncertainty In The Stroop Priming Task, Brandy Nicole Johnson May 2009

Attentional Uncertainty In The Stroop Priming Task, Brandy Nicole Johnson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

There is extensive evidence that structures in the anterior attentional system (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate) are susceptible to normal aging processes, whereas structural changes in the posterior attentional system are minimal. Using the Stroop priming task, we investigated whether reducing the involvement of the anterior attentional system by pre-cuing the location of the target stimulus would eliminate age differences in interference. Older adults continued to be susceptible to interference when the location cue was ambiguous or invalid, but were less susceptible when the target location of a stimulus was presented with a valid cue.


The Relationship Between Goal Orientation And Gender Roles, Amanda Michelle Hutchins May 2009

The Relationship Between Goal Orientation And Gender Roles, Amanda Michelle Hutchins

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study was designed to examine the relationship between a person’s goal orientation and the gender roles that they adopt. The relationship between gender and goal orientation has been studied for years, but the results have been inconclusive. Some studies find a gender difference and some studies do not. For this reason, this study examined if there was another factor that was influencing goal orientations that was related to gender.

Goal orientations are perceptual-cognitive frameworks for how individuals approach, interpret, and respond to achievement situations. Gender roles are the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that are considered acceptable and appropriate ...


The Validation Of A Situational Judgment Test To Measure Leadership Behavior, Kaci Lyn Grant May 2009

The Validation Of A Situational Judgment Test To Measure Leadership Behavior, Kaci Lyn Grant

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Assessment centers, although useful for assessing behaviors and competencies associated with a targeted construct, can be low in economic utility. The current study sought to validate a situational judgment test (SJT) that was developed as an alternate form of assessment for a leadership development program. The first study examined the content validity of the SJT by performing retranslation on item stems and calibration of the item responses. The second study examined alternate forms reliability between the two forms of the leadership SJT that were developed. The third and final study evaluated the relationship between assessment center performance scores and SJT ...


Examining The Team Identification Of Football Fans At The High School Level, Frank Nicholas Reding May 2009

Examining The Team Identification Of Football Fans At The High School Level, Frank Nicholas Reding

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Although sport fandom is often stereotypically associated with negative behaviors such as poor interpersonal skills and aggressiveness, theorists have suggested that, because sport fandom provides such a social and fun atmosphere, fandom may actually be related to psychological health. ... Research for the current study looked to expand prior research as the correlation between Team Identification and several factors, including psychological well-being, collective self-esteem, and community identification. ....


The Impact Of Westernization On Tongan Cultural Values Related To Business, Lucas Nelson Ross May 2009

The Impact Of Westernization On Tongan Cultural Values Related To Business, Lucas Nelson Ross

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined the impact of Westernization on Tongan cultural values (Collectivism I, Collectivism II, Power Distance, Future Orientation, and Uncertainty Avoidance) related to business. A Tongan version of the Project GLOBE Beta Questionnaire measuring cultural dimensions at the societal level was completed by 222 Tongans from the island groups of Vava’u, Ha’apai, and Niuatoputapu. One-way ANOVA and planned comparison results indicated significant differences for Collectivism II and Uncertainty Avoidance. Scores from Vava’u showed significantly less Collectivism II than Ha’apai, but not Niuatoputapu. Furthermore, scores from Vava’u showed significantly less Uncertainty Avoidance than Ha’apai ...


Intercollegiate Athlete Perceptions Of Justice In Team Disciplinary Decisions, Brandon Richard Severs May 2009

Intercollegiate Athlete Perceptions Of Justice In Team Disciplinary Decisions, Brandon Richard Severs

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Perceptions of justice involving disciplinary decisions for a star player in an intercollegiate team sport setting were investigated. Male and female intercollegiate athletes (N = 142) at a midsized southeastern university responded to one of sixteen scenarios and reported perceptions of fairness for the punished athlete and teammates, perceptions of procedural fairness for the punished athlete and teammates, and whether the punishment was likely to deter future misconduct by the punished athlete and teammates. The results indicated that athletes perceived consistently applied punishment as more fair to all team members than they did conditional punishment; consistently applied punishment was perceived as ...


Racial Microaggression At Work: Implications For Caucasian And African-American Employees, Deborah R. Lee May 2009

Racial Microaggression At Work: Implications For Caucasian And African-American Employees, Deborah R. Lee

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study is designed to extend the finding of Miner-Rubino and Cortina (2007) on bystander experiences of sexual harassment to bystander experiences of racial microaggressions. Racial microaggressions are a form of subtle racism, which are short, quick, everyday encounters that send degrading messages to people of color. The affects of racial microaggression on psychological, physical, and occupational outcomes were examined for both Caucasian and African-American employees. The results of the study indicate that racial microaggression are negatively related to psychological well-being for both races, as well as correlated to multiple negative work outcomes such as job burnout, job withdrawal ...


Self-Assessments By U.S. Army Officers: Effects Of Skill Level And Item Ambiguity On Accuracy, John T. Breidert Apr 2009

Self-Assessments By U.S. Army Officers: Effects Of Skill Level And Item Ambiguity On Accuracy, John T. Breidert

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Organizations benefit from the use of training and performance assessments. Self-assessment is a way for trainees to monitor their progress throughout training and on the job. The literature indicates that ambiguity and skill level are factors that impact the accuracy of self-assessments. Previously, the effect of the interaction of ambiguity and skill level on self-assessment accuracy had not been investigated. The present study assessed the effect of skill level and item ambiguity on the accuracy of self-assessments made by Lieutenants and Captains in the U. S. Army. The results indicated that increased skill level resulted in increased accuracy of self-assessments ...