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On The Influence Of The Grain Size Distribution Curve On Dynamic Properties Of Quartz Sand, Torsten Wichtmann, Theodor Triantafyllidis 2010 University of Karlsruhe, Germany

On The Influence Of The Grain Size Distribution Curve On Dynamic Properties Of Quartz Sand, Torsten Wichtmann, Theodor Triantafyllidis

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The paper reports on our effort to extend the well-known Hardin's equation by the influence of the grain size distribution curve. The study is motivated by the fact that Hardin's equation with its commonly used constants can significantly over-estimate the small strain shear modulus Gmax of well-graded sands. Approximately 350 resonant column (RC) tests with additional P-wave measurements have been performed on 33 specially mixed grain size distribution curves of a quartz sand with different mean grain sizes d50, coefficients of uniformity Cu = d60/d10 and fines contents FC. The experiments show that ...


Procedure To Evaluate Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading Based On Shear Wave Velocity, Fred (Feng) Yi 2010 C.H.J. Incorporated, Colton, CA

Procedure To Evaluate Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading Based On Shear Wave Velocity, Fred (Feng) Yi

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Evaluation of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading is very important for the design of structures located on gently sloping ground and with relatively shallow groundwater. Extensive research has been performed on the calculation of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading based on the standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT) data by various researchers (Bartlett and Youd 1992, 1995, Rauch, 1997; Zhang et al., 2004; Idriss and Boulanger, 2008). However, few published papers can be found that address the calculation of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading based on shear wave velocity. This paper presents a procedure to evaluate liquefaction-induced lateral spreading directly based on shear ...


Recovery Of Elastic Parameters For Cross-Anisotropic Sandy Soil Via Elastic Wave Measurements, Omer Faruk Capar, Isao Ishibashi 2010 Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Turkey

Recovery Of Elastic Parameters For Cross-Anisotropic Sandy Soil Via Elastic Wave Measurements, Omer Faruk Capar, Isao Ishibashi

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

In this study, the elastic properties of loose to medium dense (Dr=50%) sandy soil were obtained from elastic wave propagation techniques in the laboratory. The soil specimens were assumed cross anisotropic medium. Two bender elements are embedded in the top cap and the pedestal of the triaxial device as receivers and transmitters in the vertical direction for P- and S-waves. In addition, two bender elements are attached to the membrane surrounding the soil specimen to measure horizontal P-wave velocities. After the preparation of the specimens, vertical and horizontal P-wave velocities and a vertical shear wave velocity were measured under ...


Resonant Frequency Of Model Footings Resting On Finite Saturated Sand Stratum, H. N. Ramesh, M. T. Prathap Kumar 2010 Bangalore University, India

Resonant Frequency Of Model Footings Resting On Finite Saturated Sand Stratum, H. N. Ramesh, M. T. Prathap Kumar

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The resonant frequency of the foundation-soil system depends on several factors and nonhomogeniety of soil is one of the important factors that include the effect of saturation. In the present investigation, the effect of saturation and location of rigid concrete base on the resonant frequency of foundation-soil system was determined by conducting vertical vibration test on model footings resting on the surface of finite dry sand stratum as well as on finite saturated sand stratum underlain by rigid concrete base. On the basis of the experimental investigation, it was concluded that the presence of rigid base at shallow depth decreases ...


Seismic Behavior Of Nailed Soil Massifs, V. A. Barvashov, Ch. A. Dzhantimirov, I. M. Iovlev, P. V. Kharlamov, S. A. Rytov 2010 Gersevanov Research Institute of Foundations and Underground Structures, Russia

Seismic Behavior Of Nailed Soil Massifs, V. A. Barvashov, Ch. A. Dzhantimirov, I. M. Iovlev, P. V. Kharlamov, S. A. Rytov

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Soil nailing technology can be successfully applied to strengthen natural soil massifs in seismic regions, provided adequate analysis is available. Conventionally, the design of soil nailing is performed iteratively: firstly parameters of nailing and their distribution are assigned, the safety factor of the nailed massif is calculated, if its value is less than 1 then nailing parameters are reassigned, etc. Such “trial and error” approach is laborious and especially so, because different types of ULSs shall be analyzed. The method, discussed in the paper, is based on assumption that the effect of nailing in soil with internal cohesion c=c ...


Shearing Rate Effect On Mechanical Behavior Of Msw Materials, Nader Shariatmadari, Sandro Lemos Machado, Ali Noorzad, Mehran Karimpour Fard, Mohsen Keramati, Seyyed Hossein Jafari Kalarijani 2010 Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran

Shearing Rate Effect On Mechanical Behavior Of Msw Materials, Nader Shariatmadari, Sandro Lemos Machado, Ali Noorzad, Mehran Karimpour Fard, Mohsen Keramati, Seyyed Hossein Jafari Kalarijani

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Recent catastrophic failure in different regions of the world is an indication on the poor level of engineering knowledge on the mechanical behavior of MSW materials which are the main materials in the landfill body. However extensive researches have been made to represent a clear frame work to describe the behavior of these materials but clearly all of these attempts had not been enough. In the region with high seismic activity, mechanical response of MSW materials under quick and dynamic loading condition is one of the issues which should be addressed however there are some evidences concerning the higher resistance ...


Simplified Theoretical Analysis Of The Seismic Response Of Artificially Compacted Gravels, Giuseppe Modoni, Anna Gazzellone 2010 University of Cassino, Italy

Simplified Theoretical Analysis Of The Seismic Response Of Artificially Compacted Gravels, Giuseppe Modoni, Anna Gazzellone

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Despite extensive use of gravely materials for the construction of big earthworks, theoretical prediction of their seismic response is often based on very simple schemes, unable to reproduce most of the important features observed at sample scales. Theoretical models capable of simulating the effects of artificial compaction on the stress-strain response of these soils under complex static and dynamic loading conditions would be particularly useful for designing more cost effective solutions in the construction of large embankments. This paper is aimed to fill this gap by reporting the results of a simplified theoretical study on the seismic response of an ...


Small Strain Properties Of Sands With Different Cement Types, Luling Yang, Lynn Salvati 2010 MWH Americas, Chicago, IL

Small Strain Properties Of Sands With Different Cement Types, Luling Yang, Lynn Salvati

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

This research examines the small strain properties of Ottawa, Monterey and Michiana sands cemented in the laboratory with two different cementing agents using flush mounted transducers, bender elements, and resonant column tests. Samples cemented with higher strength cementing agents and higher cement contents had higher maximum shear modulus values and greater nonlinearity in the shear modulus reduction and damping curves. Although confining pressure is a significant factor for the small strain stiffness of uncemented sands, it did not affect the maximum shear modulus or the shear modulus reduction curves of the cemented sands tested. The density of the cemented samples ...


Soil Improvement Techniques For Mitigation Of Seismic Hazards - An Overview, Ram Prasad Sharma 2010 B. I. T., India

Soil Improvement Techniques For Mitigation Of Seismic Hazards - An Overview, Ram Prasad Sharma

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

If seismic hazards are deemed to be unacceptably high because of poor soil conditions, it is often possible to achieve improved seismic performance through the use of one or more soil improvement techniques. Poor performance is the result of inadequate strength, low stiffness, or insufficient drainage. Many improvement techniques have been evolved over the years, mostly through trial and error, aimed at improving at least one of these properties. When selecting one or more mitigation methods, it is important to consider the effectiveness of the improvement approach for the particular situation at hand, cost, environmental consequences, regulatory requirements, and technical ...


The Effect Of Nonplastic Silt Gradation On The Liquefaction Behavior Of Sand, Mehmet Murat Monkul, Jerry A. Yamamuro 2010 Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR

The Effect Of Nonplastic Silt Gradation On The Liquefaction Behavior Of Sand, Mehmet Murat Monkul, Jerry A. Yamamuro

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Various researchers have published results regarding the effect of non plastic silts on the liquefaction behavior of sands. Some concluded that increasing fines content decrease the liquefaction potential, whereas others observed the opposite. Some of those discrepancies might be explained via various factors such as different confining stresses, different depositional methods, different consolidation histories and possibly different comparison bases (i.e. void ratio, intergranular void ratio, relative density). New experimental results from monotonic undrained triaxial compression tests performed on Nevada Sand-A mixed with different silts indicate that liquefaction behavior is also significantly influenced by the gradation of the fines.


The Universal Void Ratio Function For Small Strain Shear Modulus, Man T. Bui, C. R. I. Clayton, Jeffrey A. Priest 2010 SGC Laboratory, Fugro GeoConsulting Limited, U.K.

The Universal Void Ratio Function For Small Strain Shear Modulus, Man T. Bui, C. R. I. Clayton, Jeffrey A. Priest

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Small strain shear modulus, Gmax, is a key parameter representing the small strain response of soils under seismic load. It is also an important parameter in design of foundations where only small deformation takes place. It is recognised that Gmax is significantly influenced by void ratio. The influence of void ratio on Gmax of a soil has been taken into account by using an empirical void ratio function, F(e), and various forms of F(e) have been proposed. However, each F(e) can only be applied for a given soil within a limited void ratio range ...


Threshold Shear Strain For Cyclic Degradation Of Three Clays, Kentaro Tabata, Mladen Vucetic 2010 National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Japan

Threshold Shear Strain For Cyclic Degradation Of Three Clays, Kentaro Tabata, Mladen Vucetic

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Cyclic threshold shear strain, γt, is small cyclic shear strain amplitude above which soil properties significantly change with the number of cycles, N, and below which such changes are for all practical purposes negligible. To date, three cyclic threshold shear strains have been experimentally verified: for cyclic settlement (cyclic compression), for residual cyclic pore water pressure, and for cyclic stiffening. Subject of the paper is testing of fourth cyclic threshold shear strain for cyclic degradation, γtd. When fully saturated soil is subjected in undrained conditions to moderate or large cyclic strain-controlled loading, its secant shear modulus, Gs ...


Multi Channel Analysis Of Surface Wave (Masw) Testing For Dynamic Site Characterization Of Delhi Region, D. Neelima Satyam, K. S. Rao 2010 IIIT Hyderabad, India

Multi Channel Analysis Of Surface Wave (Masw) Testing For Dynamic Site Characterization Of Delhi Region, D. Neelima Satyam, K. S. Rao

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

After the Bhuj earthquake the national capital region of Delhi attracted major attention of several scientific studies in the recent times. Since Delhi falls in zone IV (IS 1893: 2002) with high seismic activity, there is a great need for site characterization and seismic hazard mapping of the area. Multi Channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) tests were done in Delhi at 118 sites in predefined grids of 2kmX3km each. Shear-wave velocity, VS, is an important parameter for evaluating dynamic behavior of soil. This test carried outdone using 48 channel digital seismograph with 4.5 Hz geophones. Data was analyzed ...


Comparison Of Dynamic Soil Modelling Using Scpt, Sdmt And Sasw, Kayhan Aykin, Onder Akcakal, H. Turan Durgunoglu, Ozer Akbal 2010 Zemin Etud ve Tasarim A.S., Turkey

Comparison Of Dynamic Soil Modelling Using Scpt, Sdmt And Sasw, Kayhan Aykin, Onder Akcakal, H. Turan Durgunoglu, Ozer Akbal

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

A site investigation campaign using cone penetration test (CPT), dilatometer test (DMT) are carried on alluvial deposits at a site located at Gemlik, Turkey towards the design of a newly planned hot reverse mill structure within the existing Borçelik steel factory. Site is located at the south of North Anatolian Fault that is sheared during 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. In addition, the site is under the influence zone of another fault line going through the Gemlik Bay. Therefore, prediction of the behaviour of saturated alluvial deposits under a major expected design earthquake of the planned structures is the prime importance in ...


Residual Strength Of Liquefied Sand: Laboratory Vs. Field Measurements, Julián Sandoval, Pedro de Alba, Thomas P. Ballestero, Barry K. Fussell 2010 University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Residual Strength Of Liquefied Sand: Laboratory Vs. Field Measurements, Julián Sandoval, Pedro De Alba, Thomas P. Ballestero, Barry K. Fussell

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Determining the residual strength of liquefied sand is essential for estimating post-earthquake stability of vulnerable earth structures, or calculating runout of liquefaction flow slides. Current practice is to select values from a database of back-calculated residual strengths from failure case histories, which have been related to representative penetration test resistance numbers in the failed materials. Given the uncertainties involved, it is desirable to compare the field data with laboratory tests under controlled conditions. This paper describes residual strength measurements for a uniform fine sand using two recently-developed tests designed to impose large strains and strain rates: a modified triaxial test ...


Field And Laboratory Tests In Seman Deposits, Luljeta Bozo, Skender Allkja, Lorena Harizaj 2010 Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania

Field And Laboratory Tests In Seman Deposits, Luljeta Bozo, Skender Allkja, Lorena Harizaj

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The construction of the big energetic park near the spilling of the river needed a geotechnical study to be performed by thoroughly investigations of the sand’s deposits. We would like to present in these papers all the field investigations, laboratory tests and geotechnical study carried out by “ALTEA&GEOSTUDIO2000” laboratory in order to identify the behavior of soils under static and seismic loads. It is possible to create some geotechnical models based on this study and to determine their behavior under static and seismic conditions.


Development Of Database Of Cyclic Soil Properties From 94 Tests On 47 Soils, Leo Matesic, Chu-Chung Hsu, Marco D'Elia, Mladen Vucetic 2010 University of Rijeka, Croatia

Development Of Database Of Cyclic Soil Properties From 94 Tests On 47 Soils, Leo Matesic, Chu-Chung Hsu, Marco D'Elia, Mladen Vucetic

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Cyclic properties of 47 soils were tested in several investigations between 1994 and 2004 in the standard Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) direct simple shear (DSS) device and an NGI-type dual-specimen DSS (DSDSS) device for small strain testing. In each investigation many cycles of different amplitude, c, and frequency, f, were applied at different levels of vertical stress, v, and overconsolidation ratio, OCR. In DSDSS device many consecutive series of different small c=0.0003-0.01% were applied on the same specimens without changing their structure, because at such small c cyclic shearing is nondestructive. Consequently, the vast amounts of small-strain ...


An Insight To The Effect Of Initial Static Shear Stress On The Liquefaction Of Sands, S. Mohsen Haeri, Mehdi Pouragha 2010 Sharif University of Technology, Iran

An Insight To The Effect Of Initial Static Shear Stress On The Liquefaction Of Sands, S. Mohsen Haeri, Mehdi Pouragha

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The effect of initial static shear stress on cyclic behavior of sands has been the concern of many researchers for more than five decades. This study includes the results of a set of cyclic simple shear tests carried out on a uniform sand with relative densities of 20%, 40%, and 60%, under three different initial normal stresses of 50, 150, and 250 kPa. All tests were performed under constant volume condition. Results show that the behavior of sands due to initial static shear stress, is controlled by two contradictive elements: first one relates to the increasing dynamic shear modulus due ...


Large Scale Model Test For Pile-Supported Wharf In Liquefied Sand, Wen-Jong Chang, Jyh-Fang Chen, Hsing-Chuan Ho 2010 National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

Large Scale Model Test For Pile-Supported Wharf In Liquefied Sand, Wen-Jong Chang, Jyh-Fang Chen, Hsing-Chuan Ho

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Pile-supported wharf is a general option in port design to provide lateral resistance and bearing capacity under both static and dynamic loadings. In situ large-scale physical modeling using surface wave generator was performed to study the dynamic soil-structure interactions in pile-supported wharves and to serve as a prototype for in situ monitoring station. A wharf model consisting of 2 steel pipe piles welded on a steel slab was installed on a reconstituted underwater embankment. Due to screening of stress wave, the two piles are subjected to different loading conditions. Data reduction procedures were developed to analyze coupled shear strain-pore pressure ...


Reproduction, By Means Of True Scale Testing, Of The Effects Caused On A Track By High Speed Railway Traffic, Javier Moreno Robles, Vicente Cuéllar Mirasol 2010 Ministerio de Fomento, Spain

Reproduction, By Means Of True Scale Testing, Of The Effects Caused On A Track By High Speed Railway Traffic, Javier Moreno Robles, Vicente Cuéllar Mirasol

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Nowadays, the social importance of the railway transportation is accepted without any doubt, and the levels of comfort and operation quality associated to railways are continuously increasing. The travel times that could be considered allowable in the past century are now obsolete and in order to reduce time “losses”, traffic speeds larger than 300 km/h are being asked for. In order to analyse properly the behaviour of the different layers that make up the railway track structure, the Centro de Estudios y Experimentación de Obras Públicas (CEDEX) of the Ministerio de Fomento, Spain, has built a large facility (5 ...


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