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Self-Efficacy Of School Psychologists: Developing A Scale For Working With And For Lgbtq Youth, Shelby Monahan Jul 2019

Self-Efficacy Of School Psychologists: Developing A Scale For Working With And For Lgbtq Youth, Shelby Monahan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) students report higher levels of harassment and assault, exposure to prejudiced language, and diminished feelings of safety at school compared to their non-LGBTQ counterparts. Due to the difficulties these young people experience at school as well as their increased risk for psychological distress and suicidality, these students may need additional support to be successful. Although professional organizations support school psychologists acting as advocates to support LGBTQ students, research suggests that practitioners’ knowledge about issues faced by LGBTQ students as well as training related to their needs may lag behind this appeal for ...


How Are Professors Preparing School Psychology Students To Evaluate Research?, Tyler Bryant Burton Jul 2019

How Are Professors Preparing School Psychology Students To Evaluate Research?, Tyler Bryant Burton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examines how school psychology professors are preparing graduate students to evaluate research and seeks their views on problematic assessment and intervention practices. School psychology faculty members’ e-mails were identified based on the National Association of School Psychologists’ (NASP) list of Approved Programs (NASP, 2017) and a total of 127 professors responded. Each participant completed a survey that included 22 Likert scale items and three free listing items. Three research questions were proposed: What percentage of school psychology faculty members are using each of the strategies recommended by Lilienfeld et al. (2012)? What school-based assessment practices do school psychology ...


An Experimental Study On The Effects Of Pro-Anorexia Content On Eating Disorder Development, Skyler Green Jul 2019

An Experimental Study On The Effects Of Pro-Anorexia Content On Eating Disorder Development, Skyler Green

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Pro-anorexia content, or content that promotes the development and sustainment of eating disorders, is an important topic that has been understudied in the literature. Previous research has primary examined the content featured on pro-anorexia websites, but few researchers have conducted experimental studies examining the direct impact viewing pro-anorexia content has on individuals struggling with an eating disorder. The current study was an experimental study that exposed participants to three conditions: proanorexia content, pro-recovery content, and a control group. The researcher examined the impact that viewing the three levels of content for 10 minutes had on individuals who met criteria and ...


The Use Of Vouchers To Negatively Reinforce Number Of Weeks Compliant Among Clients In A Mental Health Court, Michele Nicole Murdock Jul 2019

The Use Of Vouchers To Negatively Reinforce Number Of Weeks Compliant Among Clients In A Mental Health Court, Michele Nicole Murdock

Dissertations

The literature is sparse on the use of contingency management procedures in a mental health court (MHC). The purpose of this study was to examine the use of negative reinforcement for behavioral changes in a MHC. Specifically, the present study explored whether a voucher-based contingency management intervention improved the number of weeks compliant on MHC probation and whether participants were more externally than internally motivated to comply with MHC probation requirements. Vouchers were given for compliance with MHC probation requirements. The vouchers allowed participants to miss a future court date. It was hypothesized that participants who received the voucher would ...


A Review Of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement With A Focus On English Language Learners, Shelby Montgomery Jul 2019

A Review Of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement With A Focus On English Language Learners, Shelby Montgomery

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to review the literature on English Language Learners and written expression curriculum-based measurement. In recent years, there has been little research completed in the area of curriculum based measurement for writing for English Language Learners. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and all available literature on the use of written expression curriculum-based measurement since 2006 was identified and reviewed. Given the increasing diversity in our schools, particularly non-native English speakers, this review focused on studies including this group. There were differences in some of the technical features such as sample durations, writing ...


Preschool Self-Regulation: A Predictor Of School Readiness, Romin Emmanuel Geiger Jul 2019

Preschool Self-Regulation: A Predictor Of School Readiness, Romin Emmanuel Geiger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Substantial evidence from previous research has supported the idea that greater self-regulation in the form of “cool” self-regulation or executive functioning and “hot” self-regulation or effortful control is associated with higher academic achievement within the preschool years and school readiness in the kindergarten years (Anaya, 2016; Carlson, 2005). However, there are only a few studies that assess the prediction of school readiness through validated cool and hot self-regulation tasks (Carlson, 2005; Krain, Wilson, Arbuckle, Kastellanos, & Wilham, 2006; Rothbart, Ellis, Rueda, & Posner, 2003; Thompson & Giedd, 2000). There also few studies examining to what extent cool and hot-self-regulation tasks predict socio-emotional (Blair, 2002) and academic achievement ...


Examining Collegiate Students’ Perceptions Of Date Rape And Sexual Assault, Jalen Rhodes Jul 2019

Examining Collegiate Students’ Perceptions Of Date Rape And Sexual Assault, Jalen Rhodes

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine how collegiate males and females perceived date rape and sexual assault by looking into their views on sexual scripts, consent, and alcohol in dating situations. Participants consisted of 323 male and female undergraduate students enrolled in psychology classes at a mid-south university. All participants were directed to an online questionnaire and were randomly assigned to one of four versions of a vignette where a man and a woman are at a party together. After reading their vignette, all participants answered researcher-created questions pertaining to the behavior of the people in the vignette ...


Is Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing Worth It? A Pragmatic Analysis For Clinicians, Brandon P. Cvengros Apr 2019

Is Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing Worth It? A Pragmatic Analysis For Clinicians, Brandon P. Cvengros

Psychology Capstone Projects

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is a treatment developed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that combines the cognitive processing of trauma with bilateral eye movements (EMs). Research has demonstrated that EMDR can be an efficacious treatment for PTSD. Other common treatments for PTSD include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and exposure therapy (ET). Research has demonstrated that both CBT and ET are efficacious in the treatment of PTSD. EMDR is a controversial treatment, with critics stating that it is very similar to ET and that the novel component, EMs, are irrelevant to treatment outcomes. EMDR has additional time and financial costs ...


Cbt Plus Humor-Based Psychology Interventions: A Review Of The Research, Rachel Thompson Apr 2019

Cbt Plus Humor-Based Psychology Interventions: A Review Of The Research, Rachel Thompson

Psychology Capstone Projects

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated to be one of the most popular and useful psychological interventions used today (Ellis & Harper,1975; Bredemeier, Beck, & Grant, 2018; Jaya, Ascone, & Lincoln, 2018). However, a limitation of CBT is that it pathologizes behavior. Positive psychology is a supplementary theory that focuses on increasing positive emotions during psychological interventions and does not pathologize behavior. A limitation of studying positive emotions is due to the overlapping relationships between positive emotions. Positive emotions are highly related and are difficult to measure individually as opposed to negative emotions. Humor, amusement/mirth, is an observable positive emotion. Humor is a distinct ...


Efficacy Of Mindfulness On Stress And Anxiety In Adolescents: A Systematic Review, Callimarie Bell Apr 2019

Efficacy Of Mindfulness On Stress And Anxiety In Adolescents: A Systematic Review, Callimarie Bell

Psychology Capstone Projects

Most mental health problems begin early in life, with 50% of all problems beginning by the age of 14. Thus, adolescents are a vulnerable population and factors impacting their mental health should be examined. One factor is stress. Stress has been linked to both mental and physical health problems, depression, and anxiety. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health problem among adolescents. A potential treatment is that of mindfulness. Mindfulness originated from Buddhism and is the non-judgmental acceptance of thought, feelings, and experiences. Mindfulness has been found to reduce symptoms of stress and anxiety, alleviate chronic pain, and reduce ...


The Use Of Music In The Cinematic Experience, Sarah Schulte Apr 2019

The Use Of Music In The Cinematic Experience, Sarah Schulte

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

To portray the radical importance of music in stimulating emotion within cinema, to appeal to an audience’s selective attention to sounds, and to detail the process of creating an original film score, I have scored WKU student Tori Mills’ short film Come Up for Air. Film music is traditionally defined as any music that accompanies a film, though today it more specifically refers to music intended to advance the film’s narrative. Music has played an increasingly important role in transmitting emotion to film audiences, feeding the psychological connection between spectator and on-screen action. To achieve this emotional connection ...


The Impact Of A Therapist's Language In Computer-Mediated Communication, Robert E. Twidwell Apr 2019

The Impact Of A Therapist's Language In Computer-Mediated Communication, Robert E. Twidwell

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Background: Nearly 45 million adults in the United States live with a mental health disorder and only 43% of them seek treatment. One of the major barriers to seeking treatment is accessibility and can be addressed through telepsychology, or providing services with technology. With technological improvements in written communication, using computer-mediated communication (CMC; e.g. text messaging) has become more regularly used and examined in healthcare. To date, little research has focused on the use of practitioner language in telepsychology.

Method: Two samples (university sample and national sample) totaling 396 participants were asked to rate a therapist on attractiveness (i ...


The Effects Of Message Matching In Climate Change Persuasion, Matthew R. Penner Apr 2019

The Effects Of Message Matching In Climate Change Persuasion, Matthew R. Penner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Public opinions of climate change are not consistent with the reality that climate change is occurring. Effective persuasive messages must be created to ensure that irreparable damage to the environment is prevented. This study investigated the cognitive processes that occur when an individual is exposed to a persuasive message regarding environmental concerns that is matched to an individual’s personality characteristics like right wing authoritarianism and purity.

Messages on two environmental topics (solar panels and the Environmental Protection Agency) were created. Each topic was framed in multiple ways to test hypotheses about personality-based message matching. Participants completed a thought listing ...


Characteristics Of Behavior Rating Scales: Revisited, Ellen Cox Apr 2019

Characteristics Of Behavior Rating Scales: Revisited, Ellen Cox

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study was a replication of a study by Hosp et al. (2003), which looked at items on behavior rating scales to determine if they can be used to plan and monitor positive behavior interventions. For this study, ten forms of commonly used behavior rating scales were selected, and the so what and dead man tests were applied on each scale. Each item on the scale was placed into one of four categories: positive action, negative action, lack of positive action, and lack of negative action. Then, these categories were used to rate each scale to determine which subscales survived ...


Mental Health Stigma In College Students By Academic Major, Kristen Miller Apr 2019

Mental Health Stigma In College Students By Academic Major, Kristen Miller

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Stigma is best defined as the disapproval and shame felt by people who display characteristics not widely accepted in society. Although mental illness has become more prevalent in society through advocacy and awareness campaigns, it fails to be accepted and often individuals may feel shame that prevents them from seeking help (Dyrbye, Eacker, Durning, Brazeau, Moutier, Massie, S., et al, 2015; Givens & Tjia, 2002). Physicians in particular have been shown to have decreased help-seeking behaviors for psychological issues due to fear of professional repercussions (Dyrbye et al., 2015). Physicians also show increased levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and elevated rates of suicide compared to their age and gender-matched peers (Lindeman, Laara, Hakko, & Lonnqvist, 1996). Medical students also show similar levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and internalization of stigma towards mental health (Givens &Tjia, 2002; Zisook, Young, Doran, Downs, Hadley, et al., 2016). The current study aimed to replicate these findings in an undergraduate population by comparing the levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and internalization of mental health stigma between pre-professional students (pre-medicine ...


Rapid Assessment Of Problem Solving For Kids (Raps-K), Hannah Perdew Apr 2019

Rapid Assessment Of Problem Solving For Kids (Raps-K), Hannah Perdew

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The Rapid Assessment of Problem Solving (RAPS) is a clinical assessment of verbal problem solving skills created by Dr. Robert Marshall and colleagues (Marshall, 2003). The assessment, originally developed for adults, is based on the well-known twenty questions game. The clinician administering the assessment chooses a target picture and the participant asks yes or no questions to eliminate incorrect answers and, eventually, identify the target picture. Question asking efficiency, indicated by the number of choices eliminated, is considered to reflect levels of cognitive functioning, specifically problem solving. Recently, the RAPS has been utilized with typically developing children and children with ...


Motivated To Learn: Motivational Differences In High School And University-Level Foreign Language Classroom Experiences, Roy Williams Iv Apr 2019

Motivated To Learn: Motivational Differences In High School And University-Level Foreign Language Classroom Experiences, Roy Williams Iv

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Student motivation in the context of foreign language learning is a complex topic that influences many areas of language study. Dornyei’s L2 Motivational Self Model and the concept of future self guides give some insight into the underlying motivational orientations when used to analyze self-reported survey data regarding language learning and its perceived benefits (Dornyei & Ushioda, 2009, p. 456). This analysis brings to light some of the major differences between these two contexts, challenges the idea that they are identical or equivalent in learning outcomes, and suggests some practical application to the foreign language classroom at Western Kentucky University.


Perception: Exploring Cognition And Consciousness Through Visual Art, Summer Shepherd Apr 2019

Perception: Exploring Cognition And Consciousness Through Visual Art, Summer Shepherd

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The concept of consciousness has perplexed humankind for thousands of years. Countless scientists, philosophers, and artists have devoted their lifetimes to solving humanity’s questions about our relationship with the world we live within. The creative arts, such as music, theater, and visual art, can facilitate critical thinking and meaningful interpersonal communication. This paper explores the visual artwork of the author, Sunny Shepherd, through examination of historical and contemporary artistic influences on the work, as well as the psychological and philosophical concepts that fuel it. Months of research, planning, and creating went into the manifestation of the final exhibition, Metamorphosis ...


The Influence Of Mental Illness On The Perception Of Guilt, Sydney Garrison Apr 2019

The Influence Of Mental Illness On The Perception Of Guilt, Sydney Garrison

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate how the presence of a mental disorder in a person accused of a crime affects an individual’s perception of the accused person’s guilt. Participants were randomly assigned a vignette used in a study by Skeem & Goulding (2001), describing a crime that has been committed; one condition included the presence of an unnamed mental illness and the other condition did not. Immediately after reading the vignette participants completed a survey that included a question regarding the perceived guilt of the person accused of the crime. The answers to this question were compared between the two conditions. Analysis of the results ...


Participation In Extracurricular Activities And Academic Achievement: A Comprehensive Review, Erin Morris, Apr 2019

Participation In Extracurricular Activities And Academic Achievement: A Comprehensive Review, Erin Morris,

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

At school, students are provided numerous opportunities to use their skills and abilities to complete tasks or solve problems. Students are considered to have academic success when they meet specific criteria on outcomes such as grade point averages (GPA), scores on standardized tests, and skill acquisition across areas like reading and math. Given the importance of academic achievement (AA) as an outcome measure, researchers have attempted to study certain variables that may relate to or predict AA. Extracurricular activities (EAs) are defined as school-sanctioned activities that students can participate in outside of the traditional school day. Participation in EAs has ...


A Look Into The College Readiness Needs Of First Time College Students, Lindsey Coomer Cox Apr 2019

A Look Into The College Readiness Needs Of First Time College Students, Lindsey Coomer Cox

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examines the college readiness needs of first year college students based on experiences from students and staff involved with a first year transitional initiative program at Western Kentucky University. The purpose of the study is to share students’ college readiness needs with public school systems in hopes to intervene with these needs before students arrive at college. A total of 45 participants volunteered to be in focus groups, an interview, and complete a survey. Two research questions were proposed: What college readiness needs still exist for first time college students upon entrance to a four year public university ...


Physician Stress: Is The Electronic Health Record To Blame?, Zack Ward Apr 2019

Physician Stress: Is The Electronic Health Record To Blame?, Zack Ward

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationship between Family Medicine physician burnout and the electronic health record. To do so, this study utilized the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to assess burnout among physicians, along with specific questions regarding usage of the electronic health record and measurement of physician perceptions of the electronic health record. Members of the Kentucky Academy of Family Physicians were sent two separate invitations to participate in the study twice over a one-month period via email.

The study yielded no significant differences in Family Medicine physician demographics and their degree of burnout, or the ...


Substance Abuse Treatment In Prison Settings: A Systematic Review, Emilee Cline Oct 2018

Substance Abuse Treatment In Prison Settings: A Systematic Review, Emilee Cline

Psychology Capstone Projects

A significant relationship between criminal behavior and substance abuse exists, which leads to a large proportion of individuals in the prison system who meet criteria for a substance use disorder. This review compares empirically-supported treatments for substance use disorder to current substance abuse treatment programs offered in United States prisons. A review of current literature indicates that Therapeutic Communities are the most common form of substance abuse treatment provided, and often these are combined with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy groups. Special treatment considerations are provided based on the type of substance used, gender, and ethnicity. Empirically-supported treatments are currently being implemented by ...


Substance Abuse Treatment In Prison Settings: A Systematic Review, Emilee Cline Oct 2018

Substance Abuse Treatment In Prison Settings: A Systematic Review, Emilee Cline

Psychology Capstone Projects

A significant relationship between criminal behavior and substance abuse exists, which leads to a large proportion of individuals in the prison system who meet criteria for a substance use disorder. This review compares empirically-supported treatments for substance use disorder to current substance abuse treatment programs offered in United States prisons. A review of current literature indicates that Therapeutic Communities are the most common form of substance abuse treatment provided, and often these are combined with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy groups. Special treatment considerations are provided based on the type of substance used, gender, and ethnicity. Empirically-supported treatments are currently being implemented by ...


Parent Perception Of The Working Alliance, Parent Self-Efficacy, And Parent Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Child Therapy Outcome, Christopher Glenn Chandler Oct 2018

Parent Perception Of The Working Alliance, Parent Self-Efficacy, And Parent Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Child Therapy Outcome, Christopher Glenn Chandler

Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that parent-therapist working alliance, parent self-efficacy, and parent locus of control have on child therapy outcomes. Bordin’s model of the working alliance provides a framework for measuring the collaboration between the parents and therapists while Social Cognitive Theory informs the decision to assess parent self-efficacy and parent locus of control.

The research questions were as follows: 1) Does a strong parent and therapist working alliance, as perceived by the parent, predict improved outcomes in child counseling? 2) Does parent self-efficacy predict outcomes in child counseling? 3) Does parent locus ...


White-Identifying Populations' Perceptions Of Muslims In The United Kingdom And United States, Ashley Gilliam Oct 2018

White-Identifying Populations' Perceptions Of Muslims In The United Kingdom And United States, Ashley Gilliam

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Much of Western society is engaging with complex ideas and events such as multiculturalism, immigration, assimilation, and terrorism. The United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) are relevant to this larger discussion considering the 2016 finalization of the ‘Brexit’ decision to leave the European Union and the recent travel restriction policies in the US targeting some countries with Islam as majority religious affiliation. Given these events, my larger research question addresses how majority populations view minority groups. Several studies have provided a view of how Muslims in the West form their own identities (Hopkins, 2011; Modood & Ahmad, 2007; Peek et al ...


Student Attitudes Toward Sex Offender Policies And Laws In An Era Of High Profile Sex Crimes In The News, Amber Bennett Oct 2018

Student Attitudes Toward Sex Offender Policies And Laws In An Era Of High Profile Sex Crimes In The News, Amber Bennett

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

This is a study looking at the attitudes that undergraduate college students taking introductory sociology and criminology courses have toward sex offender policies and laws such as community notification, residence restrictions, and the registry system. Voluntary participants were also asked to look at the appropriateness of the punishment given to perpetrators in case studies based off real cases. Results showed that there are potential gender differences in the attitudes about appropriateness of notification and the registration of sex offenders. There were less favorable attitudes toward chemical and surgical castration. Further research should be done to look at different types of ...


Client Perceptions Of The Utilization Of Mindfulness Activities In Therapy, Anissa S. Pugh Jul 2018

Client Perceptions Of The Utilization Of Mindfulness Activities In Therapy, Anissa S. Pugh

Dissertations

The aim of the current study was to examine client perceptions of the use of mindfulness activities in the therapeutic process. For this current study, 21 participants completed a seven-item demographic questionnaire, a 39-item Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and a 10-item Mindfulness Experience Questionnaire. The present study investigated three research questions. Research Question 1 looked at how clients perceived the effectiveness of the use of mindfulness activities in therapy. The next research question examined how clients viewed the addition of mindfulness activities to be an acceptable treatment approach based on personal values and beliefs. The third research question for this ...


The Effects Of Teacher Demographics, Self-Efficacy, And Student Gender On Behavioral Referrals, Morgan E. Hestand Jul 2018

The Effects Of Teacher Demographics, Self-Efficacy, And Student Gender On Behavioral Referrals, Morgan E. Hestand

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study examined the most common reason for behavioral referrals and the effects of student gender, teacher age, teacher experience, and school setting on reasons for behavioral referrals to the schools intervention team or the Individual Education Plan (IEP) team. Additionally, it examined the self-efficacy of teachers and compared the self-perceptions of teaching general education students with behavior problems with perceptions of teaching students identified as having an Emotional Disturbance (ED). Participants included 179 general education teachers, grades K-12, from the state of Kentucky and additional teachers recruited from Facebook from across the U.S. Participants completed a survey ...


Effect Of Bullying On Emotional Distress In A Fourth And Fifth Grade Sample, Katherine Koper Marcum Jul 2018

Effect Of Bullying On Emotional Distress In A Fourth And Fifth Grade Sample, Katherine Koper Marcum

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine the difference of self-reported emotional problems between low levels and high levels of victimization. Participants included 214 fourth and fifth grade students from a southcentral county in Kentucky. Students answered demographic questions and completed a series of surveys including the Personal Experiences Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The study was completed via computer-based questionnaire and focused on victimization within the last month. Results show that students who reported higher levels of victimization reported higher levels of emotional problems when compared to students who reported lower levels of victimization. The current ...