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Psychology

Western Kentucky University

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

1995

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The Effects Of Race And Evidence On Jury Decision-Making In Sexual Harassment Cases, Riley Ross Aug 1995

The Effects Of Race And Evidence On Jury Decision-Making In Sexual Harassment Cases, Riley Ross

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Although sexual harassment has received a considerable amount of publicity since the Clarence Thomas confirmation hearings, current literature lacks an abundance of studies examining the outcome of sexual harassment cases. The researcher sought to examine the effect of an extralegal (legally irrelevant) factor and the amount of evidence on jury decision making. Specifically, the race of the defendant served as the extralegal factor, while the amount of evidence presented was determined in relation to how many variables (0, 2, or 4 sources of evidence) were included in a particular sexual harassment scenario. (The four variables used were: the presence of ...


Serial Pattern Learning By Event Observation: Effects Of Varying Amounts Of Pattern Experience, Roger Stubblefield Aug 1995

Serial Pattern Learning By Event Observation: Effects Of Varying Amounts Of Pattern Experience, Roger Stubblefield

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study was designed to replicate the findings by Howard, Mutter & Howard (1992) that (1) overt behavioral responding is not prerequisite to serial pattern learning and (2) that observation produces a qualitatively different form of representation than an overt motor response. We also sought to extend these findings by determining how much exposure to the pattern is necessary to replicate these effects and by examining the role of stimulus-to-response mapping by adding an additional response group (unmapped-response). A version of the serial learning task used by Howard et al. (1992) was used. The task consisted of two phases. During the acquisition phase , an asterisk appeared in one of four locations on a video monitor. Three groups received either 1, 2, or 3 blocks of trials in which the position of the asterisk followed a 10-trial pattern (pattern block). Subjects in each group either (1) manually responded to the asterisk location (mapped-response group), (2) simply observed the asterisk locations (observation group), or (3) made a manual response that was unrelated to the pattern (unmapped-response group). During the remaining three blocks of the acquisition phase all groups responded to the asterisk location. Of the three remaining acquisition blocks, the first and third blocks were pattern blocks, while the location of the asterisk on the second block was determined randomly (random block). The difference in response times between the random block and the preceding pattern block provided an indirect measure of pattern learning. During the prediction phase , subjects predicted the locations of the asterisk. Prediction accuracy provided a direct measure of pattern learning. Results of our indirect measure of pattern learning supported the findings by Howard et al. (1992) that overt behavioral responding is not prerequisite to serial pattern learning. In addition, the amount of training strongly influenced both procedural and declarative learning. However, we were unable to find conclusive evidence to support the proposal by Howard et al. that observation produces an advantage over response on the direct measure of pattern learning. One possible reason for this could have been low statistical power to detect group differences. Because effect sizes for group differences were small to moderate (group, r|2 = .04; group by training, r|2 = .06), and power analyses for these effects indicated that power was very low (group, power = .40; group by training, power = .45), we could not rule out this possibility. A second possible reason could have been a slight difference in methodology. While Howard et al. included only one awareness probe (following prediction), our design included two awareness probes (one following acquisition and one following prediction). It is possible that the addition of the early awareness probe obscured group differences by sensitizing subjects to the ...


The Utility And Usefulness Of An In-House Database: An Aid To Understand Student Ratings, Mark Tolley Aug 1995

The Utility And Usefulness Of An In-House Database: An Aid To Understand Student Ratings, Mark Tolley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this project is three fold:(a) a review of the literature regarding student ratings, (b) the creation of a student rating database and (c) the development of an applications manual to accompany the database. From a thorough review of the literature, this project identifies the utility and usefulness of student ratings as one element in the evaluation of instruction. The literature review addressed the following questions: (a) Do we need student ratings of instructors? (b) Can student rating data be used to improve instruction? (c) can we be sure that the data and the means by which ...


The Relationship Between Vision And Athletic Performance, Steven Richard Wininger Aug 1995

The Relationship Between Vision And Athletic Performance, Steven Richard Wininger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In today's competitive world of athletics it is not uncommon to discover a few athletes actively involved in some form of vision enhancement motivated by the promise that the exercises will improve their athletic performance. A review of past and present literature in the area of sports vision revealed that these athletes are performing exercises based upon a very weak scientific foundation. Most of the research investigating the relationship between vision and athletic performance has been plagued by flawed methodology, as well as extremely low numbers of subjects. The purpose of this study was to test for any relationship ...


Client Satisfaction And Kentucky Adult Day Care Services, Karen Beavers Aug 1995

Client Satisfaction And Kentucky Adult Day Care Services, Karen Beavers

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Adult day care is a new and rapidly growing alternative to long term care for the burgeoning population of frail and disabled elderly. A review of the literature regarding adult day care services revealed a limited number of studies addressing client satisfaction. The current study of 68 participants of nine Kentucky adult day health and social model adult day care centers assessed client satisfaction with services and explored variables related to satisfaction. It was hypothesized that clients who preferred to be at the adult day care center rather than in another location would report higher levels of satisfaction with services ...


Use Of The Transdisciplinary Teaming Approach For Early Intervention Service Delivery In Kentucky, David Taylor Jul 1995

Use Of The Transdisciplinary Teaming Approach For Early Intervention Service Delivery In Kentucky, David Taylor

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study was conducted to determine the extent to which the transdisciplinary teaming approach is being utilized in early intervention programs serving infants and toddlers birth through three years in the state of Kentucky. Information was gathered through a survey mailed to intervention agencies in Kentucky. Of the 65 agencies to whom surveys were sent, 30 were considered usable and analyzed. The largest percentage of surveys were completed by respondents working in a coordinator's position with an educational level of at least a bachelor's degree. Results of the study indicated that programs are not fully utilizing the transdisciplinary ...


Temperament And Goodness-Of-Fit And Their Effects On Parenting Stress, Kimberly Whorley Jul 1995

Temperament And Goodness-Of-Fit And Their Effects On Parenting Stress, Kimberly Whorley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The temperament patterns and temperament discrepancies between parents and children ages 3-7 years-old, who had been referred in school for behavior problems and children with no reported classroom behavior problems (matched control subjects), were examined along with levels of parenting stress. Nine "referred" children and nine "nonreferred" comparison children, matched on age and gender, were included in the study. The parents completed the TABC parent form, DOTS-R, and PSI. Whether or not the children had been referred for behavioral problems, ADHD, speech or learning difficulties was also recorded. It was found that the children in the "referred" group were reported ...


Reliability And Validity Of The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test For Children With Hearing Impairments, Erin Richardson Jul 1995

Reliability And Validity Of The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test For Children With Hearing Impairments, Erin Richardson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This researcher investigated the reliability and validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) for a hearing-impaired population. The subjects consisted of 15 hearing-impaired children between the ages of five and eight who are are enrolled in special education programs for the hearing-impaired. Three week test-retest reliability coefficients were moderate to high for all subtests (.65 to .89) and high for all scales and the total score (.88 to .96). Intracorrelations support the structure of the UNIT in that subtests demonstrated high correlations with the scale they were purported to represent. Concurrent validity was assessed with the Naglieri Draw-A-Person (DAP ...


The Peer Status Of Gifted Children Across Educational Settings, Angela Cunningham Jul 1995

The Peer Status Of Gifted Children Across Educational Settings, Angela Cunningham

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Although previous studies have examined the peer status of gifted students in upper elementary grades, very little is known about the social status and peer acceptance of gifted children in the lower elementary grades (k-3). In the present study, the researcher compared the peer status of teacher nominated gifted kindergarten children to that of their non-gifted classmates on measures of peer acceptance and social status. Also compared was the peer status of gifted children in the lower elementary grades (1-3) within the regular classroom and an enrichment classroom on measures of peer acceptance and social status. Results indicate that gifted ...


Things That Go Bump In The Night: An Examination Of Magical Thinking In Young Children, Elizabeth Easton Jul 1995

Things That Go Bump In The Night: An Examination Of Magical Thinking In Young Children, Elizabeth Easton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Past research has shown that children as young as age 3 years are able to distinguish the difference between mental entities and real objects (Estes, Wellman, & Woolley, 1989). Yet, many children still display persistent fears of imaginary creatures, which they claim are not real. In the present study, a replication-extension of P. Harris, E. Brown, C. Marriott, S. Whittall, and S. Harmer (1991), the researcher examined children's perceptions of imaginary creatures through a brief interview. Children were asked to pretend there existed either a monster or a rabbit in one of two large boxes. Children were then left alone ...


Impact Of Television Violence On Young Minds In An Urban Setting; An Introspective Study, Nirupama Sagar May 1995

Impact Of Television Violence On Young Minds In An Urban Setting; An Introspective Study, Nirupama Sagar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An institution such as broadcasting affects and is affected by the society, which encompasses the viewers and listeners it serves. The increase in crime and violence and the fear of crime may actually help explain the popularity of TV violence. Media violence has been a topic of popular interest right from the fifties, when television was still being applauded as one more of those human marvels. Therefore, for my study, I will concentrate on television, a medium that involves both the visual and hearing senses and to which young people are particularly drawn. The sample for this study involved five ...


A Case Study On Elective Mutism Using A Consultation Model, Nancy Reeves May 1995

A Case Study On Elective Mutism Using A Consultation Model, Nancy Reeves

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In the present case study, shaping/desensitization procedures, along with behavioral contracts, were implemented through a consultation model in an attempt to treat a seven year-old elective mute female within the school setting. The author (consultant) provided information to the subject's teacher (consultee) in order to treat the subject's elective mutism. The procedure consisted of trials using a sound-level meter to successively approximate the desired behavior of speaking at school. The goal was for the subject to respond verbally to questions and requests invoked by her teachers and peers within the school setting and to improve her social ...


The Useful Field Of View Of Reading Disabled Children, Jerri Edwards Apr 1995

The Useful Field Of View Of Reading Disabled Children, Jerri Edwards

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Recent research suggests that some reading disabled children process visual information differently due to a transient system or magnocellular pathway deficit. In light of this hypothesis, the present study represents an investigation of the visual processing abilities of both good and poor readers using a new technique which taps several aspects of transient visual input by presenting brief masked targets with varying attentional demand. Sixteen subjects' reading capabilities were assessed by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised. The subjects were classified as reading disabled if they had a two or more year lag in reading skill (n=7) or as non-reading ...