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Psychology

Western Kentucky University

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

2003

Articles 1 - 28 of 28

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Prevalence Of Eating Disorder Symptoms In Women Living In Residence Halls And Off Campus, Carolyn Powell Dec 2003

Prevalence Of Eating Disorder Symptoms In Women Living In Residence Halls And Off Campus, Carolyn Powell

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Eating disorders should be a growing a concern in today's society. This study was designed to examine the occurrence of eating disorders in women living in residence halls compared to women living off-campus. The participants for this study were 200 women (105 on campus and 95 off campus) attending Western Kentucky University. Age of the participants ranged from 18 to 47 years, with a mean of 21.1 years (SD=3.70). The instrument used to determine eating disorder symptoms was the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS; Stice, Rizvi, & Telch, 2000). The EDDS is a selfreport scale consisting of 22 items in which participants answer the questions in several different ways such as yes-no, write-in, Likert, and frequency responses. A series of paired /-tests were performed on the results from the EDDS. See Appendix B. The data revealed that there was a significant body image difference between individuals living on campus and those living off campus (t (199) = -1.91, p < .05); specifically, women who live on campus have a worse body ...


Potential Antecedents Of Muscle Dysmorphia, Crystal Henson Dec 2003

Potential Antecedents Of Muscle Dysmorphia, Crystal Henson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study was designed to gain a better understanding as to some of the possible contributing factors of muscle dysmorphia. Muscle dysmorphia is an under recognized form of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Individuals who are diagnosed with muscle dysmorphia are in reality very large and muscular, but they have a profound fear and belief that they are small and weak. These individuals go to extreme lengths to increase their amount of lean muscle mass. This includes behaviors such as spending hours in the gym, excessive attention to one's diet, and use of steroids or nutritional supplements. These individuals experience ...


Further Investigation Of The Factor Structure Of The Five Factor Model Of Personality: A Search For Moderator Variables, Kelly Sheehan Dec 2003

Further Investigation Of The Factor Structure Of The Five Factor Model Of Personality: A Search For Moderator Variables, Kelly Sheehan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Although somewhat controversial, the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality has remained prominent in normal personality research. Previous studies involving the FFM of personality have failed to examine individual differences that could moderate the number of factors in the FFM. This study investigated two such individual difference variables: need for cognition and working memory. Instruments measuring the FFM, need for cognition and working memory were administered to a sample of undergraduate students. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis indicated the hypothesized model fit equally well across high and low scoring subgroups of both need for cognition and working memory.


Barriers To Lesbian Health Care, Paula Bowles Dec 2003

Barriers To Lesbian Health Care, Paula Bowles

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The primary purpose of this research was to examine a sample of sixteen lesbian women regarding the barriers to lesbian health-care. From this information several interpretive findings regarding lesbian health-care are made. Data were gathered via indepth interviews with each individual lesbian. The data suggest that most lesbian women do not reveal their sexual orientation to their primary-care physician for fear of reprisal. Most of the women interviewed do feel they receive adequate health-care from their physician. The women who participated in this project did so confidentially and were assigned pseudonyms. They were asked questions on a variety of topics ...


The Citizen Police Academy: Assessment Of A Program's Effects On Community And Officer Attitudes, Shannon Cook Dec 2003

The Citizen Police Academy: Assessment Of A Program's Effects On Community And Officer Attitudes, Shannon Cook

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The study was conducted in order to determine the effects of the Citizen Police Academy (CPA) program on community and officer attitudes. The two main goals of this program are to increase officer awareness of community concerns and to raise community awareness about the police department. Surveys were distributed to three groups: employees of the Bowling Green Police Department, all alumni of the CPA, and a random sample of the local community. Participants were asked their attitudes regarding crime prevention, awareness of police officers' activities, and the effectiveness of the CPA program. T-tests and ANOVAs determined that police officers who ...


Becoming A Sister: The Socialization Of Women Into A Sorority, Kathleen Hughes Dec 2003

Becoming A Sister: The Socialization Of Women Into A Sorority, Kathleen Hughes

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Adult peer groups have become more and more a topic for sociological study. It is a phenomenon that is starting to gain interest. This research focuses on one sorority on the campus of a Midwestern university and how this sorority manages to incorporate the women that they pledge through formal recruitment into the sorority and how these women fully socialize themselves into this group of women who already have bonded with each other. A synthesis of symbolic interactionism and social exchange theory helps to break down the socialization process and shows how the new members move through the stages of ...


Emotional Intelligence In Children: A Review Of Programs And Web Sites, Ericka Weiten Dec 2003

Emotional Intelligence In Children: A Review Of Programs And Web Sites, Ericka Weiten

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In recent years, the term emotional intelligence has become popularized in the media, beginning with the success of Goleman's best-selling book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ (1995). Since the time this book was published, other media outlets including educational curriculums and Internet web sites have promoted this growing area of interest. Although emotional intelligence continues to be popular in the commercial media, there is actually very little scientific research on this topic. Much of the available research relates to university students (Dawda & Hart, 1999) and people in the workplace (Cherniss, 2000; Goleman, 1995), with minimal attention given to children and adolescents. What the available ...


The Influence Of Music On Preferred Intensity And Associated Physiological Responses, David Nuckols Nov 2003

The Influence Of Music On Preferred Intensity And Associated Physiological Responses, David Nuckols

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Music is a part of everyday life and has an effect on people in many different ways. Music can be as individual as the person who listens to it, and thus there are many genres for many different tastes. Music has accompanied exercise and sport for quite some time. It has been shown to have varying psychophysical effects including decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) at a given sub-max intensity, enhancing arousal control, and affective states at high and medium intensities. Also the improved synchronization of sub-maximal exercise with music may result in increased work output. The proposed ability of ...


The Effects Of Instruction And Strategy Implementation On Increasing Mathematics Computation Skills For Students With Learning Problems: A Meta-Analysis, Natalie Roehm Aug 2003

The Effects Of Instruction And Strategy Implementation On Increasing Mathematics Computation Skills For Students With Learning Problems: A Meta-Analysis, Natalie Roehm

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

It is well known by educators and researchers that students with a Specific Learning Disability (SLD) often do not make adequate progress when using traditional instructional methods (Whinnery & Stecker, 1992). Therefore, teachers must experiment with different techniques in order to help these students succeed. Many educational models and interventions have been introduced recently in an effort to help increase the level of math performance of at-risk and SLD students. The current metaanalysis study was conducted to determine the effects of instruction and strategy implementation on increasing mathematics and computation skills for students with learning problems and Specific Learning Disabilities. The ...


The Perception And Recognition Of 3-D Shape From Shadows Cast Onto Curved Surfaces, Young-Lim Lee Aug 2003

The Perception And Recognition Of 3-D Shape From Shadows Cast Onto Curved Surfaces, Young-Lim Lee

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The informativeness of a cast shadow or silhouette boundary contour for the perception of 3-D object shape has been investigated for a long time. Some researchers have focused on the informativeness of static shadows (Attneave, 1954; Koenderink, 1984; Richards, Koenderink, & Hoffman, 1987; Norman, Phillips, & Ross, 2001; Tse, 2002) while other researchers have focused on the informativeness of moving or deforming shadows (Miles, 1931; Wallach, & O'Connell, 1953; Norman, & Todd, 1994; Norman, Dawson, & Raines, 2000; Norman, & Raines, 2002). Past research has shown that changing the angle of illumination does not affect the perception of 3-D shape from cast shadows (Norman et al., 2000). The current experiment extends the prior experiments by further ...


The Effect Of Task Versus Ego Oriented Feedback On Exercise Enjoyment, Marc Fields Aug 2003

The Effect Of Task Versus Ego Oriented Feedback On Exercise Enjoyment, Marc Fields

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Intrinsic motivation has been shown to be a very important factor in exercise adherence. Research has found that factors such as exercise intensity, social feedback, goal orientation and perceived climate can affect intrinsic motivation. The purpose of this study was to assess situational goal orientation, specifically whether individuals in a task induced condition or ego induced condition would report different levels of intrinsic motivation (i.e., enjoyment, tension, effort and competence during exercise). Participants (N= 114) rode on an exercise bike for 24 minutes at a moderate intensity. A MANCOVA factorial design was used to examine differences in intrinsic motivation ...


Effects Of Perceived Costs And Rewards On Motivation And Retention Of Rape Crisis Center Volunteers, Amanda Grissom Aug 2003

Effects Of Perceived Costs And Rewards On Motivation And Retention Of Rape Crisis Center Volunteers, Amanda Grissom

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to obtain information that may assist Rape Crisis Center (RCC) volunteer coordinators and executive directors in the recruitment and retention of volunteers. The major hypotheses guiding this study are as follows: (a) the reasons that initially motivated volunteers to volunteer at the RCC will be the same as their reasons for why they are continuing to volunteer at the RCC and (b) volunteers at RCCs continue to volunteer because the perceived costs of volunteering do not exceed the perceived rewards of volunteering. Using a modified version of Black's (1989) questionnaire, respondents were asked ...


An Examination Of Friendship In Middle Childhood: A Test Of The Similarity-Attraction Hypothesis, Bridget Trame Jul 2003

An Examination Of Friendship In Middle Childhood: A Test Of The Similarity-Attraction Hypothesis, Bridget Trame

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities between children and their friends. Previous research had focused on demographic similarities, with a little attention given to behavioral similarities. This study sought to expand the knowledge of similarities between friends to sociometric and social information processing characteristics and show that friends were more similar than random pairs of children. Children completed a rating and nomination sociometric interview. Children also completed a social information processing interview in which they viewed ambiguous provocation situations and then rated a series of social goals and gave social problem solving responses. Two-hundred and twenty-four ...


Examining Emotional Intelligence And Social Skills In A Residential Deaf Population, Melissa Leohr Jul 2003

Examining Emotional Intelligence And Social Skills In A Residential Deaf Population, Melissa Leohr

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mayer and Salovey first defined emotional intelligence in 1990 (Mayer, 1999) and later revised that definition (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). In 1995, Goleman introduced a different concept of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1995). Bar-On presented a third conceptualization, as well as the first measure of the concept (Bar-On & Parker, 2000). Few studies have addressed emotional intelligence in children and adolescents, and nostudies have examined the concept in the deaf population. The purpose of the present study is to examine emotional intelligence, as well as social skills, in a residential deaf population. Fourteen students at the Kentucky School for the Deaf completed emotional ...


Young Childrens' Understanding Of Superstitions, Kara Yeckering Jul 2003

Young Childrens' Understanding Of Superstitions, Kara Yeckering

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The aim of this study was to examine young children's understanding of superstitions—specifically bad luck superstitions. Children between the ages of 4 and 9 received a set of interview questions concerning their experiences with superstitions, their beliefs about the efficacy of superstitions, and their knowledge of the mental and physical components of superstitions. Participants also completed a belief task designed to assess the relative importance of belief and action in superstitions. The findings indicate developmental patterns in children's awareness of superstitions and beliefs in efficacy of superstitions. With age, children demonstrated a significantly greater awareness of superstitions ...


Parental Understanding Of Miranda Rights, Abby Callis Jul 2003

Parental Understanding Of Miranda Rights, Abby Callis

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current research focuses on parents' level of understanding of Miranda rights and parents' likelihood of encouraging their teenagers to waive their Miranda rights. The previous research suggests that parents alone may not adequately protect juveniles' rights during interrogation and waiver. Prior research also suggests that parents' and juveniles' past experience with the justice system may not help them during their current interrogation and waiver. A 17-item questionnaire was used to assess the two dependent variables and the two independent variables. The two dependent variables were parents' understanding of Miranda rights and parents' likelihood of encouraging arrested teens to waive ...


The Relationship Between Sport Fandom, Identification With A Specific Team, And An Individual's Socialization Experiences, Paul Frederiksen Jul 2003

The Relationship Between Sport Fandom, Identification With A Specific Team, And An Individual's Socialization Experiences, Paul Frederiksen

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study was designed to gain a better understanding of why some people become sport fans and others do not. The study focused specifically on the differences in socialization experiences between people high and low in sport fandom and people high and low in team identification. Warm (2003) defines sport fandom as one's identification with his or her role as a sport fan. Wann (1997) states that team identification involves a person's psychological connection and attachment to a specific team. Understanding why people become sport fans can be of vital importance to sport marketers. Participants completed self-report ...


A Comparison Of Symptom Severity Between University Counseling Center And Community Mental Health Center Clients, Joshua Gunn Jul 2003

A Comparison Of Symptom Severity Between University Counseling Center And Community Mental Health Center Clients, Joshua Gunn

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study compares presenting levels of psychological distress at a university counseling center and a community mental health center. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was completed by clients at intake, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. A significant difference was found between the two service units on the Global Symptom Index and all nine scales of the BSI. There were no gender differences in overall levels of psychological distress; however, a difference was found on the interpersonal hostility scale. Implications of the study, as well as limitations and suggestions for future research, are discussed.


The Negative Effects Of Media Advertisements On Men's Body Satisfaction, Lisa Lorenzen Jun 2003

The Negative Effects Of Media Advertisements On Men's Body Satisfaction, Lisa Lorenzen

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined the effect of exposure to muscular ideal bodies on body satisfaction in men to see if the effects are similar to what women experience when they are exposed to thin bodies. Participants were 104 college men attending Western Kentucky University. Age of the participants ranged from 18 to 32 years, with a mean of 20.15 years (SD = 2.64). All participants were assessed on the Body Assessment (BA), which measures degree of satisfaction with 25 various aspects of the body. Participants were assessed on this measure before and after exposure to either muscular or non-muscular advertisements ...


Distributive Justice: Perceptions Of Star Player Treatment In Work Team Settings, Nadim Zaidy May 2003

Distributive Justice: Perceptions Of Star Player Treatment In Work Team Settings, Nadim Zaidy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study examined the effects of punishment given to the most valued team member who has committed a company rule violation. The team is working on an important project where the contribution by that valued member is critical to project completion. The study assessed the effects of the severity of rule violation, the severity of the punishment, the consistency of the punishment, and who is impacted by the punishment. The results indicated that when a valued employee has committed a rule violation, applying consistent punishment is perceived as more fair and appropriate by the teammates. However, when that valued ...


Consultation Trends In School Psychology Literature, Janelle Zaciewski May 2003

Consultation Trends In School Psychology Literature, Janelle Zaciewski

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Consultation is a prominent indirect service delivery method in school psychology today. Several publications endorsed by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) have traditionally suggested the mental health, organizational, and behavioral models of consultation as the three prominent consultation models in the field of school psychology. However, no supporting data are cited and it is unclear if these three models are still prominent in school psychology today. The present research examined the consultation literature over the last 22 years in two prominent school psychology journals, Journal of School Psychology and School Psychology Quarterly (originally called Professional School Psychology). This ...


The Influence Of Job Satisfaction And Life Satisfaction On Immediate Mood States, Withdrawal Intentions, And Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Lynne Battista May 2003

The Influence Of Job Satisfaction And Life Satisfaction On Immediate Mood States, Withdrawal Intentions, And Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Lynne Battista

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Affective states influence an individual's level of job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Affective states also influence behavior (e.g., withdrawal intentions and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors). The present study investigated the inverse relationship—that is, whether job and life satisfaction influence immediate mood state, and consequently withdrawal intentions and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Participants, who role played a restaurant server, were given a scenario that induced either positive job or life satisfaction, negative job or life satisfaction, or no information was given regarding their level of job or life satisfaction. Participants then responded to instruments measuring immediate mood state and behavioral ...


The Effects Of Goal Orientation And Type Of Feedback On Perceived Competence And Performance, Adam Leezer May 2003

The Effects Of Goal Orientation And Type Of Feedback On Perceived Competence And Performance, Adam Leezer

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The theory of goal orientation holds that persons will generally be motivated by one of three goal orientations in an achievement setting: a learning orientation, a performance-prove orientation, or a performance-avoid orientation. These goal orientations create the mental frameworks that an individual uses to interpret and respond to achievement settings, and are associated with different cognitive, behavioral, and affective responses to feedback, task-difficulty, and task success/failure. In addition, different types of feedback can orient individuals to different aspects of a task, and result in differing feedback effects. The present study examined how different types of feedback affect the perceived ...


Consultation Trends In School Psychology Review Over The Last Twenty-Two Years, Jill Lawson May 2003

Consultation Trends In School Psychology Review Over The Last Twenty-Two Years, Jill Lawson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Among the multiple roles of a school psychologist is consultation. The Mental Health, Organizational, and Behavioral models of consultation are reported in publications by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) to be the prominent models in the field of school psychology. However, no supporting data are cited; thus it is unclear whether these three consultation models are the most prominent in school psychology today. The current study evaluated the consultation literature over the past twenty-two years in the professional journal School Psychology Review. Consultation articles were analyzed to obtain information regarding the frequency of consultation articles published, the most ...


Predictive Validity Of Kindergarten Phonemic Awareness Measures On Second Grade Reading Skills, Sarah Midden May 2003

Predictive Validity Of Kindergarten Phonemic Awareness Measures On Second Grade Reading Skills, Sarah Midden

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In order to succeed and progress in the academic domain, a student must possess basic reading skills. One characteristic of poor readers is their lack of understanding of phonological structure and lack of awareness of phonemes. Phonemic awareness tasks are divided into two broad categories: synthetic or analytic. Both have been shown to be accurate indicators of later reading ability. Little research has been conducted on the predictive nature of some of the recently published measures of phonemic awareness. The purpose of the current study is to examine four published measures to determine which measures are the best predictors of ...


The Implicit Association Test As A Measure Of Attitudinal Biases Towards Individuals With Disabilities: Assessing The Convergent Validity With The Interaction With Disabled Persons Scale And Tringo's Disability Social Distance Scale, Julie Nicholas May 2003

The Implicit Association Test As A Measure Of Attitudinal Biases Towards Individuals With Disabilities: Assessing The Convergent Validity With The Interaction With Disabled Persons Scale And Tringo's Disability Social Distance Scale, Julie Nicholas

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study addressed attitudes toward individuals with disabilities. Barriers that individuals with disabilities have faced and continue to face were discussed. Drawbacks (e.g., fakeability and unidimensionality) of traditional paper-and-pencil tests were presented. The Implicit Association Test (IAT), Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDP), Tringo's Disability Social Distance Scale (DSDS), and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) were administered to 74 college students. Participants completed IAT tests for four disability conditions (i.e., paraplegic, alcoholism, cancer, and mental illness) in an effort to replicate Tringo's Hierarchy of Preference. The Hierarchy of Preference was not replicated in the current ...


Influences On Juror's Perceptions Of Sexual Harassment, Shawn Rainey May 2003

Influences On Juror's Perceptions Of Sexual Harassment, Shawn Rainey

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Participants role-played jurors evaluating the facts of a potential sexual harassment incident, including information on victim and perpetrator intoxication levels. They first made an individual determination of sexual harassment, followed by a group determination. Generally, sober perpetrators were more likely to be perceived as guilty of sexual harassment than either intoxicated perpetrators or when no information on perpetrator intoxication was available. However, victim intoxication interacted with gender to impact decisions of sexual harassment. Men were less likely than women to find the perpetrator guilty when the victim was sober. Women were less likely than men to find the perpetrator guilty ...


Content Validation And Modification Of The Aauw Survey On Sexual Harassment In The Schools For Use With Juvenile Sexual Offenders, Daniel Belding May 2003

Content Validation And Modification Of The Aauw Survey On Sexual Harassment In The Schools For Use With Juvenile Sexual Offenders, Daniel Belding

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This project was conducted to validate the survey used by the American Association of University Women in the study of sexual harassment in the schools, for use in studying the behaviors of juvenile sexual offenders in schools. The original survey was modified to decrease bias in the questions and eliminate questions that did not pertain to information that may be significant for juvenile sexual offenders. The project solicited information from juvenile sexual offenders (n=9) and experts (n=6) in the field of juvenile sexual offending to validate and modify the survey to better look at juvenile sexual offender behaviors ...