Impact Of Bio-Fuel Co-Product Modified Subgrade On Flexible Pavement Performance, 2017 Iowa State University
Impact Of Bio-Fuel Co-Product Modified Subgrade On Flexible Pavement Performance, Sunghwan Kim, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Halil Ceylan
This study explored the feasibility of lignin based biofuel co-product (BCP) for subgrade soil stabilization, and more specifically, its impact on Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement performance using the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The HMA pavement systems with BCP stabilized subgrade under different traffic and climate conditions were modeled using mechanistic based damage analysis system. The performances of BCP stabilized subgrade and natural soil subgrade sections were compared in terms of fatigue (alligator) cracking and rutting predictions on HMA pavements. The results of this study indicate that BCP stabilization of subgrade soil could achieve more sustainable HMA pavements under different ...
Mechanistic-Based Characterization Of Non-Linear Pavement Mechanical Properties With Evolving Intelligent Information Processing Systems, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim
The backcalculation methodology is an inverse process to determine in-situ materials stiffness of pavement layer from Non-Destructive Test (NDT) surface deflections using iterative optimization or more recently, computational intelligence techniques. Intelligent Information Systems (IIS) have been developed with the idea of dealing with information in a way a human expert would by incorporating abilities to learn fast from a large amount of data, dynamically create new modules, connections and neurons, accommodate imprecise or uncertain knowledge, etc. Evolving Connectionist Systems (ECOS) are IIS created with such requirements in mind. This paper explores the feasibility of applying an ECOS methodology, namely Dynamic ...
Non-Linear Inverse Analysis Of Transportation Structures Using Neuro-Adaptive Networks With Hybrid Learning Algorithm, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Siddhartha K. Khaitan, Halil Ceylan
The load-bearing capacity of pavement structures is a fundamental structural performance metric of transportation infrastructure networks in the context of safe and efficient movement of people and goods from one place to another. Non-destructive test (NDT) methods are typically employed to routinely evaluate the structural condition of pavement structures, their lifespan and the appropriate maintenance activities to be carried out. This involves computing the Young’s modulus of each layer of the pavement structure through inverse analysis of acquired NDT data. Over the past two decades, soft computing techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Genetic Algorithms (GAs), and Fuzzy ...
Sustainable Use Of Lignocellulosic Biorefineries Co-Products In Geotechnical Bulk Applications: Comparative Analysis Of Lab Data, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim
This paper discusses the effect of two co-products from lignocellulosic biorefineries on a typical Iowa subgrade soil in terms of laboratory measured strength and compaction properties. Emphasis is given to detailed data analysis of laboratory test results in comparing treated soils with untreated soils under different moisture conditions and additive concentrations. Results reveal that the bio-energy co-product (BCP) additives investigated in this study are promising materials to improve strength property of the typical Iowa soil classified to CL or A-6(8) for geotechnical applications. Especially, the co-product A containing higher lignin content is a more effective additive to reduce plastic ...
Smart Airport Pavement Instrumentation And Health Monitoring, 2017 Iowa State University
Smart Airport Pavement Instrumentation And Health Monitoring, Shuo Yang, Halil Ceylan, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim
Realistic characterization of pavement layer properties and responses under in-situ field conditions is critical for accurate airport pavement life predictions, planning pavement management activities as well as for calibration and validation of mechanistic-based pavement response prediction models. The recent advancements in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensor (MEMS)/Nano-Electro-Mechanical Sensor (NEMS) technologies and wireless sensor networks combined with efficient energy scavenging paradigms provide opportunities for long-term, continuous, real-time response measurement and health monitoring of transportation infrastructure systems.
This paper presents a summary review of some recent studies that have focused on the development of advanced smart sensing and monitoring systems for highway pavement system ...
Statistical Model Of Tyre-Road Noise For Thin Layer Surfacing, 2017 Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport
Statistical Model Of Tyre-Road Noise For Thin Layer Surfacing, M. Li, W. Van Keulen, Halil Ceylan, M.F.C Van De Ven, A.A.A Molenaar
Noise produced from the tyre - road surface interface is one of the most important contributions to the overall traffic noise, and there is an increasing requirement for predicting the trye - road noise leaves prior to road construction in the Netherlands. In practice, a model with a simple structure as well as a high accuracy is applicable in road engineering. And material properties are preferred to be used as input variables of the prediction model, which will facilitate the pavement design. Based on these considerations, models are developed for evaluating the tyre - road noise from the asphalt mixture compositions and road ...
Structural Evaluation Of Rubblized Concrete Pavements In Iowa, 2017 Iowa State University
Structural Evaluation Of Rubblized Concrete Pavements In Iowa, Halil Ceylan, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim
Rubblization is one of the surface preparation techniques before placing a Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) overlay that involves breaking the Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavement into pieces. This paper describes the structural assessment related to the long term performance of rubblized concrete pavements in Iowa. The structural performance of seven representative in-service rubblized concrete pavement sections across Iowa were evaluated through Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) tests, and visual pavement distress surveys. Through backcalculation of FWD deflection data using the Iowa State University (ISU) layer moduli backcalculation program, the pavement layer moduli values were determined and ...
Neural Network-Based Backcalculation Models For Non-Destructive Evaluation Of Rigid Airfield Pavement Systems, 2017 Iowa State University
Neural Network-Based Backcalculation Models For Non-Destructive Evaluation Of Rigid Airfield Pavement Systems, M. Birkan Bayrak, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Halil Ceylan
Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) tests were routinely conducted on three Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) test items in the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA's) National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) to verify the uniformity of the test pavement structures and to measure pavement responses during full-scale traffic testing. A six-wheel aircraft landing gear with dual-tridem configuration was trafficked on the north side of the test pavement while the south side was trafficked by a four-wheel landing gear with dual tandem configuration. HWD tests were conducted before and during traffic testing at slab center, at longitudinal joints and at transverse joints ...
Neural Networks Based Models For Mechanistic-Empirical Design Of Rubblized Concrete Pavements, 2017 Iowa State University
Neural Networks Based Models For Mechanistic-Empirical Design Of Rubblized Concrete Pavements, Halil Ceylan, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan
Rubblization is an in-place rehabilitation technique that involves breaking the concrete pavement into pieces. This process results in a structurally sound, rut resistant base layer which prevents reflective cracking (by obliterating the existing concrete pavement distresses and joints) that can then be overlaid with Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA). The design of the structural overlay thickness for rubblized projects is difficult as the resulting structure is neither a true rigid pavement nor a true flexible pavement. The HMA overlay thickness design methodology currently used in the state of Iowa is purely empirical. In the Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E) design approach developed for the analysis ...
Performance Engineered Mixtures For Concrete Pavements In The Us, 2017 Iowa State University
Performance Engineered Mixtures For Concrete Pavements In The Us, Peter C. Taylor, Ezgi Yurdakul, Halil Ceylan
Many concrete pavement mixtures in the US are proportioned based on recipes that have been used before, or on prescriptive specifications. As budgets grow tighter and increasing attention is being paid to sustainability metrics, greater attention is beginning to be focused on making mixtures that are more efficient in their usage of materials, yet do not compromise engineering performance. While the technology is largely available in the concrete industry, a number of challenges are slowing the development of more performance-based specifications and mixtures in the US market. These include resistance to change from familiar to less known, resistance to any ...
Rigid Pavement Backcalculation Using Differential Evolution, 2017 Iowa State University
Rigid Pavement Backcalculation Using Differential Evolution, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Halil Ceylan
The backcalculation of pavement layer moduli from Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) measured surface deflections is a challenging task. It can also be formulated as a global optimization problem with the objective of finding the optimal pavement layer moduli values that minimize the error between measured and computed surface deflections. Over the years, several backcalculation methodologies have been developed including the use of soft computing techniques such as Neural Networks (NNs), Genetic Algorithms (GAs), etc. In this paper, Differential Evolution (DE), a stochastic parallel direct search evolution strategy optimization method is integrated with rapid surrogate mapping of Finite Element (FE) solutions ...
Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis For Heated Pavement System, 2017 Iowa State University
Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis For Heated Pavement System, Weibin Shen, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim, Halil Ceylan
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have become significant environmental indicators in analyzing the comparative environmental impacts of conventional and newly developed alternative systems or techniques. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is considered an accepted and systematic methodology to calculate the amount of carbon released from all the processes of a system/technique, helping users select the best environmental-friendly alternative. The use of automated heating based snow removal systems is gaining attention as an alternative strategy to traditional ice and snow removal practices such as the use of anti-icing chemicals and snowplowing vehicles. Most previous studies on heated pavement systems have focused ...
Effect Of Pcc Material Properties On Mepdg Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (Jpcp) Performance Prediction, 2017 Iowa State University
Effect Of Pcc Material Properties On Mepdg Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (Jpcp) Performance Prediction, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Charles W. Schwartz, Rui Li, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan
This paper focuses on comprehensive sensitivity analyses of various rigid pavement scenarios. Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) sections designed for three traffic levels in each of five climate zones are evaluated in the sensitivity analyses. One-at-a-time (OAT) local sensitivity analysis was implemented using a design limit normalized sensitivity index (NSI) to provide both quantitative and qualitative sensitivity information. All portland cement concrete (PCC) material properties examined showed sensitivity to at least one rigid pavement performance measure. The highest ranked sensitive inputs for JPCP analysis include the PCC strength and stiffness properties and the curling and warping related properties. The findings ...
Minimizing Cementitious Content For Performance And Sustainability In Rigid Pavements, 2017 Iowa State University
Minimizing Cementitious Content For Performance And Sustainability In Rigid Pavements, Ezgi Yurdakul, Peter C. Taylor, Halil Ceylan, Fatih Bektas
The production of each ton of portland cement clinker emits approximately 1 ton of carbon dioxide. Therefore, there is a demand on the industry to reduce its carbon footprint by environmental agencies. A solution for the concrete construction industry is to use cement more efficiently. However, many concrete specifications impose minimum cementitious contents that may be in excess of those required to achieve desired durability and strength, leading to increased costs and increased carbon loading on the environment. In addition, in some cases, excessive cementitious content adversely affects concrete performance and durability by causing shrinkage related cracking. Therefore, minimizing the ...
Natural Selection Of Asphalt Mix Stiffness Predictive Models With Genetic Programming, 2017 Iowa State University
Natural Selection Of Asphalt Mix Stiffness Predictive Models With Genetic Programming, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim, Halil Ceylan, Siddhartha K. Khaitan
Genetic Programming (GP) is a systematic, domain-independent evolutionary computation technique that stochastically evolves populations of computer programs to perform a user-defined task. Similar to Genetic Algorithms (GA) which evolves a population of individuals to better ones, GP iteratively transforms a population of computer programs into a new generation of programs by applying biologically inspired operations such as crossover, mutation, etc. In this paper, a population of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) dynamic modulus stiffness prediction models is genetically evolved to better ones by applying the principles of genetic programming. The HMA dynamic modulus (|E*|), one of the stiffness measures, is the primary ...
Heated Transportation Infrastructure Systems: Existing Ande Emerging Technologies, 2017 Iowa State University
Heated Transportation Infrastructure Systems: Existing Ande Emerging Technologies, Halil Ceylan, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim, W. Cord
Ice and snow on pavement surfaces cost the U.S. national economy in snow removal, damaged pavement and lost man-hours due to travel delay. Common practices for removing ice and snow from pavement surfaces include spraying anti-ice chemicals on the ground and deploying snowplowing vehicles. These methods are labor-intensive, occasionally ineffective at extremely low temperatures and have associated environmental concerns with possible contamination of nearby water bodies. Heated pavement systems (i.e., the concept of supplying heat to the pavement through an external or internal source) melt snow and ice without the need for anti-ice chemicals and snowplowing vehicles. A ...
Cost Comparison Of Alternative Airfield Snow Removal Methodologies, 2017 Iowa State University
Cost Comparison Of Alternative Airfield Snow Removal Methodologies, Pritha Anand, Halil Ceylan, Konstantina Gkritza, Peter Talor, Vasiliki Dimitra Pyrialakou, Sunghwan Kim, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan
Maintaining operational safety and status of airport runways during snowfall events is a challenging issue that many airports are grappling with. Ice and snow impacts on transportation infrastructure systems add significant costs to the American economy in the form of snow removal, damaged pavement and lost productivity due to travel delays. Most transport category aircraft are prohibited from operating on runways covered by untreated ice or by more than ½ inch of snow or slush. Hence, it is imperative that both small and large airports maintain operational status during snowfall events to support the existing operations. Conventional ice and snow ...
Characterization Of Asphalt Materials Using X-Ray High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques, 2017 Iowa State University
Characterization Of Asphalt Materials Using X-Ray High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Halil Ceylan, Feyzi Inanc, Joseph Gray, Michael Alan Heitzman
X-ray Computerized Tomography (CT) has emerged as a powerful, nondestructive tool to study and quantify the three-dimensional internal structure of HMA. Studies, in conjunction with modeling and computational techniques, have focused on characterization of HMA internal air-void distribution, internal structure evolution during laboratory compaction, damage evolution in specimens during laboratory tests, segregation analysis, forensic investigation of pavements using cores, and the quantification of HMA microstructural properties. The Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) at Iowa State University (ISU) has an in-house built high-resolution CT system with customized software for data acquisition, volumetric file reconstruction, and visualization. Preliminary studies were conducted at ...
A Feasibility Study On Embedded Micro-Electromechanical Sensors And Systems (Mems) For Monitoring Highway Structures, Halil Ceylan, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Peter Taylor, Pranav Shrotriya, Sunghwan Kim, Maxim Mikhaylovich Prokudin, Shiyun Wang, Ashley F. Buss, Jiake Zhang
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) provide vast improvements over existing sensing methods in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM) of highway infrastructure systems, including improved system reliability, improved longevity and enhanced system performance, improved safety against natural hazards and vibrations, and a reduction in life cycle cost in both operating and maintaining the infrastructure. Advancements in MEMS technology and wireless sensor networks provide opportunities for long-term, continuous, real-time structural health monitoring of pavements and bridges at low cost within the context of sustainable infrastructure systems.
The primary objective of this research was to investigate the use of MEMS in highway structures ...
Developing Rigid Airport Pavement Multiple-Slab Response Models For Top-Down Cracking Mode Using Artificial Neural Networks, Halil Ceylan, Orhan Kaya, Adel Rezaei Tarahomi, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim, David R. Brill
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has recognized for some time that its current rigid 44 pavement design model, involving a single slab loaded at one edge by a single aircraft gear, is 45 inadequate to account for top-down cracking. Thus, one of the major observed failure modes for 46 rigid pavements is poorly represented in the FAA Rigid and Flexible Iterative Elastic Layer 47 Design (FAARFIELD) program. A research version of the FAARFIELD design software has 48 been developed (FAARFIELD 2.0), in which the single-slab three-dimensional finite element 49 (3D-FE) response model is replaced by a 4-slab 3D-FE model ...