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Psychology

Western Kentucky University

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

1975

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A Study Of Five Factors Affecting Attitudes Of Educators Toward Career Education, Rushie Spear Dec 1975

A Study Of Five Factors Affecting Attitudes Of Educators Toward Career Education, Rushie Spear

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Educational practices appear to have failed in preparing many individuals to build productive, fulfilling lives. This is evident in the increasing number of dropouts and individuals who qualify neither for a job nor college. Career education has been selected as a Priority program in attempting to remedy such failures.

Theory implies that to successfully implement new educational programs, educators' attitudes and values need to be favorable toward such programs. At present, however, there is very little data available about attitude and the factors that affect attitude. An analysis of educators' attitudes appears to be a necessary first step in the ...


A Casual Analysis Of The Relationship Between Students' Expected Grades & Their Ratings Of An Instructor, Dianne Willoughby Dec 1975

A Casual Analysis Of The Relationship Between Students' Expected Grades & Their Ratings Of An Instructor, Dianne Willoughby

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Is there a relationship between the grades students expect to receive in a course and the ratings they assign their course instructor? If a relationship does exist, do the students' grade expectations cause the ratings subsequently given the instructor? Data were collected at the beginning and end of a semester, and a cross -lagged panel correlational analysis was applied to two pairs of variables. The first pair of variables, a single -item assessment of instructor effectiveness and a single-item record of each student's expected grade, indicated a statistically significant relationship between expected grades and the measure of instructor performance ...


Anxiety In Father-Absent College Males, Thomas Wilson Nov 1975

Anxiety In Father-Absent College Males, Thomas Wilson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between father-absence and anxiety levels in male cohere students (N=59). A questionnaire was utilized to identify father-absence and four variables associated with father-absence: type or reason for father's absence, length of absence, age of onset, and availability of a father surrogate. Levels of anxiety were defined by scores on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (AS). A t test comparison of the MAS means of the father-absent students and the MAS means of a father-present control group was not significant. Chi square analyses of M1-3 scores in the father-absence ...


The Role Of The Concept Of Death In Existential Psychology: From Kierkegaard To Binswanger, Lennart Belfrage Nov 1975

The Role Of The Concept Of Death In Existential Psychology: From Kierkegaard To Binswanger, Lennart Belfrage

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The meaning and importance of death in existential psychology are investigated. Four major theorists are presented, i.e. Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Rank, and Binswanger Their interpretation of death in man's personal development, although with different perspectives, nevertheless is seen as having a basic common theme: It is necessary for the person to free himself from the chains of conformity in order to become an individual. By realizing one's potentialities one also must realize and understand one's finitude. Thus by facing death one may actively and courageously move through the anxiety of this life in the shadow of death ...


Client Preference For Psychotherapist: Authoritarianism Revisited, Lee Kraus Oct 1975

Client Preference For Psychotherapist: Authoritarianism Revisited, Lee Kraus

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The California F Scale served to distinguish among high-, medium-, and low-authoritarian graduate students who participated in a study of client preference for psychotherapist. The subjects viewed the film series, Three anproaches to psychotherapy, and were asked their personal preference for a psychotherapist (Carl Rorers or Albert Ellis) and their perceptions on and consideration given to 12 dimensions of therapist style and behavior. Comparison of the high-, medium-, and low- authoritarian groups indicated that their choice of therapist was significantly different. Authoritarian subjects preferred the directive therapist (Ellis) whereas the nonauthoritarians chose the nondirective therapist (Rogers) at a rate significantly ...


Predictive Correlates Of Adoption Behavior In A Social Context: A Multiple Discriminant Analysis, Robert Brady Aug 1975

Predictive Correlates Of Adoption Behavior In A Social Context: A Multiple Discriminant Analysis, Robert Brady

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Working from a communication theory paradigm and from previous literature, the purpose of this study was to empirically examine significant receiver correlates which predict adoption behavior of Sigma Nu Fraternity on three campuses. Drawing from past research, the present study utilized a unique combination of social and communication variables as predictors of fraternity membership. A stepwise multiple discriminant analysis using five factors derived from the thirteen independent variables yielded a highly significant three factor discriminant function (p < .001) which explained 46.65 percent of the common variance in adoption/non-adoption behavior of Sigma Nu. The significant factors were labeled peer group behavior, parental economic support, and social attitudes. Based on intuitive interpretation features of the data, the researcher suspects that adopters are more socially oriented, have a wider variety o: friends, are less dependent on parental economic support, and exhibit higher scores on measures such as self-esteem, liberalism, conservatism, and the need for identification with groups.


The Relative Efficiency Of Traditional Wisc-R Iq’S And Wisc-R Factor Scores In Predicting Academic Achievement, Elizabeth Tulou Aug 1975

The Relative Efficiency Of Traditional Wisc-R Iq’S And Wisc-R Factor Scores In Predicting Academic Achievement, Elizabeth Tulou

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine the relative predictive efficiency of the WISC-R deviation IQ’s and the WISC-R factor scores in predicting academic achievement. Eighty-nine lower-middle to lower class fifth grade students were administered the WISC-R and the Stanford Achievement Test. WISC-R-IQ’s and WISC-R complete estimation factor scores were calculated for each student. Product Moment Correlations were calculated between the SAT stanines and the WISC-R factor scores. Of all of the predictor variable, the Verbal IQ was the most efficient. The results also indicated that two of the WISC-R factor variables. Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from ...


Influence Of Sex Role Stereotypes On Ratings Of Male And Female Behavior, Constance Barclay Jul 1975

Influence Of Sex Role Stereotypes On Ratings Of Male And Female Behavior, Constance Barclay

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An attempt was made to investigate the extent to which individuals are unknowingly influenced by a sex role stereotype in their evaluations of men and women. It was hypothesized that subjects would describe a character in more potency-related, “masculine” terms if that character had been identified as a male than if the character had been identified as a female. Subjects taking part in this study were an equal number of male and female students in introductory psychology classes. The semantic differential technique was employed as a descriptive tool for the subjects’ evaluations of a character they read about in a ...


Secular & Ministerial Counseling In Bowling Green, Kentucky, Henry Darke Jul 1975

Secular & Ministerial Counseling In Bowling Green, Kentucky, Henry Darke

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Samples from two populations, community ministers and secular counselors, were surveyed to develop and analyze a description of the perceptions between and among these groups concerning their roles as counselors in the total community. Five questions were the focus of the research. The results of these questions may be summarized as follows: 1) both sample groups agreed that there seemed to be a need for additional ministerial counselors; 2) almost unanimously, the secular counselors indicated that they would welcome a more active ministerial counseling involvement within the total community setting, although a considerable portion (41%) of the ministers expressed doubts ...


Effects Of Intervention Programs On The Self Concept Of Rural Preschool Children, Virginia Miller Jul 1975

Effects Of Intervention Programs On The Self Concept Of Rural Preschool Children, Virginia Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The effects of intervention programs on the self concept of rural preschool children were examined using 86 children, ages 5 to 6 1/2 years, who had and had not had preschool experience. The relationships between the Total Self Concept and the subscales of Body Image, Competence, and Social Interactions to the variables of socio-economic level, sex, and preschool experience were determined. Significant differences (p <.001) were found between the different population variables and the Total Self Concept score, and the subscale scores of Body Image, Competence, and Social Interactions. The locations of these differences were determined by a Newman Kuel analysis. Significant effects (p<.05) on sex differences were found on Total Self Concept scale and on the Competence subscale. There were no significant (p <.05) interaction effects. Implications of these findings were discussed.


Cognitive Reflection-Impulsivity & Susceptibility To A Primary Illusion, Maureen Murphy Jul 1975

Cognitive Reflection-Impulsivity & Susceptibility To A Primary Illusion, Maureen Murphy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The relationship between the reflection-impulsivity dimension of cognitive style and susceptibility to the Mueller Lyer illusion was investigated in nine year old children. Forty-four subjects, classified as either impulsive or reflective on the Matching Familiar Figures Test, were presented the Mueller Lyer figure under two viewing conditions, unrestricted exposure time and restricted exposure time of .1 second. It was expected that reflective children would be less susceptible to this illusion under the unrestricted condition than the impulsive children. Less difference between reflective and impulsive children was expected when exposure time was restricted. Results confirmed earlier studies that restricted exposure time ...


The Effects Of Manipulation Of Examination Results On Locus Of Control Beliefs, Douglas Doyle Jul 1975

The Effects Of Manipulation Of Examination Results On Locus Of Control Beliefs, Douglas Doyle

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study investigated the effects of manipulated feedback concerning examination performance on locus of control beliefs. Brecher and Denmark (1972) found that students given manipulated feedback concerning results of a recent examination exhibited a significant increase in their I-E scores. In the present study, 84 students enrolled in one of three classes of a lower level, undergraduate Psychology course at Western Kentucky University, taught by the same instructor, were used as subjects. These subjects were administered the I-E Scale and about one month later took a regularly scheduled examination over course material. The first clans session after the exam ...


Relationship Of Elderly Subjects' Death Attitudes & Existential Meaning In Life, Thomas Sowder Jun 1975

Relationship Of Elderly Subjects' Death Attitudes & Existential Meaning In Life, Thomas Sowder

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A study of 100 subjects over the ape of 60 was reported which investigated the correlation between purpose in life as defined by existential philosophy and death anxiety. It was designed to examine the effect of group affiliation and sex on subjective self-appraisal death anxiety and purpose in life questionnaires. The results indicated that: (a) the greater perceived purpose in life, the lower the death anxiety, (b) females in the socially oriented group had a greater negative correlation between death anxiety and purpose in life, (c) there were variables associated with the occurrence of both sex and group affiliation which ...


The Role Of Extraversion And Introversion In An Instrumental Avoidance Task, Steven Finkelstein Jun 1975

The Role Of Extraversion And Introversion In An Instrumental Avoidance Task, Steven Finkelstein

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An instrumental avoidance conditioning task was used to test Eysenck’s theory of personality and conditioning, which is based upon levels of cortical inhibition and expectation, characteristic of extraverts and introverts. Based upon Eysneck’s theoretical stance, it was hypothesized that introverts would condition more effectively than extraverts. Several criteria defined by Eysenck Personality Inventory was administered to 125 undergraduates at Western Kentucky University for purposes of separating personally types into classification groups of extraverts, introverts, and ambiverts. Thirty-six subjects were presented a series of 48 index cards on which were typed for pronouns and three verbs of neutral impression ...


A Comparison Of Time-Out & Response-Cost Conditions Within A Token Economy Using Trainable Mental Retardates, James Willis May 1975

A Comparison Of Time-Out & Response-Cost Conditions Within A Token Economy Using Trainable Mental Retardates, James Willis

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An investigation was done on the relative effectivness of time-out and response-cost conditions in reducing inappropriate behaviors in a token-economy classroom using trainable mental retardates as subjects. A significant difference was found between baseline levels of inappropriate behaviors in each of the two conditions but no significance was indicated between time-out and response-cost conditions.


The Influence Of Work History On The Protestant Ethic Effect, Kathy Nau May 1975

The Influence Of Work History On The Protestant Ethic Effect, Kathy Nau

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

For 10 days, seven female and five male albino rats were given a choice between barpressing for water or drinking it freely without having to perform. Prior to the choice sessions, the animals had to earn their total water intake for either 0, 5, 15, or 25 days. All 12 animals worked for a part of their total reinforcement intake during testing. However, an analysis of variance showed that work preference increased as the amount of time the animals spent earning their total water intake increased (p<.05). These results were discussed in terms of White's (1959) competency hypothesis.


The Effect Of Gun Handling On Aggression As A Function Of Cue Saliency, Arousal & Gender, Arthur Camplone May 1975

The Effect Of Gun Handling On Aggression As A Function Of Cue Saliency, Arousal & Gender, Arthur Camplone

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The traditional construct of aggression as postulated by Miller (1941) has as its basis a frustration-aggression model in which frustration is a necessary antecedent condition to and the primary causative factor of aggression. The literature is replete with studies supporting and expounding on this theme. The construct has assumed a longevity and stature rarely enjoyed in psychological experimentation.

Many recent social and learning theorists contend, however, that the research on aggression has concentrated on the displacement and satisfaction of an instinctual aggressive drive to the exclusion of environmental and learning cues which may influence aggressive and violent reactions. The recent ...


A Factor Analytic Study Of The Weschsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Revised, John Miller May 1975

A Factor Analytic Study Of The Weschsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Revised, John Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Since the original Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC, 1949) had recently undergone a major revision in content structure of the test and in the populations utilized for standardization, the present study sought to examine the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R, 1974) using test data from 126 white and black fifth graders from a predominantly lower middle class socioeconomic background. The analysis of data was performed by a principal components method of factor analysis utilizing Varimax rotation. The results of the data analysis indicated the presence of three primary group factors, and these factors closely ...


Self Concept & Permanent Birth Control Choice, James Evans May 1975

Self Concept & Permanent Birth Control Choice, James Evans

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between an individual's self concept and his method of permanent birth control. The subjects consisted of two groups of males: (1) males who were seeking a vasectomy, and (2) males who were not seeking a vasectomy but who indicated that they had obtained their desired family size, or who indicated they would not consider a vasectomy. The subjects in grout, one were paired with subjects in group two according to select demographic variables such as age, race, education, and occupation. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale, TSCS, Total P Score ...


The Protestant Ethic Effect: Children In A Multi-Choice Situation, Patricia Anderson May 1975

The Protestant Ethic Effect: Children In A Multi-Choice Situation, Patricia Anderson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Twelve kindergarten and 16 first grade children were placed in a four Protestant Ethic to obtain tokens choice situation in order to investigate the Effect (PLE). The task for each child was to trade for candy. These tokens were available from three black boxes (choice locations) which were rotated in a clockwise manner around the four corners of the testing room. These three choice locations were as follows: (B1) a location where the child was allowed the option to manipulate switches and/or obtain freely accessible tokens, (82) a location at which tokens were freely accessible, and (84) the work ...


The Effects Of A Social Stimulus On The Protestant Ethic Effect In Rats, Gary L. Cotton May 1975

The Effects Of A Social Stimulus On The Protestant Ethic Effect In Rats, Gary L. Cotton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether rats’ preference to freeload (eat food pellets from a food cup) or to work for food (obtain food pellets by bar pressing) could be influenced by observing either a working or freeloading model in an adjacent operant chamber.

Following equal amounts of bar press and freeloading training, 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats approximately 100 days cold were divided into three experimental groups. The first group was permitted to view a working model while being presented a choice between bar pressing and free-loading. A second experimental group was exposed to a freeloading model ...


A Methodological Consideration In The Comparison Of Two Explanatory Hypotheses Of Imagery, Paula Carter May 1975

A Methodological Consideration In The Comparison Of Two Explanatory Hypotheses Of Imagery, Paula Carter

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A replication of the Carter and Craig (1975) investigation comparing the “conceptual peg” and “relational connective” explanations as to the effectiveness of an interaction imagery strategy in paired-associate learning was performed with the suggested changes in methodology. These changes included training the subjects and presenting the stimulus and response nouns on separate screens rather than visually side-by-side. In addition, two separation imagery strategies were investigated so that the nouns were visualized on opposite sides of the imaginary visual field or on opposite walls of an imaginary room.

An interaction imagery strategy, a separation imagery—space strategy, a separation imagery—wall ...


Attitude Toward Women’S Role And Self-Concept In College Women, Susan Fisher May 1975

Attitude Toward Women’S Role And Self-Concept In College Women, Susan Fisher

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study was designed to help answer the question: Do women with nontraditional attitudes toward the role of women in society obtain higher self-concept scores than women with more traditional attitudes toward the role of women? A second question was also investigated: Do women with non-traditional attitudes toward the role of women report that they behave more assertively than women with more traditional attitudes? One hundred and eighty-five undergraduate females were administered the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS), the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS), and the College Self-Expressions Scale (CSES). Subjects were included in one of the three experimental groups ...


The Effects Of Experiential-Gestalt Growth Groups On A Measure Of Self-Acceptance & Acceptance Of Others, Danny Brown Apr 1975

The Effects Of Experiential-Gestalt Growth Groups On A Measure Of Self-Acceptance & Acceptance Of Others, Danny Brown

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Two experiential-Gestalt oriented growth groups were conducted with the purpose of determining the effects such a group process has in increasing an individual's acceptance of himself and others. The sample included 26 students who had volunteered to participate in a growth group experience. Ten volunteers were assigned to a control group while the remaining 16 volunteers were evenly divided into two growth groups. Experiential groups met for two hours once a week for eight weeks. Focus of the groups was primarily on the moment to moment experiencing of individual participants and the interaction among them. In order to assess ...


Increased Recall For Low Anxious Subjects Using Increased Anxiety, Charles Webb Apr 1975

Increased Recall For Low Anxious Subjects Using Increased Anxiety, Charles Webb

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A sample of 14 low anxious (LA) male and 18 LA female subjects was drawn from introductory psychology classes. The effect of increased state anxiety, using differing instruction procedures, upon serial recall learning was studied. The Multiple Affect Adjective Check List was used as a measure of anxiety, and a Hull memory drum with nonsense syllables was used as the learning task. Results indicated that there was a significant (p < .05) increase in learning for females but no significant increase in learning for males. This study is in agreement with the majority of studies which found differences due to sex. The female subjects gave results more consistent with drive theory in relationship to increased state anxiety and learning than male subjects. A hypothesis to explain why males do not yield as consistent results as females in relation to increased anxiety and learning is stated. Implication for further research is also discussed.


The Experimental-Gestalt Growth Group, Daniel Miller Apr 1975

The Experimental-Gestalt Growth Group, Daniel Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Volunteer college students participated either as members of two experimental experiential-Gestalt growth groups or as members of a control group. The experimental groups met for one two hour period per week for eight weeks. It was hypothesized that the experimental group members would change significantly in the direction of increased self-actualization as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) while the nontreatment control group members would not. A comparison of pre- and posttest scores for the groups indicated no significant effects of the group process. Increases occurred over the nine week period for both experimental and control subjects. The importance ...


Perceptual Reactance & Female Athletic Participation, Elliot Herman Apr 1975

Perceptual Reactance & Female Athletic Participation, Elliot Herman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Three groups of females: contact athletes (basketball players), noncontact athletes (tennis and golf players), and nonathletes, were tested to determine their perceptual reactance. It was predicted that since women contact athletes tolerate more pain than women noncontact athletes and nonathletes, they should reduce their estimations of the test block more than noncontact athletes and nonathletes. It was also predicted that since women noncontact athletes tolerate more pain than women nonathletes, they should reduce their estimations of the test block more than the nonathletes. These predictions parallel previous findings for men. The results demonstrated no significant differences between the three groups ...


Personality Correlates Of Field Dependence/Independence In Preadolescent Children, James Koch Jr. Apr 1975

Personality Correlates Of Field Dependence/Independence In Preadolescent Children, James Koch Jr.

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between perceptual style as measured by the Children’s Embedded Figures Test (CEFT) and personality as measured by the Children’s Personality Questionnaire (CPQ). The sample included 69 fifth grade students of which 30 were male and 39 were female. All subjects were preadolescent children, of average intelligence, from lower class and lower-middle class socioeconomic homes.

Multiple regression analyses were utilized for the total sample and for each sex using the CEFT as the dependent variable and the 14 CPQ scales as independent variables. It was judged more meaningful to ...


The Effects Of Locus Of Control On Performance In Self-Directed Study, Jane Vaughn Apr 1975

The Effects Of Locus Of Control On Performance In Self-Directed Study, Jane Vaughn

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A sample was taken from a self-directed statistics/experimental psychology class to investigate the relationship between locus of control orientation of the students and their academic performance. Self-directed study was defined as student oriented learning with few lectures and the use of contingency points (points earned for work completed) as reinforcement for completing work packets and projects. (The null hypothesis was that there is no relationship between grades and locus of control in the self-directed class.) It was found that internals progress through a self-directed class setting at a significantly faster rate than do externals.


A Concurrent Validity Study Of The Acting Out Score Of The Hand Test, Arthur Dosch Mar 1975

A Concurrent Validity Study Of The Acting Out Score Of The Hand Test, Arthur Dosch

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In an investigation of the concurrent validity of the Acting Out Score (AOS) of the Hand Test, the AOSs of 32 normal college students were compared with the scores they obtained on two clinically popular self-report criterion measures of hostility and aggression, the Buss-Durkee (BD) and the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ). The AOS did not significantly differentiate between high and low scoring groups on either the HDHQ or BD although both criterion measures were found to be significantly related.