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Psychology

Western Kentucky University

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

2005

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The Relationship Among Sense Of Humor, Defense Style, Levels Of Trait Anxiety, And Locus Of Control, Emily Averitt Dec 2005

The Relationship Among Sense Of Humor, Defense Style, Levels Of Trait Anxiety, And Locus Of Control, Emily Averitt

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible interrelatedness of sense of humor, defense mechanism style, level of trait-type anxiety, and locus of control; to compare any trait patterns that occur among these constructs; and to generate ideas about the significance of these patterns and their implications for clinical application. Participants were 100 individuals, 18 years of age or older, predominantly from the student body of a medium-sized southern university. Participants were asked to complete the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS), Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Scale (STAI-T), and the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control ...


Creating An Assessment Tool For Muscle Dysmorphia, Jennifer Short Dec 2005

Creating An Assessment Tool For Muscle Dysmorphia, Jennifer Short

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Throughout the years, men have been viewed as having few body appearance problems. However, recent research has begun to acknowledge the presence of body image issues with men. In particular, Muscle Dysmorphia (MD) is a disorder that has received attention in the last decade (Pope, Gruber, Choi, Olivardia, & Phillips, 1997; Olivardia, 2001). Many of the symptoms found in eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder are similar to those seen in MD. The goal of this study is to create such an assessment tool for use in clinical settings. Pope et al. (1997) outlined and Olivardia (2001) refined the diagnostic criteria for MD ...


Implicit And Explicit Attitudes Towards Body Images, Kenneth Brasel Dec 2005

Implicit And Explicit Attitudes Towards Body Images, Kenneth Brasel

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined the differences of men's and women's implicit and explicit attitudes towards three constructs of body images: muscular, obese, and skinny. Participants were 101 volunteers and included 31 male and 70 female college students attending Western Kentucky University. Age of the participants ranged from 18 to 59 years, with a mean of 21.23 years (SD = 6.47). All participants were given a questionnaire with a series of male and female body images along a continuum of obese-skinny-muscular. Participants were asked to first identify their current body image and then their ideal body image. They were ...


An Examination Of The Five Factors Of Personality, Pubertal Onset And Alcohol Usage In Adolescent Males, Sarah Wickman Dec 2005

An Examination Of The Five Factors Of Personality, Pubertal Onset And Alcohol Usage In Adolescent Males, Sarah Wickman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Recent national surveys have demonstrated an increase in alcohol use among adolescents over the past five years (Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman, 2003; Kann et al., 2000). It is important to understand factors that influence alcohol use in order to aid in the creation of preventative measures due to the many possible negative consequences associated with drinking alcohol (i.e., unwanted sexual activity, delinquency, abuse of other drugs, violence, car accidents, and poor academic performance) (Boyd, Howard, & Zucker, 1995). Two factors that have been studied as possible predictors of adult and adolescent alcohol use are personality and pubertal onset. Specifically, studies have linked the personality factors of Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism and reports of alcohol use in adults and older adolescents (Austin et al., 2003; Gullone & Moore, 2000; Kubicka, Matejcek, Dytrych, & Roth, 2001; Markey, Markey, & Tinsley, 2003; Musgrave-Marquart & Bromley, 1997). Furthermore, studies have also found that the age at which one reaches puberty has been linked to participation in risky behaviors, specifically alcohol use (Felson & Haynie, 2002; Ge, Conger, & Elder, 2001; Graber, Lewinsohn, Seeley, & Brooks-Gunn, 1997; Sonis, Comit, & Blue, 1985; Stice, Presnell, & Bearman, 2001). The current study examined the personality factors of ...


Examination Of Role Satisfaction And Mental Health Of Caregiving Grandparents, Jennifer Copen Dec 2005

Examination Of Role Satisfaction And Mental Health Of Caregiving Grandparents, Jennifer Copen

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Research has shown that the number of caregiving grandparents in America has steadily increased. If this trend continues there will be more of a need for society to recognize this population and the difficulties that they face due to the atypical structure of these households. Research has produced mixed results as to what effect raising grandchildren has on grandparent caregivers. Most research has found that raising a grandchild increases stress levels (Bowers & Myers, 1999; Musil 1998; Sands & Goldberg-Glen, 2000). Research has also shown that some caregiving grandparents possess other difficulties such as increased mental and physical health problems (Daly & Glenwick, 2000; Fuller-Thomson & Minkler, 2000; Minkler & Fuller-Thomson, 1999; Minkler, Fuller-Thomson, Miller, & Driver as described in Hayslip & Goldberg-Glen, 2000), decreased role satisfaction (Daly & Glenwick, 2000; Emick & Hayslip, 1999), difficulty managing grandchild behavior (Emick & Hayslip, 1999), and financial strain (Roe & Minkler, 1998/1999). However, not all caregiving grandparents experience significant negative effects. It is unclear to what extent mental and physical health problems, decreased role satisfaction, experiences with grandchild behavior problems, and financial strain specifically contribute to increased stress levels. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how these factors influence caregiving grandparents. Thirty-one custodial grandparents raising grandchildren between the ages of 6 and 18 participated in this study by completing a demographic questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II; Beck, Steer & Brown, 1996), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck, Epstein, Brown & Steer, 1988), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000, 2001), the Parent Satisfaction Scale (PSS; Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985), and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI-III; Abidin, 1995). It was found that the parenting stress level of grandparent ...


Children's Beliefs In Relation To The Essence Of Race, Rachel Wetton Dec 2005

Children's Beliefs In Relation To The Essence Of Race, Rachel Wetton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The way in which children categorize race is a highly debatable topic for which a conclusive result has not yet been found. Researchers hold different views as to whether the concept of race is present at birth, or whether it is something that develops. Previous research has shown that children do not treat race in the same way as adults do. Even by fourth grade, children do not consistently believe in the essence of race (Glerum, 2002). This study more closely examines one of the potential factors for the point at which race is essentialized: knowledge of inheritance. Children were ...


Do Dilemmas On A Moral Judgment Task Elicit Feeling States Known To Affect Information Processing?, Brian Barger Aug 2005

Do Dilemmas On A Moral Judgment Task Elicit Feeling States Known To Affect Information Processing?, Brian Barger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The role of emotion in the process of moral decision making has become of interest in recent years (Haidt, 2001). At the same time, emotion researchers are beginning to understand that different basic emotion states (i.e., joy, anger) lead to different information processing styles (Aspinwall, 1998; Nabi, 2003). Skoe, Eisenberg, and Cumberland (2002) found evidence that the feeling states of anger and sympathy are present in moral judgment tasks. Unfortunately, aside from anger, Skoe et al. (2002) primarily focused on emotion terms that have not been experimentally linked to changes in information processing. This study extended the findings of ...


Predicting Age Related Changes In Mobility And Driving Habits, Melissa Mathews Aug 2005

Predicting Age Related Changes In Mobility And Driving Habits, Melissa Mathews

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Older adults encounter many changes as they age, both cognitively and physically. These changes tend to impact one's mobility in terms of driving ability and exposure. It has been well documented that this population is increasing in number (Lyman, Ferguson, Braver, & Williams, 2002) and that they pose a higher crash risk than a younger population (Braver & Trempel, 2004; Dellinger, Kresnow, White, & Seghal, 2004; Tavris, Kuhn, & Layde, 2001). These cognitive and physical changes combined with increased crash risk lead a number of drivers to reduce the amount that they dri\ c or cease dri\ ing altogether, thereby limiting their independence. Some studies ha\e examined the domains on w hich these changes occur and have found that various medical conditions, cognitiv e deficits, and physical limitations lead to these changes in driving habits (Ball, Ow sley, Stalvey, Roenker, Sloane & Graves, 1998; Lyman, McGwin. & Sims, 2001). The present study sought to replicate a structural equation model proposed by Vance, Roenker, Cissell, Edwards, Wadley, and Ball (in press) in which it was found that a particular battery of tests (GRIMPS and UFOV) was predictive of both increased avoidance of certain situations and decreased exposure. Specifically, they ...


Emotional Intelligence And Social Skills: Studying Students With Emotional-Behavioral Disability (Ebd), Bridget Wilfert May 2005

Emotional Intelligence And Social Skills: Studying Students With Emotional-Behavioral Disability (Ebd), Bridget Wilfert

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Students diagnosed with Emotional-Behavioral Disability (EBD) have an inability to successfully interact with peers or adults. This study examined 33 students with EBD to investigate their emotional intelligence, social skills, and the relationship between these two constructs. Participants were classified as either primary (grades 1-6, n = 14) or secondary (grades 7-12, n = 19). Students completed a Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) Self-Report Student Form and a BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Edition (EQi: YV) Form, while special education teachers completed the SSRS Teacher Form on each student. Results indicated that the emotional intelligence and social skills of these students were ...


Revealing Socially Undesirable Information: A Comparison Of Bipolar Adjective Scaling Methods, Jordan Mudd May 2005

Revealing Socially Undesirable Information: A Comparison Of Bipolar Adjective Scaling Methods, Jordan Mudd

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Despite the popularity of personality testing for personnel selection, criticisms have arisen regarding the potential for response distortions by applicants. Researchers have developed many techniques to control for such response distortions, including the use of different response formats. Using both a university sample of introductory psychology students and an applied sample of police officers during a promotional exam, the present study examined two bipolar adjective scaling methods (paired-comparison and semantic differential) to determine scaling effects on test taker reports of socially undesirable information on a self-report personality measure of conscientiousness. Results indicate that no differences exist in socially desirable responding ...


Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Through The Alive Center (A Local Information And Volunteer Exchange), Stacia Wolf May 2005

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Through The Alive Center (A Local Information And Volunteer Exchange), Stacia Wolf

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Risk and protective factors for juvenile delinquency are identified and addressed at national and local levels. A need for an information, referral, and volunteer center to reduce risk factors and promote protective factors in youth was identified in Warren County. The ALIVE Center (A Local Information and Volunteer Exchange) was founded to address this need. Qualitative research of services and programs offered by information, referral, and volunteer centers and a survey to specific local agencies as regards their use of the ALIVE Center was conducted to guide the development of services at the ALIVE Center. Information, resource, and referral centers ...


Perceptions Of Connective Leadership And Work Outcomes: The Role Of Gender And Group Identification, Melisa Appleby May 2005

Perceptions Of Connective Leadership And Work Outcomes: The Role Of Gender And Group Identification, Melisa Appleby

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examines connective leadership, a theory of leadership largely ignored in research, in relation to work outcomes and other leadership styles. The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of how connective leadership affects work outcomes. Two hundred forty-four undergraduate and graduate students (32% male and 68% female) from nursing, business, and psychology classes participated in the study. Participants completed measures of leadership perceptions, group identification, and work outcomes. Correlations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that women were more often perceived to be connective leaders than ...


Actual And Ideal Self Discrepancy And Body Satisfaction, Sheena Moyers May 2005

Actual And Ideal Self Discrepancy And Body Satisfaction, Sheena Moyers

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Over the past decade, there has been an increase in research and concern over body image and body attitudes in both clinical and community settings (Sondhaus, Kurtz, & Strube, 2001). Historically, body image has been thought to be more important to women than to men. However, recently male body image has begun to increase in importance. Over the past few decades, men have been facing increased societal pressure, concerning the type of body that they should have. One such way that pressure is manifested is through muscle dysmorphia, and a potential influence on muscle dysmorphia is self-concept. Self-concept may interact with muscle dysmorphia through the changes that people want to make about themselves. Within self-concept people may want to change a great deal about themselves and the way that they are currently (actual self) in order to achieve what they see as a better (ideal) self. The goal of the present study was to examine how men's self concept relates to body satisfaction and symptoms of body dysmorphia. The current study hypothesized that those individuals with a greater discrepancy between their actual and ideal selves will also have lower body satisfaction. The study also hypothesized that as the discrepancy between actual and ideal selves increases, men will report higher symptoms of body dysmorphia. Participants were 124 men all over the age of 18. The mean age of participants was 20.15. The participants completed a Demographics Questionnaire, the Dysmorphia Inventory (DI), the Body Assessment (BA), and the Self-Concept Questionnaire (SCQ). Linear regressions were performed to examine the relationship between body satisfaction and self-concept. A second set of linear regressions was also performed that focused on specific items that were selected from the SCQ. Results supported the first hypothesis; men's body satisfaction decreased as the discrepancy between their actual and ideal selves increased. This supported hypothesis supports research suggesting that the way people perceive their bodies and their level of satisfaction with their bodies is related to their self-concept and how they see themselves as an entire being. The second hypothesis predicted that as the discrepancy between actual and ideal selves increased, men would report higher symptoms of body dysmorphia and ...


A Comparison Of The Basc And Cbcl With At-Risk Preschoolers, Sara Murphy May 2005

A Comparison Of The Basc And Cbcl With At-Risk Preschoolers, Sara Murphy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Behavior rating scales, such as the Behavior Assessment System for Children ([BASC] Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998) and the Child Behavior Checklist ([CBCL] Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), are often used to assess social and emotional behavior problems. Although a substantial amount of research exists on the previous version of the BASC/6-18 and CBCL/4-18, little research exists on the latest preschool versions of the BASC/2.5-5 and CBCL/1.5-5. The current study examined the overall consistency between the revised BASC and CBCL preschool versions. A sample of 33 parents of preschool-aged children considered "at-risk" participated in this study by completing ...


More Than Meets The Eye: The Covert Nature Of Female Aggression In A Kindergarten Through Second Grade Population, Allison Janoski May 2005

More Than Meets The Eye: The Covert Nature Of Female Aggression In A Kindergarten Through Second Grade Population, Allison Janoski

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study addressed the verification of the existence of relational aggression in boys and girls in a kindergarten through second grade population. There has been little, if any, empirical research conducted with children in kindergarten through second grade concerning their use of relational aggression. The current research was conducted with teachers' reports of aggression styles displayed by their kindergarten through second grade students (N = 257). This research was conducted to compare the incidence of Relational aggression in boys and girls and to compare the incidence of overt aggression in boys and girls. This research also examined whether the older ...


The Effect Of Gender, Victim Job Performance, And Victim Employment Status On Individual And Jury Perceptions Of Sexual Harassment, Marcie Krastman May 2005

The Effect Of Gender, Victim Job Performance, And Victim Employment Status On Individual And Jury Perceptions Of Sexual Harassment, Marcie Krastman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study investigated the impact of gender, victim job performance, and victim employment status on individual juror and jury perceptions of sexual harassment. Gender, victim job performance, and victim employment are all extralegal factors that were found to influence individual jurors' perceptions of sexual harassment. The present study revealed individual female jurors were more likely than male jurors to find sexual harassment. Although gender did not have a significant effect in jury perceptions of sexual harassment, further analysis revealed females were more likely than males to change their decision on sexual harassment in a jury. Victim job performance and ...


Relations Between Job Analysis Questionnaire Responses And Incumbent Characteristics, Ronnie Meredith May 2005

Relations Between Job Analysis Questionnaire Responses And Incumbent Characteristics, Ronnie Meredith

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A properly conducted job analysis can aid in the development of selection tests, performance appraisals, job evaluations, compensation systems, and training programs. Federal court decisions, employment law, and professional practice emphasize the importance of collecting job analysis information from a representative sample of incumbents. Unfortunately, research has been scarce and inconclusive in determining whether rater race and tenure is associated with job analysis task ratings. In this study a job analysis questionnaire was developed and administered to incumbents. Race based rating differences were found in only three of the 16 analyses. Associations between rater tenure and dimension scores were also ...


Concurrent Validity Of The Clinical Assessment Of Depression With The Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Shelley Hicks May 2005

Concurrent Validity Of The Clinical Assessment Of Depression With The Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Shelley Hicks

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Depression is a disorder that can affect every aspect of one's life, ranging from physical health issues to interpersonal relationship difficulties. Therefore, it is imperative that the depressive symptoms of college students be identified, evaluated, and treated. Self-report measures are a common technique to identify depressive symptomatology in individuals and assist in diagnosis and treatment. Existing measures are often used as a criterion by which to validate the psychometric properties and effectiveness of newly designed, self-report measures. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the concurrent validity of a newly published self-report measure of depression, the Clinical Assessment ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Test-Retest Reliability Studies, Bryan Cromwell May 2005

A Meta-Analysis Of Test-Retest Reliability Studies, Bryan Cromwell

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The effect of intertest interval on test-retest reliability has received little attention in the research literature. In addition, no information has been gathered regarding the intertest intervals currently being used in test-retest reliability studies. This meta-analysis consists of 172 test-retest reliability studies. We hypothesized that the length of the intertest interval would be negatively associated with the test-retest reliability coefficient. The results of the study show that a median intertest interval of 14 days is typically usedin test-retest reliability studies. Data are also provided on typical intertest intervals and test-retest reliabilities categorized by the type of test and the type ...


Hey, That's Not Fair! A Comparison Of Faculty And Department Head Fairness Perceptions Of Pregnancy Leave Practices, Amy Schirmer May 2005

Hey, That's Not Fair! A Comparison Of Faculty And Department Head Fairness Perceptions Of Pregnancy Leave Practices, Amy Schirmer

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

As more women enter the workforce, employers are increasingly faced with issues such as pregnancy leave. This study addresses perceptions of faculty pregnancy leave practices in a university setting. In part, this study is a replication/follow-up to a study conducted in 1995 on the perceptions of procedural justice when establishing a maternity leave policy. This study examined current pregnancy leave practices and faculty and department head perceptions of fairness of such leave to the pregnant faculty member and other faculty members. Options used most frequently in 1995 are still the options most frequently used by department heads in 2005 ...


A Comparison Of The Basc And The Cbcl With Referred Preschoolers, Kristina Sidebottom May 2005

A Comparison Of The Basc And The Cbcl With Referred Preschoolers, Kristina Sidebottom

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Behavior rating scales, such as the Behavior Assessment System for Children ([BASC] Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998) and the Child Behavior Checklist ([CBCL] Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), are often used to assess social and emotional behavior problems. Although a substantial amount of research exists on the previous version of the BASC/6-18 and CBCL/4-18, little research exists on the latest preschool versions of the BASC/2.5-5 and CBCL/1.5-5. The current study examined the overall consistency between the latest BASC and CBCL preschool versions. A sample of 50 parents of preschool-aged children referred for a developmental evaluation participated in this ...


The Effects Of Mental Skills Training On Serve Accuracy Of An Intercollegiate Volleyball Team, Amber Usry May 2005

The Effects Of Mental Skills Training On Serve Accuracy Of An Intercollegiate Volleyball Team, Amber Usry

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A pre-season mental skills program for serving was implemented for the 12 members of a NCAA Division-I volleyball team. Key mental skills taught were relaxation, imagery, and attentional skills. A videotaped expert (i.e., the coach), who articulated and demonstrated the technical performance keys to effective serving, was used for behavioral modeling of the desired performance. Players utilized a three-phase service routine to increase automaticity of performance and to incorporate key mental skills. Phase I included: (a) selecting the target zone, (b) relaxing, (c) goal setting for pace, trajectory, and placement of the serve, and (d) imagery. Phase II included ...


Lasting Impressions: Parental Persuasion And Its Permanence In A Child's Development, Kelcey Newton May 2005

Lasting Impressions: Parental Persuasion And Its Permanence In A Child's Development, Kelcey Newton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The questions of parents are never fully answered due to the plethora of factors involved in raising children. However, a different angle of research has uncovered some new techniques that provide renewed hope for the longevity of parental impact. Many people understand that parents—and people in general—use and are daily impacted by persuasion. This research shows that if parents can more completely understand positive persuasive tactics, their values can potentially follow children from the bubble of the home to their adulthood. An important component of this parental persuasion is the use of inoculation techniques to help children not ...


Observed Incivility At Work And Job Outcomes: The Moderating Role Of Workgroup Characteristics, Catharine Tate Apr 2005

Observed Incivility At Work And Job Outcomes: The Moderating Role Of Workgroup Characteristics, Catharine Tate

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate group identification and group cohesion as moderators of the relationship between observed incivility and job outcomes. Participants included 36 men and 54 women from a property management company who completed scales assessing observed incivility in their workgroup, feelings of workgroup cohesion and identification, and job related outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, burnout, turnover intentions, and affective organizational commitment). Results showed that observing incivility at work was directly related to turnover intentions for employees. Results also showed that employees who perceived their workgroup as highly cohesive reported being less committed to the organization ...