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Comparison Of Ambient Odor Assessment Techniques In A Controlled Environment, Christopher G. Henry, Dennis D. Schulte, Steven J. Hoff, Larry D. Jacobson, Ann M. Parkhurst 2011 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Comparison Of Ambient Odor Assessment Techniques In A Controlled Environment, Christopher G. Henry, Dennis D. Schulte, Steven J. Hoff, Larry D. Jacobson, Ann M. Parkhurst

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This article compares results of using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry (DTFCO), the Mask Scentometer, the Nasal Ranger, and an odor intensity reference scale (OIRS) to assess odors in a controlled-environment chamber in the Iowa State University Air Dispersion Laboratory. The methods were used to assess 13 odor levels in the chamber. Swine manure mixed with water was used to vary the odor levels. DTFCO did not correlate well to the other ambient odor assessment methods. Predicting dilution to threshold (D/T) using intensity ratings compared to using intensity ratings directly degraded the coefficient of determination (Ro2) through zero with the ...


Development Of An Embedded Microcomputer-Based Force Plate System For Measuring Sow Weight Distribution And Detection Of Lameness, Gang Sun, Robert F. Fitzgerald, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Johnson, Steven J. Hoff 2011 Iowa State University

Development Of An Embedded Microcomputer-Based Force Plate System For Measuring Sow Weight Distribution And Detection Of Lameness, Gang Sun, Robert F. Fitzgerald, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Johnson, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Measuring sow weight distribution is vital for scientists to identify lame animals before clinical signs can be visually observed and help livestock producers decrease lameness incidence in their swine breeding herd. In this study, an embedded microcomputer-based force plate system was developed to measure vertical forces produced by each limb of the sow and evaluate data accuracy to the sow's known weight. It was found that all tested sows averaged more weight on their front legs than their hind legs and side-to-side weight differences had more variation than front-to-hind distribution. The deviation in front-to-hind weight distribution might be indicative ...


Monitoring Soil Quality To Assess The Sustainability Of Harvesting Corn Stover, Douglas L. Karlen, Gary E. Varvel, Jane M. F. Johnson, John M. Baker, Shannon L. Osborne, Jeff M. Novak, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Stuart J. Birrell 2011 United States Department of Agriculture

Monitoring Soil Quality To Assess The Sustainability Of Harvesting Corn Stover, Douglas L. Karlen, Gary E. Varvel, Jane M. F. Johnson, John M. Baker, Shannon L. Osborne, Jeff M. Novak, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Stuart J. Birrell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Harvesting feedstock for biofuel production must not degrade soil, water, or air resources. Our objective is to provide an overview of field research being conducted to quantify effects of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a bioenergy feedstock. Coordinated field studies are being conducted near Ames, IA; St. Paul and Morris, MN; Mead, NE; University Park, PA; Florence, SC; and Brookings, SD., as part of the USDA-ARS Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP). A baseline soil quality assessment was made using the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF). Corn grain and residue yield for two different stover harvest rates (∼50% and ...


Effects Of Full, Abbreviated, And No Clean-Outs On Commingled Grain During Combine Harvest, H. Mark Hanna, Darren H. Jarboe 2011 Iowa State University

Effects Of Full, Abbreviated, And No Clean-Outs On Commingled Grain During Combine Harvest, H. Mark Hanna, Darren H. Jarboe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Growers of identity-preserved crops desire to keep grain separate throughout the production process. Earlier research has demonstrated that some locations in a combine such as cleaning and threshing areas harbor relatively smaller amounts of grain, but require relatively large amounts of time to clean. Omitting clean-out in some areas and flushing residual grain with new grain in the first grain tank full may lower commingled grain concentration to acceptable levels for some customers.


Development Of Single-Seed Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Predictions Of Corn And Soybean Constituents Using Bulk Reference Values And Mean Spectra, Paul R. Armstrong, Jasper G. Tallada, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., David F. Hildebrand, James E. Specht 2011 United States Department of Agriculture

Development Of Single-Seed Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Predictions Of Corn And Soybean Constituents Using Bulk Reference Values And Mean Spectra, Paul R. Armstrong, Jasper G. Tallada, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., David F. Hildebrand, James E. Specht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rapid, non-destructive single-seed compositional analyses are useful for many areas of crop science, including breeding and genetics. Seeds are sometimes unique and require preservation due to small samples, which necessitates development of methods for total non-destructive measurement. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used for non-destructive single-seed composition prediction, but the reference methods used to develop prediction models are usually destructive. Reference methods are costly, and extensive sets of seeds must be used to obtain prediction models for multiple constituents. In this research, single-seed NIRS prediction models were developed for common constituents of soybeans and corn using composition values from ...


Operating Characteristics Of A High-Efficiency Pilot Scale Corn Distillers Grains Dryer, Carl J. Bern, Michael B. Pate, Steve Shivvers 2011 Iowa State University

Operating Characteristics Of A High-Efficiency Pilot Scale Corn Distillers Grains Dryer, Carl J. Bern, Michael B. Pate, Steve Shivvers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The rapidly expanding U.S. corn ethanol industry produces huge quantities of wet distillers grains and about 70% of this material is dried to 10% moisture. Drying this material requires about one-third of the energy used to operate a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. Tri-Phase Drying Technologies of Norwalk, Iowa has developed a rotary drum dryer which reclaims energy from the exhaust air stream. The objective of this research was to determine the energy requirement of the Tri-Phase dryer by pilot scale drying tests with wet distillers grains. Multiple tests of the pilot-scale dryer showed an energy input requirement of about ...


Foldable Substrates For Micro-Ultrasonic Transducers, Karthik Balasubramanian 2011 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Foldable Substrates For Micro-Ultrasonic Transducers, Karthik Balasubramanian

LSU Master's Theses

Ultrasound has broad range of applications from underwater examination, nondestructive testing of materials and medical diagnosis and treatment. The ultrasonic transducer plays an vital role in determining the resolution, sensitivity, as well as other diagnostic capabilities of an ultrasonic imaging system. Current piezoelectric transducer which dominates the medical field has limited applications compared to the capacitive ultrasonic transducer. The capacitive transducer is easy to fabricate compared to the piezoelectric transducer. In this work, the fabrication of a foldable substrate for a capacitive ultrasonic transducer has been discussed. The foldable substrate was fabricated using an ultrathin silicon wafer which is 50 ...


Interpretation Of Power Phenomena In Three Phase Systems With Neutral Using Instantaneous Reactive Power P-Q Theory, Rahul Anil Kantharia 2011 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Interpretation Of Power Phenomena In Three Phase Systems With Neutral Using Instantaneous Reactive Power P-Q Theory, Rahul Anil Kantharia

LSU Master's Theses

The Instantaneous Reactive power (IRP) p-q theory considered as a major power theory as well as a primary fundamental for switching compensator control in three-phase systems, is analyzed in order to verify its ability to describe and identify the power properties or power phenomena in a 3pN system with asymmetrical and non-sinusoidal voltages along with unbalanced loads. This analysis is an outcome of the misinterpretations of power phenomena in three-wire circuits shown by IRP p-q theory under non-sinusoidal conditions. Different load and supply conditions such as balanced, unbalanced and Harmonic generating loads along with asymmetrical and non-sinusoidal voltages are assumed ...


Assymmetry In Distribution Systems: Causes, Harmful Effects And Remedies, Isaac Plummer 2011 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Assymmetry In Distribution Systems: Causes, Harmful Effects And Remedies, Isaac Plummer

LSU Master's Theses

ABSTRACT: Current and voltage asymmetry denigrates the power system performance. The current asymmetry reduces efficiency, productivity and profits at the generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy. Voltage asymmetry reduces efficiency, productivity and profits at the consumption/utilization level. There are a lot of conference and journal papers on the subject of voltage and current asymmetry, however, the information is scattered over a large number of journals and conferences and published over several years. Therefore, the thesis provides a comprehensive compilation of all possible published information on current and voltage asymmetry in the electrical power systems. Published information on sources ...


Effect Of Piezoelectric Actuation On Curved Beams And Single Lap Joints, Calicia Johnson 2011 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effect Of Piezoelectric Actuation On Curved Beams And Single Lap Joints, Calicia Johnson

LSU Master's Theses

Piezoelectric materials have seen a significant usage increase over the past decade. They have been found to be effective as either sensors or actuators in smart structure applications, which allows them to act more as an adaptive system rather than a passive system. Piezoelectric materials are very effective transducers which convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, known as the direct piezoelectric effect or they have the ability to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy, known as the converse piezoelectric effect. The absence of additional mechanical parts, its lightweight and high strength to weight ratio is what make piezoelectric materials so ...


Stabilisation Of Linear-Cavity Fibre Laser Using A Saturable Absorber, David Michel, Feng Xiao, Kamal Alameh 2011 Edith Cowan University

Stabilisation Of Linear-Cavity Fibre Laser Using A Saturable Absorber, David Michel, Feng Xiao, Kamal Alameh

ECU Publications 2011

We investigate the optimisation of the length of an un-pumped erbium doped fibre (EDF) in order to suppress amplifier noise in a linear-cavity fibre laser structure. The experimental results demonstrate the existence of an optimum length of the un-pumped EDF which eliminates noise due to high optical pumping powers, thus leading to a stable laser output.


A 1x4 Adaptive Optical Splitter Based On Opto-Vlsi Processor, Haithem Mustafa, Feng Xiao, Kamal Alameh 2011 Edith Cowan University

A 1x4 Adaptive Optical Splitter Based On Opto-Vlsi Processor, Haithem Mustafa, Feng Xiao, Kamal Alameh

ECU Publications 2011

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel high resolution 1×4 adaptive optical power splitter based on the use of an Opto-VLSI processor and a 4-f imaging system with an optimized optical beam waist profile. By uploading optimized multicasting phase holograms onto the software-driven Opto-VLSI processor, an input optical signal is dynamically split into different output fiber ports with user-defined splitting ratios. Experimental results showing dynamic optical splitting over a wavelength range exceeding 50 nm are presented.


Photonic Microwave Filter Employing An Opto-Vlsi-Based Adaptive Optical Combiner, Haithem Mustafa, Feng Xiao, Kamal Alameh 2011 Edith Cowan University

Photonic Microwave Filter Employing An Opto-Vlsi-Based Adaptive Optical Combiner, Haithem Mustafa, Feng Xiao, Kamal Alameh

ECU Publications 2011

A reconfigurable photonic microwave filter structure employing an Opto-VLSI based adaptive optical combiner is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The Opto-VLSI based adaptive optical combiner is used to combine RF modulated optical signals with a user-defined weight profile to realize a reconfigurable RF photonic filter response. Theoretical simulations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results that demonstrate the concept of the photonic microwave filter structure.


Back-End Processing Of Scanning Mirrors With Scratch Drive Actuators, Pradeep Pai 2011 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Back-End Processing Of Scanning Mirrors With Scratch Drive Actuators, Pradeep Pai

LSU Master's Theses

The use of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) processes in fabrication of micr- electro-mechanical devices for optical applications has been widespread. The invention of digital light processing (DLP) technology by Texas Instruments Inc. popularized the use of micro-mirrors. One of the applications of the micro-mirrors is in the form of scanners for biomedical imaging. The small size of mirrors and actuators makes them a good candidate for in vivo measurements/imaging. Various techniques in bulk- and surface-micromachining, and various actuators have been used to fabricate scanning mirrors. The scanning mirrors used in this work make use of scratch drive actuators (SDA) for ...


Integrating Demand And Traffic Simulation Modeling To Evaluate Adaptive Evacuation Plans, Thomas Jude Montz, Jr. 2011 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Integrating Demand And Traffic Simulation Modeling To Evaluate Adaptive Evacuation Plans, Thomas Jude Montz, Jr.

LSU Master's Theses

Significant efforts are currently being made by transportation officials to improve the planning and preparation of mass evacuations. The idea of adaptive evacuation plans is an avenue of research that could help improve future evacuation processes. Adaptive evacuation plans stem from the observation that different disaster threat scenarios require different evacuation responses. While adaptive evacuation planning can be generalized to any form of evacuation planning, this project focused on adaptive planning in the context of a hurricane evacuation.

This project was the first to adapt the demand models of Fu, et al, and Cheng, et al, into a regional-scale traffic ...


Escherichia Coli Inactivation Kinetics In Anaerobic Digestion Of Dairy Manure Under Moderate, Mesophilic And Thermophilic Temperatures, Pramod K. Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir 2011 Iowa State University

Escherichia Coli Inactivation Kinetics In Anaerobic Digestion Of Dairy Manure Under Moderate, Mesophilic And Thermophilic Temperatures, Pramod K. Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Batch anaerobic digestion experiments using dairy manure as feedstocks were performed at moderate (25°C), mesophilic (37°C), and thermophilic (52.5°C) temperatures to understand E. coli, an indicator organism for pathogens, inactivation in dairy manure. Incubation periods at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 61, 41, and 28 days respectively. Results were used to develop models for predicting E. coli inactivation and survival in anaerobic digestion. For modeling we used the decay of E. coli at each temperature to calculate the first-order inactivation rate coefficients, and these rates were used to formulate the time - temperature - E. coli ...


Using Total Solids Concentration To Estimate Nutrient Content Of Feedlot Runoff Effluent From Solid Settling Basins, Vegetative Infiltration Basins, And Vegetative Treatment Areas, Daniel S. Andersen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, Matthew J. Helmers 2011 Iowa State University

Using Total Solids Concentration To Estimate Nutrient Content Of Feedlot Runoff Effluent From Solid Settling Basins, Vegetative Infiltration Basins, And Vegetative Treatment Areas, Daniel S. Andersen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, Matthew J. Helmers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increased environmental awareness has promoted the need for improved feedlot runoff control. The use of vegetative treatment systems (VTSs) to control and treat feedlot runoff may enhance environmental security and protect water quality. Knowledge of effluent nutrient concentrations throughout the vegetative treatment system is required to evaluate system performance and impact on water quality. Previously collected VTS monitoring data has provided the opportunity to investigate relationships between effluent quality parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate, through correlation and regression, the relationships between total solids, nutrients, and effluent quality indicator concentrations of feedlot runoff at various stages of ...


Comparison Of Methane Production From Bench- And Sub Pilot-Scale Anaerobic Digesters, Steven Thomas Sell, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, D. Raj Raman 2011 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Methane Production From Bench- And Sub Pilot-Scale Anaerobic Digesters, Steven Thomas Sell, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, D. Raj Raman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Design and construction of full-scale anaerobic digesters that co-digest manure with other substrates, such as food processing wastes, is challenging because of the large number of potential mixtures that can be fed to the digester. In this work we examine the relationship between results from bench-scale methods such as biochemical methane potential assays (BMPs) and sub pilot-scale reactors. The baseline feedstock for this study was beef manure from concrete feedlot pens (open and covered) in eastern Iowa. Additional co-digestion substrates tested were short-fiber cardboard, corn processing wastewater, enzyme processing wastewater and lagoon liquid. Substrates were characterized for total solids (TS ...


Technical Note: Detecting And Subcategorizing Hard-Coding Errors In Bioenergy-Relevant Spreadsheets Using Visual Basic For Applications (Vba), Vertika Rawat, D. Raj Raman, Robert P. Anex 2011 Iowa State University

Technical Note: Detecting And Subcategorizing Hard-Coding Errors In Bioenergy-Relevant Spreadsheets Using Visual Basic For Applications (Vba), Vertika Rawat, D. Raj Raman, Robert P. Anex

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Electronic spreadsheets play an indispensable role in the simulation, modeling, and analysis of bioenergy systems, and their results have the ability to affect decision-making significantly. Prior research has shown that spreadsheets are highly error-prone, and that a large percentage of these errors are difficult to detect. To that end, we developed computer code (implemented in Visual Basic for Applications, running under Microsoft Excel) to detect a particularly insidious form of spreadsheet error: the hard-coding error. These errors are defined as the presence of one or more unreferenced numerical values in a cell formula. The code was used to audit six ...


Air Emissions From Tom And Hen Turkey Houses In The U.S. Midwest, Hong Li, Hongwei Xin, Robert Burns, Larry D. Jacobson, Sally Noll, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Jacek A. Koziel, Brian Hetchler 2011 Iowa State University

Air Emissions From Tom And Hen Turkey Houses In The U.S. Midwest, Hong Li, Hongwei Xin, Robert Burns, Larry D. Jacobson, Sally Noll, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Jacek A. Koziel, Brian Hetchler

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Limited data exist in the literature regarding air emissions from U.S. turkey feeding operations. The project described in this article continuously monitored ammonia (NH3) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from turkey production houses in Iowa (IA) and Minnesota (MN) for 10 to 16 months, with IA monitoring Hybrid tom turkeys (35 to 143 d of age, average market body weight of 17.9 kg) for 16 months and MN monitoring Hybrid hens (35 to 84 d of age, average market body weight of 6.7 kg) for 10 months. Mobile air emission monitoring units (MAEMUs) were used in the ...


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