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Comparison Of Erosional Features By Tsunami And Wind Waves, B. K. Pal, M. K. Panda 2010 National Institute of Technology, India

Comparison Of Erosional Features By Tsunami And Wind Waves, B. K. Pal, M. K. Panda

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The erosion features from tsunami wave and wind wave are different according to the characteristics of the two kinds of waves. The tsunami wave is a shallow water wave, even in Deep Ocean, with very long wavelength and relatively high especially near shore. It does not break when attacking the shore. It composed of run-up and run-down. The waves which can scour the offshore sea bottom and deposit the sediment mostly sand on the coast called storm or tsunami over washes. The erosion features from storm wave are caused by the breaking waves and wind-driven currents. However, the erosion features ...


Fault Hazard Characterization For A Transportation Tunnel Project In Coronado, California, James R. Gingery, Scott H. Rugg, Thomas K. Rockwell, Bruce R. Hilton 2010 Kleinfelder West, Inc., San Diego, CA/University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA

Fault Hazard Characterization For A Transportation Tunnel Project In Coronado, California, James R. Gingery, Scott H. Rugg, Thomas K. Rockwell, Bruce R. Hilton

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

This paper presents the results of a fault hazard study performed as part of a proposed traffic tunnel project in Coronado, California. The 2.3 km alignment crosses the Coronado fault, which is considered active by the California Geological Survey. Although the location of the Coronado fault offshore of Coronado had been well established through previous studies, the fault had never been definitively located on land. A study was undertaken that utilized four principal investigation methods: a seismic reflection survey, large diameter borings, closely-spaced cone penetrometer tests (CPT) and a fault trench. This study was the first to positively locate ...


San Diego Seismic Study – Lane Field, Garry W. Cannon, Joseph J. Vettel, Shawn Weedon 2010 Geocon Incorporated, San Diego, CA

San Diego Seismic Study – Lane Field, Garry W. Cannon, Joseph J. Vettel, Shawn Weedon

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The Lane Field Property, located northwest of the intersection of Broadway and Pacific Highway on the San Diego Bay Embarcadero in downtown San Diego, California is slated for development of a 40-story, mixed-use, retail/hotel with two subterranean parking levels. Site conditions posed several challenges during the design and implementation of the geotechnical and geologic fault studies. The 6.2-acre site was reclaimed by dredge fill from San Diego Bay in approximately 1900 by the City of San Diego. Prior to 1900, the bay shoreline coincided approximately with the eastern edge of the property. A baseball park was built at ...


Seismic Hazard Evaluation For Design Of San Vicente Dam Raise, Leo D. Handfelt, Ivan Wong, Patricia Thomas, Timothy Dawson, Jim Zhou, Nicola Kavanagh 2010 URS Corporation, San Diego, CA

Seismic Hazard Evaluation For Design Of San Vicente Dam Raise, Leo D. Handfelt, Ivan Wong, Patricia Thomas, Timothy Dawson, Jim Zhou, Nicola Kavanagh

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The San Diego County Water Authority (Water Authority) is undertaking a raise of the existing San Vicente Dam to provide both emergency and carryover storage to increase local reservoir supplies in San Diego County, California, USA. The emergency storage is required in case of a disruption to the imported water transmission system from floods or earthquakes and the carry-over storage would be utilized to store water during “wet” seasons to carry-over to seasons of drought. The existing San Vicente Dam is a 220 foot (67 m) high concrete gravity dam completed in 1943 with 90,063 acre-feet of storage. The ...


The Rose Canyon Fault Zone In San Diego, Thomas Rockwell 2010 Earth Consultants International, Santa Ana, CA

The Rose Canyon Fault Zone In San Diego, Thomas Rockwell

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The Rose Canyon fault bisects the City of San Diego, producing much of the unique beauty of the city with the uplift of Mt. Soledad and subsidence producing the natural harbor of San Diego Bay. Geologic studies demonstrate that the late Quaternary slip rate is in the range of 1-2 mm/yr, which although only a fraction of the plate margin slip budget, has the potential to produce major damage in “America’s finest city”. Paleoseismic trenching in La Jolla and downtown San Diego indicate that the most recent surface rupture occurred only a few hundred years ago, sometime after ...


Vibro Replacement And Soil Mixing Ground Improvements At A Shopping Mall Site In San Diego, California, Usa, Lisheng Shao, Jack Kinley 2010 Hayward Baker Inc., Santa Paula, CA

Vibro Replacement And Soil Mixing Ground Improvements At A Shopping Mall Site In San Diego, California, Usa, Lisheng Shao, Jack Kinley

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

A 230,000 ft2 (21,367 m2) addition was planned for construction at the Plaza Bonita shopping mall in San Diego, CA. The soil profile at the site consisted of fill soils underlain by alluvial deposits followed by San Diego Formation. The saturated loose sand layers were liquefiable and would result in significant settlement under the site design earthquake. In addition, soft clay layers would undergo excessive settlement under heavy building column loads. The geotechnical contractor proposed soil treatment with vibro replacement stone columns to mitigate the site liquefaction and to reduce static settlement under building column loads ...


Static Load Induced Liquefaction, Steels Corners Road Embankment Failure, Mitchell W. Weber, Alexandre J. Bredikhin 2010 Gannett Fleming Engineers and Architects, P.C., Akron, OH

Static Load Induced Liquefaction, Steels Corners Road Embankment Failure, Mitchell W. Weber, Alexandre J. Bredikhin

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

A simple, roadway widening became significantly more expensive when geologic conditions conspired to complicate the project. The widening was to be accomplished by the construction of a 25-foot wide and 15-foot high embankment. The embankment was located adjacent to a “wetland” area and pond. Fill placement begin and a height of 7 feet was reached when operations ceased for the week. Work began two days later. A 400-foot long scarp formed and the fill “moved” nearly 4 feet vertically and 1-foot laterally. An initial suspicion of settlement due to compression of peat was dismissed when no organic deposits were found ...


Undrained Response And Liquefaction Behaviour Of Non-Plastic Silty Sands Under Cyclic Loading, K. Ranga Swamy, A. Boominathan, K. Rajagopal 2010 National Institute of Technology Calicut, India

Undrained Response And Liquefaction Behaviour Of Non-Plastic Silty Sands Under Cyclic Loading, K. Ranga Swamy, A. Boominathan, K. Rajagopal

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The undrained response and liquefaction behaviour of fine sand and silty sands consisting of 30% and 50% non-plastic fines were investigated in the present study. The effect of consolidation stress level, cyclic stress amplitude and amount of non-plastic fines on soil liquefaction have been studied through a systematically planned stress controlled cyclic triaxial tests. To examine the effect of consolidation pressure on liquefaction behaviour, the sand-silt specimens were prepared at 40% relative density and consolidated at pressures of 50, 100 and 200 kPa. To investigate the effect of fines content on liquefaction resistance of sands at constant postconsolidation void ratio ...


Verification Of Potential Flaws In Computing Liquefaction Po-Tential Index By 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake In Taiwan, Chihping Kuo, Muhsiung Chang 2010 National Yunlin University of Science & Technology, Taiwan

Verification Of Potential Flaws In Computing Liquefaction Po-Tential Index By 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake In Taiwan, Chihping Kuo, Muhsiung Chang

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

A widely used method for evaluating the damage and possibility of soil liquefaction, called Liquefaction Potential Index (PL), was proposed by Iwasaki in 1982. The values of 5 and 15 are the critical boundaries of PL to describe the damage which soil liquefaction will occur. The method is also adopted in the building design codes in Taiwan. The index is computed in form of integration by mul-tiplying the danger function (i.e. 1 minus safety factor) and the depth weight function. Theoretically, the computation should adequately reflect the liquefaction potential for the depth interval calculated. If the danger ...


2d Fem Analysis Of Earth And Rockfill Dams Under Seismic Condition, Prabir K. Basudhar, N.S.V. Kameswara Rao, M. Bhookya, Arindam Dey 2010 Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India

2d Fem Analysis Of Earth And Rockfill Dams Under Seismic Condition, Prabir K. Basudhar, N.S.V. Kameswara Rao, M. Bhookya, Arindam Dey

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The paper pertains to the seismic analysis of earth and rockfill dams with the aid of MSC_ Nastran (Windows) package. After validation, the package has been used to investigate the dynamic response of Tehri Dam, located in the seismically active region of Himalayas. A 2D FEM analysis is adopted wherein the dam has been modeled as a linear, elastic, non-homogeneous material. The base acceleration data of the Bhuj Earthquake has been used as an input motion. Effect of Poisson’s ratio and the ratio of the canyon length to the height of the dam has been investigated and is reported ...


3d Analysis Of The Seismic Response Of Seven Oaks Dam, Lelio Mejia, Ethan Dawson 2010 URS Corporation, Oakland, CA

3d Analysis Of The Seismic Response Of Seven Oaks Dam, Lelio Mejia, Ethan Dawson

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Procedures for the three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic analysis of earth dams have been available for over 25 years. However, additional case histories are needed to assess whether such procedures are capable of simulating the seismic response of dams in narrow canyons, and to further evaluate the effects of 3-D behavior on the response of such dams. This study was aimed at identifying the vibration characteristics of Seven Oaks Dam during the 2005 Yucaipa and 2001 Big Bear Lake earthquakes, and at evaluating the applicability of 3-D and 2-D numerical procedures to simulate the response of the dam. Accelerograms recorded on the ...


A Probabilistic Method For The Prediction Of Earthquake-Induced Slope Displacements, Simone Barani, Paolo Bazzurro, Fabrizio Pelli 2010 University of Genoa, Italy

A Probabilistic Method For The Prediction Of Earthquake-Induced Slope Displacements, Simone Barani, Paolo Bazzurro, Fabrizio Pelli

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

This work presents a probabilistic method for estimating earthquake-induced nonlinear slope displacements. This method is applicable to any kind of slope, embankment and earth/rockfill dam. When coupled with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis at the slope site, it produces estimates of the annual probability that a permanent deformation of the slope will be exceeded. The proposed method uses a set of 2D numerical analyses with non-linear constitutive relationships for the soil formations to establish a probabilistic relationship between one or more ground motion parameters and the permanent displacement at a specific location within the slope. The analyses, which are performed ...


Accuracy Of Empirical Equations Predicting Sliding-Block Displacement, Tryfon Thomaidis, Constantine A. Stamatopoulos 2010 Hellenic Open University, Greece

Accuracy Of Empirical Equations Predicting Sliding-Block Displacement, Tryfon Thomaidis, Constantine A. Stamatopoulos

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The sliding-block model forms the basis of simple models predicting permanent co-seismic shear displacements of soils. For excitations consisting of actual accelerograms, different parameters of the applied motion have been used and different expressions have been proposed by researchers. Recently, many accelerograms have been recorded and these accelerograms are available in internet sites. These accelerograms allow the investigation of the accuracy of the expressions described above, some of which were based in a small number of accelerograms. In the present work the accuracy of empirical equations predicting sliding-block displacement is studied thru the application of 101 accelerograms covering a wide ...


An Empirical Predictive Relationship For Assessing The Seismic Stability Of Slopes, Jongwon Lee, Russell A. Green, Rachel Finch 2010 Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

An Empirical Predictive Relationship For Assessing The Seismic Stability Of Slopes, Jongwon Lee, Russell A. Green, Rachel Finch

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

The objective of the study presented herein is to develop an empirical predictive relationship for permanent relative displacements for use in assessing the seismic stability of slopes, dams, and/or embankments subjected to active shallow crustal earthquake motions. A total of 330 horizontal motions, recorded at rock sites during 29 earthquakes in active shallow crustal regions (e.g., western North America: WNA), were used in this study. For each motion, the permanent relative displacements were computed using the Newmark sliding block procedure for a suite of yield-accelerations: 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 g. The predictive relationship ...


Assessing Horizontal Seismic Coefficients In Earth Dams With Regards To Expected Deformation, Mohammad Hossein Tavakol, Ali Komak Panah 2010 Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

Assessing Horizontal Seismic Coefficients In Earth Dams With Regards To Expected Deformation, Mohammad Hossein Tavakol, Ali Komak Panah

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

One of the most important aspects that must be considered in design of embankment dams is to assess their stability during seismic events. When employing sophisticated approaches like finite element method for dynamic analysis of the mentioned structures against earthquake attacks, difficulties in evaluation of input parameters may exist. Hence employing simpler approaches like pseudo static method are still preferred by some designers. However, there is a problem associated with the pseudo static procedure as there is no organized technique for precise evaluation of horizontal seismic coefficient. Moreover, this method applies "safety factor" for the stability evaluations which is not ...


Assessment Of Soil-Nailed Excavations Seismic Failure Under Cyclic Loading And Pseudo-Static Forces, Ali Komak Panah, Sina Majidian 2010 Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

Assessment Of Soil-Nailed Excavations Seismic Failure Under Cyclic Loading And Pseudo-Static Forces, Ali Komak Panah, Sina Majidian

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

In this paper two numerical analysis methods (i.e. cyclic time history and pseudo-static) are applied to simulate the seismic behaviour and failure mechanism of soil-nailed structures. The numerical simulations are performed by using a finite difference software (Flac). Nevada sand soil parameters are used and construction sequences of nailed-structures are simulated prior to the cyclic and pseudo-static analyses. The results revealed that the failure pattern of two kinds of analyses are approximately similar and comprised of bilinear sliding surfaces. Furthermore, good agreement is found between failure pattern of two types of numerical analyses and previous experimental tests. based on ...


Behavior Of Nailed Steep Slopes In Laboratory Shake Table Tests, Aniruddha Sengupta, Debabrata Giri 2010 IIT-Kharagpur, India

Behavior Of Nailed Steep Slopes In Laboratory Shake Table Tests, Aniruddha Sengupta, Debabrata Giri

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

This paper presents results of laboratory shake table tests performed to study the dynamic behavior of nailed steep slopes. The surface displacements, settlement of the crest and the acceleration responses along with the behavior of the facing wall are examined during the tests. Two 18 cm high 60° and 70° steep soil slopes reinforced with nine hollow aluminum nails placed in three rows are considered. Three strain gauges are glued to each nail to measure the tensile force developed in the nails. Four strain gauges are fixed at the center of the facing wall to measure the development of strains ...


Centrifuge Model Tests Of Tieback Anchors And Drainage Pipes For Stabilization Of Slopes Under Earthquake Loads, Keiichi Ota, Koji Takeya, Keiichi Itoh, Senro Kuraoka, Yuichi Ueno, Takaya Hiroshima 2010 Nippon Koei Co., LTD. Research and Development Center, Japan

Centrifuge Model Tests Of Tieback Anchors And Drainage Pipes For Stabilization Of Slopes Under Earthquake Loads, Keiichi Ota, Koji Takeya, Keiichi Itoh, Senro Kuraoka, Yuichi Ueno, Takaya Hiroshima

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Tieback anchors are widely used for the stabilization of natural and manmade slopes in Japan. The interactions between tieback anchors and slopes under seismic loading need to be understood to develop rational design concepts and installation methods in earthquake prone areas. We conducted centrifuge model tests to examine the characteristics of dynamic and residual loads on tieback anchors installed in slopes subjected to seismic loads. If the model slope contained a saturated zone, circular failure occurred even with pre-tensioned tieback anchors, and the amplitude of the oscillating loads on the tieback anchors was very high. This suggested that excess pore ...


Comparison Of Liquefaction Triggering Analysis Approaches For An Embankment Dam And Foundation, David C. Serafini, Vlad Perlea 2010 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento, CA

Comparison Of Liquefaction Triggering Analysis Approaches For An Embankment Dam And Foundation, David C. Serafini, Vlad Perlea

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Success Dam is located on the Tule River, near the city of Porterville, California. The dam is a rolled earth-fill embankment approximately 145 feet high and 3,400 feet long. The embankment is comprised of a central impervious core protected by upstream and downstream outer pervious zones. A majority of the dam is founded on potentially liquefiable Holocene alluvium. Several analytical techniques of varying complexity have been used to determine the liquefaction potential of the foundation Holocene alluvium and the pervious embankment shells. The following analytical techniques were used on the Success Dam Remediation Project: (1) cyclic stress ratio (CSR ...


Cyclic Torsional Shear Tests To Obtain Dynamic Soil Properties For Seismic Design Of Road Embankments, Susumu Yasuda, Takafumi Tsuruda 2010 Tokyo Denki University, Japan

Cyclic Torsional Shear Tests To Obtain Dynamic Soil Properties For Seismic Design Of Road Embankments, Susumu Yasuda, Takafumi Tsuruda

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Many road embankments have suffered damage during past earthquakes. The authors took soil samples from several embankments and conducted laboratory tests to demonstrate the mechanism of the damages and study appropriate seismic design methods. In the laboratory tests, cyclic torsional shear tests were carried out to obtain undrained cyclic strength, excess pore water pressure and shear modulus after cyclic loading of embankment soils. Test results showed a unique relationship between Plasticity Index and undrained cyclic strength is existed. Relationship between excess pore water pressure ratio and safety factor against liquefaction is also influenced by Plasticity Index. Then appropriate seismic design ...


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