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Psychology

Western Kentucky University

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

1999

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Aging And Attentional Control In The Stroop Priming Task, Jennifer Naylor Dec 1999

Aging And Attentional Control In The Stroop Priming Task, Jennifer Naylor

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This experiment was conducted to examine whether older adults are capable of developing attentional strategies to reduce interference from irrelevant information. Sixty young and 60 older adults were asked to name the ink color of a non-black neutral word, which was presented adjacent to a color word or a neutral word (Lowe & Mitterer, 1982). Twelve young and 12 older adults were assigned to 1 of 5 list compositions. The first list consisted of 100% congruent items (ink color of a neutral word compatible with the color word), and 0% incongruent items (ink color of a neutral word incompatible with the color word; 100C/0I). The remaining lists consisted of 75I/25C, 50I/50C, 25F75C and 0I/100C, respectively. Participants' interference and facilitation scores were computed. The results indicated that older adults experienced more interference on incongruent trials than did young adults, which is indicative of inhibitory decline. However, both young ...


The Relationship Between Freshman College Student Satisfaction And College Adjustment, Jason Gregory Dec 1999

The Relationship Between Freshman College Student Satisfaction And College Adjustment, Jason Gregory

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In this study, I explored the relationship between freshman college student satisfaction and college adjustment. Using the College Student Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSSQ) and the College Adjustment Scale (CAS), the "Interpersonal Problems" subscale was found to be moderately predictive of college student satisfaction. No other subscales were predictive. Contrary to expectation, grade point average (GPA) was not a significant factor. Some gender differences were found. Suggestions for program implementation were suggested.


Perceiving Organizational Conflict: The Effect Of Occupational Rank And Sex On Perceptions Of Conflict In The Workplace, Eric Hatcher Dec 1999

Perceiving Organizational Conflict: The Effect Of Occupational Rank And Sex On Perceptions Of Conflict In The Workplace, Eric Hatcher

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In this study, perceptions of conflict were examined with respect to sex and occupational rank. The model for this study was Tjosvold's cooperation theory. Yet, unlike much of Tjosvold's work, I examined cooperation as a dependent rather than an independent variable. A reward-level pre-test was used to account for the predisposition to cooperate, and a mixed motive scale (post-test) was used to measure any differences in cooperation between occupational ranks and the sexes. Two hypotheses in this study were tested. First, in a between-rank conflict, supervisors were expected to view the conflict as competitive, while subordinates were expected ...


Rater Training To Improve Student Evaluations Of Teaching Effectiveness, Robert Beeler Dec 1999

Rater Training To Improve Student Evaluations Of Teaching Effectiveness, Robert Beeler

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The impact of rater training on students performing evaluations of teaching effectiveness was evaluated. Training was administered either via live lecture or video tape. Both trained groups were compared with a no training control group. It was hypothesized that the training would result in more accurate assessments of teaching evaluations and that there would be no significant differences between either of the trained groups. Results showed that students were able to distinguish between dimensions of performance. However, no effects of training were found. The trained groups did not differ significantly from the untrained control group on instructor ratings.


A Comparison Of The Transition Of Special Needs Students To Regular Education Students, Anita Burnette Sep 1999

A Comparison Of The Transition Of Special Needs Students To Regular Education Students, Anita Burnette

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study investigated the success of transition from school to community life of special needs students in comparison to a similar population served in regular education. Graduates of a western Kentucky high school over a three year period composed the population for the study- Variables observed were KIRIS test results, economic status, and successful transition as measured by the KIRIS Adult Report to Life. Results indicated special needs students were as successful in the transition process as the population to which they were compared. Results have implications that transition plans and teams are necessary for some regular education students as ...


Aging And Stereoscopic Shape Perception, Thomas Dawson Aug 1999

Aging And Stereoscopic Shape Perception, Thomas Dawson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Past research on stereoscopic depth perception among the elderly has led to inconsistent findings. Some research on stereopsis and aging has found that younger and older adults are essentially the same in terms of their stereoscopic ability, while other research has found evidence of large differences. This past research has largely been limited to investigations of stereoacuity. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to extend this earlier research to compare how older and younger observers perceive the magnitude of stereoscopically defined depth intervals. Random-dot stereograms depicting sinusoidal surfaces were shown to seven younger (i.e., ages 30 and below) and ...


The Relationship Between Loneliness And Social Skills In Learning Disabled And Regular Education Populations, Roberta Miller Aug 1999

The Relationship Between Loneliness And Social Skills In Learning Disabled And Regular Education Populations, Roberta Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Loneliness in children has been associated with internalizing symptoms such as shyness, depression, and low self-esteem (Brage, Meredith, & Woodward, 1993; Renshaw & Brown, 1993; Rubin, LeMare, & Lollis, 1990) and externalizing symptoms such as aggression (Coie, Dodge, & Coppotelli, 1982; Cassidy & Asher, 1992; Dobson, Campbell, & Dobson, 1987). The later outcomes of both of these kinds of internalizing and externalizing symptoms include school withdrawal, criminality, and victimization (Rubin, 1985; Parker & Asher, 1987). We know that children who rate themselves lonely tend to be rejected by peer groups. We also know that children who are rejected by peer groups lack social skills. Thus, one might speculate that there is a relationship between perceived loneliness and level of social skills. Given the evidence for the implications of loneliness, this study compared self-reports of loneliness and social skills between learning disabled students. A sample of 31 learning disabled ...


An In-Depth Analysis Of Students' Academic Retention Abilities In Traditional And Alternative Calendar Schools, Jennifer Reece Aug 1999

An In-Depth Analysis Of Students' Academic Retention Abilities In Traditional And Alternative Calendar Schools, Jennifer Reece

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The adoption of an alternative school calendar is a widely discussed topic in education reform today. The need to help students retain more academic skills after summer vacation is one reason school districts are considering alternative calendars. A recent study by Nofsinger (1999) of elementary students used Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) probes to measure academic skills in the Spring and the Fall in both traditional and alternative calendar schools. This present study further analyzed data collected during Nofsinger's (1999) study to determine whether certain groups of students (i.e., high, middle, and low achievers) gained more benefit from traditional or ...


Peer Relations In The Ungraded Primary: An Examination Of Friendship And Its Benefits, Donna Gregory Aug 1999

Peer Relations In The Ungraded Primary: An Examination Of Friendship And Its Benefits, Donna Gregory

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mixed-age peer contexts have been considered important in the peer relations literature, but there has been relatively little research on children's peer relations in these settings. Ungraded primary programs mandated by recent school reform efforts in Kentucky provide a unique opportunity to study peer relations in a mixed-age context. The present study examined patterns of reciprocated friendship in ungraded primary classrooms and their relation to peer- and teacher-rated social competence. Both level of overall peer acceptance and age relative to ungraded primary classmates influenced the number and pattern of reciprocated friendships. Children who had friends were seen as more ...


Attitudes Toward Diversity: Determining Differences By Social Locators, Stacey Sympson Aug 1999

Attitudes Toward Diversity: Determining Differences By Social Locators, Stacey Sympson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Diversity training in workplaces is occurring across the U.S. at a growing rate. These programs attempt to make work environments more pluralistic for everyone. Conflict and feminist theory both agree that those with less power will see issues in a different way than will those with more power. This research involved a questionnaire administered to employees at a governmental agency in a small city in the Southeastern United States. Indices were used to measure attitudes toward diversity and sexual orientation. T-tests and multiple regressions were employed to determine the differences in employees' attitudes toward the two dependent variables. Results ...


Anger And Alcohol Use: A Model Of Coping Styles, Alcohol Expectancies And The Experience And Expression Of Anger, Shauna Willard Aug 1999

Anger And Alcohol Use: A Model Of Coping Styles, Alcohol Expectancies And The Experience And Expression Of Anger, Shauna Willard

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The researcher investigated the relationship between anger experience and expression, coping styles, and expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol in a young male population. Anger experience and expression was measured using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, coping styles were assessed using the Coping Response Inventory, alcohol expectancies were determined using the Alcohol Effects Questionnaire-2, and alcohol use was measured using the Alcohol Use Inventory. The results indicated that young males who abuse alcohol utilize less effective coping styles, such as cognitive avoidance. Alcohol abusing males also believe alcohol will increase their power and aggression. A linear regression demonstrated that males ...


The Effect Of Ethnicity And Generation On Cultural Values, Launa Beck Aug 1999

The Effect Of Ethnicity And Generation On Cultural Values, Launa Beck

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Using an existential perspective, the researcher investigated the world views of 155 people divided first by ethnic group and then (n = 144) by generation. African Americans and White Americans, Baby Boomers and Generation Xers completed the Scale to Assess World Views (Ibrahim & Owen, 1994) at a grocery store in the Midwest. Results indicate significant differences between African Americans and White Americans on the Pessimistic, Traditional, and Here and Now world views but no difference in rank order. Coefficient alphas for the subscales ranged from (.42) to (.67) with an overall value of (.82) for the scale. A confirmatory factor analysis ...


Retention Of Academic Skills Over The Summer Months In Alternative And Traditional Calendar Schools, Christy Nofsinger May 1999

Retention Of Academic Skills Over The Summer Months In Alternative And Traditional Calendar Schools, Christy Nofsinger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Alternative calendar schools are increasingly popular alternatives to the traditional nine-month school year and a three-month summer vacation. One purported advantage of a shorter summer vacation is the greater retention of academic material because there is less time to "forget" what was learned. While alternative calendar schools appear to be increasing in number, little research has been conducted to actually measure academic differences in these schools. The purpose of this research was to systematically compare the retention of academic skills of students in traditional and alternative calendar schools over the summer months. Three county-wide school districts participated in this study ...