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Psychology

Western Kentucky University

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

1977

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Death Anxiety And Religious Orientation, Dennis Wagner Dec 1977

Death Anxiety And Religious Orientation, Dennis Wagner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A sample of the general population from a small mid-South town was divided according to orthodoxy, devotionalism, denomination and denominational upbringing. Degree of death anxiety was assessed by the Templer Death Anxiety Scale. A multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that non-orthodox individuals or individuals having no religious affiliation had significantly lower death anxiety than their heterodox or religiously affiliated counterparts. Devotionalism, denomination and denominational upbringing were not significantly related to death anxiety. Several covariates were found to be related to death anxiety: death of a family member or friend (within one year), education, and father living or dead ...


Leniency Error As A Function Of The Rater's Need For Social Approval, Danny Bean Dec 1977

Leniency Error As A Function Of The Rater's Need For Social Approval, Danny Bean

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The effects of the rater's need for social approval (N-SA) on leniency error in ratings was investigated. Each of 19 supervisors rated the performance of a common set of 12 workers. Using an ANOVA procedure (Guilford, 1954) leniency error was identified. The effects of N-SA as measured by the Personal Reactions Inventory (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) and the Least Preferred Coworker (Fiedler, 1967) were partialed out of the ratings. When the ANOVA was repeated on the partialed ratings, it was hypothesized that reduced leniency error would result. Contrary to expectations, there was virtually no reduction in leniency error. The low ...


Peer Facilitators: An Exploratory Study, Jeffrey Haskins Dec 1977

Peer Facilitators: An Exploratory Study, Jeffrey Haskins

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Seventh grade males were trained as peer facilitators ;or a group of sixth grade males (peers) as part of an experimental guidance program. Training of peer facilitators was implemented through a modified short term human relations development model. Measures of personal, social, and overall adjustment, as assessed by the California Test of Personality, were obtained for the facilitators and group members before and after the peer facilitator program. No significant pre- and post-test differences were obtained on the select personality variables for either group. A method for assessing facilitative responsiveness was developed using written peer stimulus statements. In comparison to ...


Proximity Of Reinforcement & The Protestant Ethic Effect, Sharon Miller Dec 1977

Proximity Of Reinforcement & The Protestant Ethic Effect, Sharon Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Twelve food-deprived male rats were trained to barpress for food pellets in one of three operant chambers. The chambers were of standard size, double in length, or triple in length. After training, cod cup full of pellets was placed in the corner opposite the operant bar, and the eating behavior of the rats in this choice situation was observed. The dependent measure was the percentage of the total amount of food consumed that had been obtained by barpressing. Individual comparisons between the mean percentage of food earned over the four test sessions revealed that those rats in the longest chamber ...


The Relationship Between Number Of Sessions And Client-Judged Outcome, Jay Athy Aug 1977

The Relationship Between Number Of Sessions And Client-Judged Outcome, Jay Athy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Outpatient clients from a community mental health center were surveyed by questionnaire to examine the relationship between number of therapy sessions attended and client-judgments of therapeutic outcome. The results indicated that client-judgments of therapeutic benefit tended to be independent of length of therapy when the client-judgement is a global assessment of therapeutic benefit. Controls for mode of therapy, initial diagnosis, type of referral, and status of case yielded similar findings. The nature of these relationships was nonlinear with the possible existence of different zones of sessions that account for varying degrees of client-perceived success. It also appeared that clients evaluated ...


The Effects Of A Group Therapy Program On Truancy, Keith Politi Aug 1977

The Effects Of A Group Therapy Program On Truancy, Keith Politi

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Two truancy groups were conducted for the Simpson County School System. A multifaceted group treatment approach was used with truants in an attempt to reduce school absences, increase feelings of personal and social security and change negative attitudes toward school. A contingency contract in conjunction with a modified token economy was used to increase school attendance. Group discussions were used to increase feelings of personal and social security and to change negative attitudes toward school. A comparison of group members pre- and postgroup school attendance records showed that group members significantly increased their school attendance. A comparison of group members ...


An Examination Of Commitment To Scholarly Openness & Religious Belief Among Academicians, Jim Alsdurf Aug 1977

An Examination Of Commitment To Scholarly Openness & Religious Belief Among Academicians, Jim Alsdurf

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The relations between faculty religiosity, changes in reliaious beliefs, and commitment to scholarly openness were examined through a survey of 257 faculty at three universities. A new measure of scholarly openness was developed for this study because of ambiguities in previous indirect and attitudinal measures. Patterns of faculty religiosity as a function of education, graduate school prestige, academic discipline, and educational period of religious change are generally compatible with previous studies, but patterns for scholarly openness are not. Faculty religiosity and scholarly openness were negatively correlated for those Faculty who had never experienced sinnificant reliaious change and for those who ...


Indicators Of Anxiety On Bender Records: A Correlational Study, Kevin Dooley Aug 1977

Indicators Of Anxiety On Bender Records: A Correlational Study, Kevin Dooley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Since the Bender's growth in popularity as a tool for assessing organic brain damage, other factors have been shown to influence the accuracy of design reproductions. Mental deficiency, cultural background, early age and :ex are among those factors. Attempts to demonstrate the effect: of personality traits have been few, but supportive. Research into the influence of personality on Bender performance has largely been group comparison designs. The degree of overlap found among groups has reduced the degree of confidence with which the results can be applied to individual performance:. The present study used a correlational approach to determine how ...


The Relationship Between Sensation Seeking & Conformity, Shirley Rabuck Jul 1977

The Relationship Between Sensation Seeking & Conformity, Shirley Rabuck

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Two hundred male, Introductory Psychology students were tested using the A:L and SSS. Forty-two students were then selected using approximately the upper, lower, and middle 7'7 of the distribution of scores on the total SSS as cut-of: points. The Asch Conformity Test (ASCII) was then administered to each of those 42 subjects. It was hypothesized that high sensation seekers (based on total scale score, SSS) would behave in a nonconforming manner and that low sensation seekers would more readily conform to social pressures as measured by the ASCH. It was also hypothesized that when the effects of dominance ...


Age As A Variable Affecting The Protestant Ethic Effect, Roger Laird Jul 1977

Age As A Variable Affecting The Protestant Ethic Effect, Roger Laird

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Fourteen female rats divided into three age groups of 110, 160 and 240 days old were compared for amount of barpressing in the Protestant Ethic Effect choice situation. All subjects were maintained on a 23 hour water deprivation schedule and trained to barpress for a 10% sucrose solution. Training consisted of one 12 hour massed practice session then 15 daily training sessions followed by 5 days of testing. During testing the rats were placed in the center of the cage and allowed to obtain the reinforcer from either the drinking tube attached to the barpress mechanism or from an identical ...


The Assessment Of Competence In Elderly Geriatric Subjects, Bernard Schut Jun 1977

The Assessment Of Competence In Elderly Geriatric Subjects, Bernard Schut

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of the present research was two-fold- (1) to investigate competence, using the Protestant Ethic Effect (PEE) paradigm, in institutionalized, elderly subjects and (2) to determine the viability of an alternative task such as problem solving to motor tasks in the PEE situation. Two groups of patients, who differed in functioning level, performed a cognitive and a motor task in a situation with four response/reinforcement alternatives. Three dependent variables were used to evaluate subject's performance Analysis of tokens obtained in experimental situations indicated tow functioning patients, carrying out the cognitive task, preferred position-, where tokens were available ...


Moral Reasoning Structures & Character Structures: A Review & Extension Of Relationships Between Moral Judgment Stages & Personality Organization, Gregory Wilmoth Jun 1977

Moral Reasoning Structures & Character Structures: A Review & Extension Of Relationships Between Moral Judgment Stages & Personality Organization, Gregory Wilmoth

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The theoretical and empirical relationships of moral behavior and moral judgment to personality were reviewed. Kohlberg's moral development theory and Fromm's character development theory provided the integrating organization for the review of nineteen personality variables examined with six moral judgment instruments.

The Moral Judgment Scale, the Sexual Moral Judgment Scale, the Objective Moral Judgment Scale, and the Measure of Moral Values were administered to eighty adult students. Four problems were tested: (1) psychometric comparisons of the four moral reasoning instruments, (2) a test of a trait theory of moral character, (3) a test of increased self-actualization with moral ...


Personality Variables Of United States Auto Club Sprint Car Drivers, Jerry Nowicke May 1977

Personality Variables Of United States Auto Club Sprint Car Drivers, Jerry Nowicke

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The personality profile of 25 United States Auto Club sprint car drivers was compared to the previously established profile compiled by Dr. Keith Johnsgard, Dr. Bruce Ogilvie, and Kenneth Merrit on 30 highly successful Formula I and Sports Car Club of America sports car drivers using the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) as the instrument of differentiation. Although no statistical significance was attached to the difference between means of the two groups due to a lack of variance estimates for the 15 scales that comprise the EPPS regarding the sports car driving group, quite similar scores were obtained on 13 ...


Developmental Study Of The Mueller-Lyer Illusion Under Conditions Of Restricted Exposure Time & Task Interference, Jerald Clampitt Apr 1977

Developmental Study Of The Mueller-Lyer Illusion Under Conditions Of Restricted Exposure Time & Task Interference, Jerald Clampitt

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study brought together two lines of research in an attempt to explain some issues in perceptual development. The first pertained to the Mueller-Lyer illusion which tends to decrease with age. Piaaet attributed this change to increased perceptual activities, such as eye movements in the older subjects. Pollack related it to changes in the physical structure of the eye. Grice attributed the charge partially to cognitive processes, and partially to perceptual activities. Second, the concept of iconic memory was reviewed. Grice had employed the concept of iconic memory in an attempt to relate the age related changes in illusions ...


Growth Indicators As A Function Of Cognitive & Affective Experiences In A Structured Classroom Setting, Michael Miller Apr 1977

Growth Indicators As A Function Of Cognitive & Affective Experiences In A Structured Classroom Setting, Michael Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Change in self-actualizing, assessed by the Personal Orientation Dimensions (POD), was examined for two sections of a sophomore level psychology class. The subjects were administered the POD at the beginning and the end of the semester. No significant differences were found in the amount of change in self-actualizing between the two groups. It was suggested that college may be a growth experience and that students at the sophomore level will not engage in growth exercises if they feel it is not related to their grades. It was further suggested that more research is needed on the POD and of ways ...


Motivation In Alcoholics To Seek Treatment, Cecil Miller Apr 1977

Motivation In Alcoholics To Seek Treatment, Cecil Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The relationships between two personality variables in alcoholics and motivation to seek treatment were examined in this study. The Psych -)logical Screening Inventory (PSI) was administered to a group of 73 alcoholics admitted to a detoxification unit. Before being discharged from the unit each alcoholic was referred to a treatment agency. Each alcoholic was then followed up at the agency to which he was referred. On the basis of this follow-up the alcoholics were divided into two groups; those seeking treatment and those not seeking treatment. No significant differences were found between the two groups on the personality variable measured ...


The Effects Of Prolonged Alcohol Ingestion During Gestation & Lactation On The Learning Ability Of The Offspring Of Rats, Deanna Lanier Apr 1977

The Effects Of Prolonged Alcohol Ingestion During Gestation & Lactation On The Learning Ability Of The Offspring Of Rats, Deanna Lanier

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study evaluated the effect of ethanol administration during prenatal and pre-weaning development on the maze learning (i.e., as assessed by performance on a pretrial and a Lashley III Maze) abilities of rat pups. The subjects consisted of 32 rat pups who were cross-fostered within and between the two dam conditions (i.e., alcohol and control) to produce the four groups: pups exposed to alcoholic mothers (1) during gestation and lactation; (2) gestation only; (3) lactation only; and (4) control pups from non-alcoholic mothers. A factorial split-ploy design was employed.

Results indicated a significant main effect of the ...


Learned Helplessness Through Observation: Failure To Escape Traumatic Shock As A Result Of Observing A Helpless Situation, Donald Jary Apr 1977

Learned Helplessness Through Observation: Failure To Escape Traumatic Shock As A Result Of Observing A Helpless Situation, Donald Jary

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Twenty naïve male and female hooded rats were randomly divided into four groups of five subjects each. The Observe Helpless group was allowed to observe Helpless subjects receive signaled, inescapable electric shock, after which they were tested for effective escape response acquisition. Subjects in the Observe Naïve group were allowed to observe Naïve subjects being given escape-avoidance training using signaled presentations of electric shock, after which the Observe Helpless group was given similar escape-avoidance training. Results indicate that there were significant differences in the acquisition of effective escape responses between the Observe Helpless group and the other two groups. Possible ...


Geriatric Program Evaluation: The Use Of Gardening As A Form Of Activity Therapy Among Institutionalized Elderly, Robert Hobson Mar 1977

Geriatric Program Evaluation: The Use Of Gardening As A Form Of Activity Therapy Among Institutionalized Elderly, Robert Hobson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An attempt was made to evaluate the institutional services provided by a community mental health center's geriatric program. Intervention by geriatric staff involved the use of gardening as a form of activity (remotivational) therapy. It was hypothesized that by involving personal care home client: in gardening, an increase in clients' morale and sociability would be observed. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Stockton Geriatric Rating Scale were used to assess changes in these areas. Croup 1 contained five clients who actively engaged in gardening. Group 2 contained 17 clients who, although not actively involved in the garden, were ...


A Psychometric Comparison Between Inhouse Versus Externally Developed Retranslation Scales, David Peak Mar 1977

A Psychometric Comparison Between Inhouse Versus Externally Developed Retranslation Scales, David Peak

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Using a Behavioral Expectation Scale (BES) format borrowed from the psychology department at the University of California – Berkeley and a BES form developed in and for a Southeastern university psychology department, students’ evaluations of their professors’ teaching performance were examined for interrater reliability, leniency error, variability and discriminability. Results indicate that neither form was psychometrically sound at the Southeastern university. Problems in obtaining sound ratings for the BES form were discussed.


Prediction Of Premature Termination Of Psychotherapy In A Community Mental Health Center, Jane Hoppin Feb 1977

Prediction Of Premature Termination Of Psychotherapy In A Community Mental Health Center, Jane Hoppin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine if prediction of premature termination of psychotherapy through the use of the Barrett-Lennard Inventory. The Study was conducted at health center and involved the clients could be attained Relationship a community mental of five therapists. The Relationship Inventory which assesses the relationship between client and therapist was mailed to clients who had terminated therapy against the advice of their therapists, and to clients who were still in therapy. The clients were asked to fill out the questionnaire anonymously, and send it back to the Center. Demographic data, such as age, sex, marital ...


The Effects Of Density, Group Size, Time, Sex & Locus Of Control On Crowding Stress, Sherry Wilk Feb 1977

The Effects Of Density, Group Size, Time, Sex & Locus Of Control On Crowding Stress, Sherry Wilk

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined, in an experimental setting, the effects of density, group size, sex, length of time, and locus of control on crowding stress. Subjects of the same sex were placed in either small or big groups of either high or low density, observed for two (early & late) 32 minute periods, and then requested to complete a questionnaire containing several dependent measures. Although the seven dependent measures of crowding stress (facial regard, fidgeting, feelings of comfort and well-being, interpersonal attraction, temporal estimation, spatial estimation, & altruism) were found to be relatively independent of each other, all were effected by one or ...


The Prediction Of Consumer Installment Credit Risk: A Criterion Refinement, Anthony Montebello Jan 1977

The Prediction Of Consumer Installment Credit Risk: A Criterion Refinement, Anthony Montebello

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Data were obtained from 186 applicants at a large Midwestern bank to test the hypothesized advantage of employing a continuous as opposed to a dichotomous criterion when predicting consumer installment credit risk. A continuous criterion of cost was derived and regressed on 21 background items obtained from the application blank (e.g., number of dependents, total monthly income, present indebtedness, etc.). The maximum step of the regression analysis yielded a multiple squared correlation coefficient of .24. This data was then subjected to multiple discriminant analysis employing a median split criterion which yielded an eta squared correlation coefficient of .13. As ...