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Psychology

Western Kentucky University

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

1976

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The Efficiency Of Verbal & Nonverbal Intellectual Measures As Predictors Of Achievement In Culturally Deprived Preschool Children, Beverly Freeman Dec 1976

The Efficiency Of Verbal & Nonverbal Intellectual Measures As Predictors Of Achievement In Culturally Deprived Preschool Children, Beverly Freeman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of the study was to investigate the predictive efficiency of verbal and nonverbal measures of intellectual functioning of the disadvantaged child in a preschool setting. The Peabody Individual Achievement Test (FIAT) was used as a measure of the current achievement level, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (GHDT), and the Bender Gestalt as predictors of achievement. The sample included 30 preschool children in an age range from 5 years - 0 months to 6 years - 7 months who were enrolled in a preschool program for the culturally deprived.

Both the relationships between ...


A Study Of The Effects Of The Professional Semester On Certain Aspects Of Personality & Interests Of Elementary Education Students Minoring In Special Education, Dorine Geeslin Dec 1976

A Study Of The Effects Of The Professional Semester On Certain Aspects Of Personality & Interests Of Elementary Education Students Minoring In Special Education, Dorine Geeslin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

When 32 elementary education students, 16 of whom were enrolled in an off-campus block of laboratory experiences with handicapped, took the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey, Form DD, there was no evidence that the professional semester affected self-confidence or social adjustment as measured by the number of extrapunitive and need-persistence reactions, respectively, on the P-F Study. The t test was used to compare the mean number of those responses made by members of the two groups. There was considerable evidence, however, that the number of subjects who gave elementary education the same or an even higher ...


Alcohol Addiction & The Rat As A Possible Animal For The Study Of Alcoholism, John Graham Dec 1976

Alcohol Addiction & The Rat As A Possible Animal For The Study Of Alcoholism, John Graham

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An attempt was made to produce an animal model for the study of alcoholism. It was hypothesized that the laboratory rat could be brought to physical dependency and maintained in that state under a free-choice circumstance. Two groups of 60-day-old Max hooded rats, consisting of 8 males and 8 females per group, were established to serve as experimental and control subjects. Two experiments were conducted. The intention of the first experiment was to install physical alcohol dependency in the experimental subjects with the use of a totally liquid diet. After the first experiment a 6-hr. period of total abstinence was ...


Social Desirability & Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Assertiveness In College Undergraduates, Clifton Mitchell Dec 1976

Social Desirability & Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Assertiveness In College Undergraduates, Clifton Mitchell

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Previous research concerning the relationship between locus of control and assertiveness has suggested that internals are more assertive than externals, hut the findings of earlier studies are inconsistent and inconclusive. The present study focused on the social desirability needs of subjects as related to locus of control and assertiveness. It was predicted that individuals who scored in the internal direction on the I-E scale and had a low social desirability need would receive higher scores on a test of assertive behavior than individuals who scored in the internal direction and had a high social desirability need. The Marlowe- Crown Social ...


The Influence Of Multiple Variables On The Protestant Ethic Effect, Gloria Rice Aug 1976

The Influence Of Multiple Variables On The Protestant Ethic Effect, Gloria Rice

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Research has shown that under certain conditions an organism will prefer to work for a reward rather than freeload for the identical reward. Length of barpress training, type of reinforcer, and strain of rat have all been shown to affect work behavior. Six Wistar and six Max Hooded rats were assigned to one of three treatment conditions. They earned either a water or a sucrose reinforcer for 5, 7, or 10 days. The rats were given two days of barpress shaping. Following barpress shaping, they completed 5, 7, or 10 days of barpress training. Training was followed by three days ...


The Relationships Between Maternal Locus Of Control, Maternal Iq & Infant Development, Vernon Westrich Aug 1976

The Relationships Between Maternal Locus Of Control, Maternal Iq & Infant Development, Vernon Westrich

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A group of mothers and their infants enrolled in a rural child development center served as the subjects for this study. This investigation was designed to study the relationships between maternal locus of control, maternal IQ and their effects upon an infant's rate of mental and motor development.

Locus of control was measured by a newly developed I-E scale designed for use with populations of low reading levels and low intelligence levels. The mother's IQ was measured with the PPVT, an instrument that yields passive, verbal intelligence scores. An infant's level of development was assessed with the ...


Development Of The God Concept In Children: An Exploratory Study, Dennis Feeley Aug 1976

Development Of The God Concept In Children: An Exploratory Study, Dennis Feeley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A study was designed to explore the developmental relationship between early childhood concepts of parent and more adult concepts of God. It attempted to identify the age at which absolute attributes such as omnipotence and ubiquity are taken away from parents and assigned to God. Based on both the theories of Freud and Piaget it was predicted that the transition will occur between the ages of four and eight. Forty children were administered an interview questionnaire and two short stories all of which depicted an attribute or characteristic which is traditionally viewed as being associated with God. Both techniques were ...


The Relationship Of Age & Marital Status To Affiliative Imagery & Fear Of Success In Women, Brenda Francis Aug 1976

The Relationship Of Age & Marital Status To Affiliative Imagery & Fear Of Success In Women, Brenda Francis

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Horner postulated the existence of an avoidance motive called the motive to avoid success and suggested that many women experience anxiety about achieving success because they expect negative consequences as a result of succeeding. Horner's fear of success concept has been widely cited as an explanation for the lack of stability and predictability in research on female achievement motivation. Recent research by Tomlinson-Keasey has demonstrated much lower fear of success in older, married college women than in a younger, single group. This finding was attributed to the age difference between the married and single groups, but more specifically to ...


Development Of The God Concept In Children: An Exploratory Study, Dennis Feeley Aug 1976

Development Of The God Concept In Children: An Exploratory Study, Dennis Feeley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A study was designed to explore the developmental relationship between early childhood concepts of parent and more adult concepts of God. It attempted to identify the age at which absolute attributes such as omnipotence and ubiquity are taken away from parents and assigned to God. Based on both the theories of Freud and Piaget it was predicted that the transition will occur between the ages of four and eight. Forty children were administered an interview questionnaire and two short stories all of which depicted an attribute or characteristic which is traditionally viewed as being associated with God. Both techniques were ...


The Effects Of A Sympathiomimetric Stressor On The Protestant Ethic Effect In Rats, Peter Mirabelle Aug 1976

The Effects Of A Sympathiomimetric Stressor On The Protestant Ethic Effect In Rats, Peter Mirabelle

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In an experiment which investigated the effects of stress on the Protestant Ethic Effect (PEE) 12 Wistar rats were trained for 20 days to barpress for their total water intake. Following training the rats were divided into two groups and were allowed to choose between barpressing for a 10% sucrose solution and consuming a freely available sucrose solution under either stress or nonstress conditions. Stress was defined as a .01 cc per 36g body weight injection of norepinephrine. The stress and nonstress conditions were counterbalanced during the choice session. Regardless of stress order both groups preferred the free over the ...


The Validity Generalization & Extension Of The Revised Iptis, William Hanshaw Jul 1976

The Validity Generalization & Extension Of The Revised Iptis, William Hanshaw

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The basic theoretical concepts of Rational-Emotive and Rational-Behavior Therapy were discussed along with a psychometric study of an inventory measuring irrational tendencies. The revised Irrational Personality Traits Inventory Scale (IPTIS), an inventory reported to measure how an individual thinks, feels, and acts, was investigated as to the soundness of its psychometric characteristics. More specifically, the purpose of this study was to: (a) determine the reliability of the revised IPTIS with a new sample from an older population, i.e., college students, (b) assess its concurrent validity with a measure of neuroticism, and (c) evaluate the possible effects of a socially ...


An Investigation Of Strategies To Reduce Structure Rule Coding Errors In Vroom & Yetton's Normative Model Of Leadership, Stephen Herbert Jul 1976

An Investigation Of Strategies To Reduce Structure Rule Coding Errors In Vroom & Yetton's Normative Model Of Leadership, Stephen Herbert

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Four versions of the structure rule and two levels of training were investigated in an attempt to eliminate structure rule coding errors in Vroom and Yetton's (1973) Normative model of leadership. One hundred and sixty volunteer general psychology students received either thirty or ninety minutes of training on the Normative model and then responded to fifteen hypothetical situational problems. A 2 X 4 analysis of variance failed to reveal any significant effects. Neither the training nor structure rule effect was found to be significant. There was also no interaction between training and structure rule. Therefore, the various formats of ...


Student Psychological Variables & The Relationship Of Student Perception Of Teachers, Karen Wolfe Jul 1976

Student Psychological Variables & The Relationship Of Student Perception Of Teachers, Karen Wolfe

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A set of six student psychological variables-- internal locus of control for positive and negative events as assessed by the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire; self esteem as assessed by the Self Esteem Inventory; and level of regard, empathetic understanding, unconditionality of regard and congruence as assessed by the Relationship Inventory--were correlated with a set of four student perception of teacher variables--interactional competence, rapport, unreasonable negativity and fosterance of self esteem as assessed by the Student Evaluation of Teacher II--to determine the relationship between the student psychological variables and the manner in which students evaluate their teachers. The subjects ...


The Effects Of Facial Characteristics & Attitudes Upon Initial Interpersonal Attraction, Henry Ackerman Jul 1976

The Effects Of Facial Characteristics & Attitudes Upon Initial Interpersonal Attraction, Henry Ackerman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Two groups of males were utilized to examine the causal effect of facial characteristics and attitudes upon initial interpersonal attraction. The two groups were given a booklet in which photographs and attitude statements were paired in various combinations. One group of males was given the booklet with photographs of females non-randomly assigned; while the other group of males was given the booklet with photographs of females randomly assigned. The major finding of the Present study was that facial characteristics were more causal in predicting initial interpersonal attraction than were attitudes. A colateral finding was that the attitude statements had in ...


Relationships Between The Fear Of Appearing Incompetent, Self-Estimated Iq, Obtained Iq And Gpa, Cheryl Bateman Jun 1976

Relationships Between The Fear Of Appearing Incompetent, Self-Estimated Iq, Obtained Iq And Gpa, Cheryl Bateman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study deals with the fear of appearing incompetent as delineated by White, Goffman and Adler. The fear of appearing incompetent is an aspect of competence that may threaten self-esteem. The fear of appearing incompetent can purportedly be measured by the Fear of Appearing Incompetent Scale (FAIS).

It was found that the fear of appearing incompetent correlated positively with self-estimated IQ, but correlated negatively with obtained IQ. The fear of appearing incompetent had no significant relationship to GPA. The fear of appearing incompetent in participants who over-estimated their IQs did not differ significantly from the fear of appearing incompetent ...


The Influence Of A Relaxation Training Program Upon A Measure Of Self-Actualization, Karl Bodtorf Jun 1976

The Influence Of A Relaxation Training Program Upon A Measure Of Self-Actualization, Karl Bodtorf

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Students at Western Kentucky University were asked to participate in a three week relaxation training program. The program focused upon relaxation as a coping skill and employed the Lazarus series of relaxation tapes, bio-feedback mediated relaxation training, and presentation of a relevant hierarchy in the form of an abbreviated systematic desensitization procedure. Subjects were measured prior to and following the relaxation program. It was hypothesized that subjects undergoing such a training procedure would experience gains as demonstrated by a measure of self-actualization when compared to individuals receiving no such treatment. A multivariate discriminant analysis indicated that the training program had ...


Knowledge & Attitudes Of Mental Health Professionals On Issues & Laws Regarding Involuntary Hospitalization In Kentucky, Gary Giamartino Jun 1976

Knowledge & Attitudes Of Mental Health Professionals On Issues & Laws Regarding Involuntary Hospitalization In Kentucky, Gary Giamartino

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the Commonwealth of Kentucky has become a salient issue based, in part, on two recent court rulings and a call for legislative reform of the laws governing this procedure. The role cc the mental health professional, who may be directly or indirectly involved in the hospitalization process, requires knowledge and sensitivity of these laws and related legal issues.

One hundred and five Kentucky mental health professionals, including physicians, psychologists, and social workers, responded to a questionnaire designed to assess their knowledge and attitudes on seven selected laws and legal issues regarding involuntary hospitalization in Kentucky.

The ...


Relationships Between Mother Interaction Styles, Mothers' Estimates Of Their Infants' Level Of Development, & Infant Development, James Dunbar Jun 1976

Relationships Between Mother Interaction Styles, Mothers' Estimates Of Their Infants' Level Of Development, & Infant Development, James Dunbar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Relationships between mothers' estimates of their infants' level of development, the amount mothers vocalize and model to their infants, and their infants' actual level of mental and motor development were explored using infants between twelve and thirty months of age. The data were analyzed by separate Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients between all variables. A significant correlation was obtained between mothers' estimates of their infants' level of mental and motor development and the infants' obtained level of mental and motor development as measured by a standardized test. It was also discovered that as the age of the infants increased, their ...


The Impact Of Boys’ Club Membership And Participation Upon Self-Reported Delinquent Behavior, Charles Vaught Jun 1976

The Impact Of Boys’ Club Membership And Participation Upon Self-Reported Delinquent Behavior, Charles Vaught

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study empirically tested the responses of sixty-one Boys’ Club members to a questionnaire which contained the Nye-Short delinquency scale. Frequency of self-reported delinquent behavior was compared for the youngsters both before and after having joined the Boys’ Club. It was found that the various aspects of Club membership and participation had minimal effect upon the members’ delinquent behavior.


Achievement, Affiliation & Nurturance Needs In College Women: A Comparison By Age & Marital Status, Lochia Farrar May 1976

Achievement, Affiliation & Nurturance Needs In College Women: A Comparison By Age & Marital Status, Lochia Farrar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Previous research concerning the relative strengths of women's achievement, affiliation, and nurterance needs is reviewed. eased on Bardwick's theories, it was predicted that the need to achieve would be significantly higher for married than for single women and significantly higher, the older the age group. It was also Predicted that the need to affiliate would be significantly higher for single than for married women and significantly higher, the younger the age group. Based on Benedek's theories, it was predicted that the need to nurture would not differ significantly between married and single women and that it would ...


Organizational & Demographic Correlates Of Faculty Job Satisfaction & Morale, Daniel Sauer May 1976

Organizational & Demographic Correlates Of Faculty Job Satisfaction & Morale, Daniel Sauer

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Two measures or faculty lob satisfaction and one measure of denartmental morale were correlated with faculty perceptions of leadership style, faculty participation in departmental decision makinr, and faculty personal and demographic variables. Three dimensions of faculty satisfaction emerged: Supervision and Morale, Work and Colleagues, and Hewards and Growth. The two dimensions of department nead leadership style whicn emerged were Consiaeration and Rigid. Faculty satisfaction with Supervision and Morale was positively correlated with the Consideration leadership style and negatively correlated with the Rigid leadership style. Increased faculty participation was desired in promotion, tenure and salary decisions. Generally, participation in departmental decision ...


Self-Concept & Drinking Among College Students, Mitchel Mays May 1976

Self-Concept & Drinking Among College Students, Mitchel Mays

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The relationship between measured self-concept and the drinking patterns of college students was examined by this study. Three groups of male students and three groups of female students were categorized as heavy, moderate-light, or infrequent drinkers-abstainers based upon their descriptions of personal drinking patterns. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) was administered to all students, and groups were compared using Total Positive and Self Criticism TSCS subscale scores. No significant sex differences were found using either the Total Positive or Self Criticism subscale scores. It was found that significant differences relative to degree of drinking existed between the groups on ...


The Effects Of Deprivation Techniques On Body Weight & Propensity To Perform An Operant, Herb Chapman May 1976

The Effects Of Deprivation Techniques On Body Weight & Propensity To Perform An Operant, Herb Chapman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Eighteen rats were divided into equal groups which received three different food deprivation procedures: 23 hour deprivation, maintenance at 80% of pre-experimental weights, or fixed daily food allotments of 10 grams. The rats were then given two training sessions with an unearned food source and 15 training sessions earning an identical food source by pressing a lever. Training was followed by three days of choice testing. There were no significant differences between groups in preference for earned rewards during choice testing in degrees of weight loss. However, a correlation comparing propensity to work for pellets with body weight deficit over ...


A Comparison Of The Protestant Ethic Effect Among Strains Of Rats, John Hanel May 1976

A Comparison Of The Protestant Ethic Effect Among Strains Of Rats, John Hanel

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The phenomena of an organism's preference to perform an operant task for a reinforcer rather than obtain the same reinforcer from a freely available source in a choice situation is referred to as the Protestant Ethic Effect (PEE). The present study hypothesized that different strains of rats would demonstrate different levels of work activity when placed in a work versus freeload choice situation.

Three strains of rats (Hooded, Sprague Dawley, and Wistar) were utilized. Each strain consisted of three male and three female animals, 100 to 110 days of age at the beginning of training. All subjects were trained ...


The Relationship Between Self-Actualization And Aspects Of Female Sexuality, Anne Paxton May 1976

The Relationship Between Self-Actualization And Aspects Of Female Sexuality, Anne Paxton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The study reported examined the relationship between self-actualization and aspects of female sexuality. Ninety-five white, single female undergraduates from a regional Southeastern state university volunteered to serve as subjects. Three questionnaires were administered to the subjects: the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), Eysenck’s Inventory of Attitudes to Sex, and a two-item religiosity measure. The data were analyzed via correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that when the effects of the covariates were controlled, there was a significant relationship between self-actualization and sexual permissiveness, sexual satisfaction and prudishness. Although self-actualization and sexual libido were significantly correlated, after the ...


Race As A Moderator Variable In The Prediction Of Grade Point Average From Act Scores: Implications For Course Placement Guidelines, Robert Ungarean May 1976

Race As A Moderator Variable In The Prediction Of Grade Point Average From Act Scores: Implications For Course Placement Guidelines, Robert Ungarean

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The problems focused on in this study are to determine (1) if racial differences exist when American College Testing Program (ACT) scores are used to predict Grade Point Average (GPA); (2) how placement decisions may be affected if differences do exist; (3) and what guidelines or recommendations can be formulated to avoid possible test bias and discrimination in placement procedures. Subjects consisted of the total population of 139 Black freshman students and a sample of 139 White freshman students entering a Southeastern regional university in the fall of 1970. Separate regression analyses were performed for Black, White and combined (total ...


Relationships Between Sex Role Ideologies And Social-Psychological Variables In A Restricted Sample Of Women, Susan Grimm May 1976

Relationships Between Sex Role Ideologies And Social-Psychological Variables In A Restricted Sample Of Women, Susan Grimm

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The relationship between levels of self-acceptance and acceptance of others and the liberality of attitudes toward the roles of women were studied in a highly restricted sample of 110 women teachers persuing graduate course work at Western Kentucky University. An analysis of variance indicated no significant differences in te liberality of attitudes in women with high and low levels of either self-acceptance or acceptance of others or in the interaction of the two independent variables. Since some assumptions underlying the analysis of variances procedure were not met and a trend appeared present in the results, a post hoc analysis of ...


The Relationship Between Need For Approval And Aspects Of Female Sexuality, Edward Jay Turner May 1976

The Relationship Between Need For Approval And Aspects Of Female Sexuality, Edward Jay Turner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The literature cited points to an increase in sexual permissiveness among females which may be a function of their need for approval. It was hypothesized that there is a relationship between need for approval and sexual liberalism. In addition, several other aspects of female sexual attitudes and their relationship to need for approval were examined in the present study. Specifically, need for approval was hypothesized to be related to sexual satisfaction, sexual libido (drive), and sexual prudishness.

In order to establish the relationship between need for approval and aspects of female sexuality the effects of religiosity must be considered. Previous ...


Reduction Of Free-Floating Anxiety As A Function Of Emg Biofeedback Or Deep-Muscle Relaxation Training, Gregory Brown Apr 1976

Reduction Of Free-Floating Anxiety As A Function Of Emg Biofeedback Or Deep-Muscle Relaxation Training, Gregory Brown

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In an attempt to assess the effect of relaxation training on anxiety levels, a population of 350 students enrolled in Introduction to Psychology classes at Western Kentucky University were administered the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT) 8- Parallel- Form Anxiety Battery to screen for 36 high anxiety subjects. These subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: biofeedback, deep muscle relaxation, or control. The biofeedback group received electromyograph training over a three-week period, while the deep muscle relaxation group listened to relaxation tapes. Alternate forms of the IPAT were administered to all subjects at specified intervals to ...


The Effect Of Reinforcers On The Verbal Behavior Of Headstart Children, Deloris Floyd Apr 1976

The Effect Of Reinforcers On The Verbal Behavior Of Headstart Children, Deloris Floyd

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study attempted to assess the effect of a speech contingency reinforcement, administered by an interacting adult, to increase the number of word units uttered during test administration. More specifically, the experiment attempted to see if lower class children when given a reinforcer would take more time in giving elaborated and scorable responses on specific items, thereby raising their score on those items. Their performance was compared to lower class children who were not given the reinforcer. Fifty children from the Warren County 1973 summer Headstart program were used as subjects. The treatment conditions included a control group given no ...