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Inhibition Of Hiv-1 Infection Of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells By A Monoclonal Antibody That Binds To Phosphoinositides And Induces Secretion Of Β-Chemokines, Gary R. Matyas, Lindsay Wieczorek, Divya Bensal, Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Eric Saunders-Buell, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Jerome H. Kim, Victoria Polonis, Carl R. Alving 2010 Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Inhibition Of Hiv-1 Infection Of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells By A Monoclonal Antibody That Binds To Phosphoinositides And Induces Secretion Of Β-Chemokines, Gary R. Matyas, Lindsay Wieczorek, Divya Bensal, Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Eric Saunders-Buell, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Jerome H. Kim, Victoria Polonis, Carl R. Alving

US Army Research

A murine IgG mAb, WR321, selected for the ability to bind to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate, but an inability to bind to any of 17 other lipids, including phosphatidylinositol, was examined as a probe for studying interactions of HIV-1 with primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The WR321 mAb broadly neutralized CCR5-tropic strains of HIV-1 to prevent infection of the cells. The mAb also exhibited direct interaction with cells in the culture, resulting in secretion of chemokines that interfered with the interaction of HIV-1 virions with CCR5, the coreceptor for HIV-1 on the susceptible cells, leading to inhibition of infection ...


Toxicity And Bioaccumulation Of Tnt In Marine Fish In Sediment Exposures, Guilherme R. Lotufo, William Blackburn, Sydney J. Marlborough, John W. Fleeger 2010 US Army Engineer Research and Development Center

Toxicity And Bioaccumulation Of Tnt In Marine Fish In Sediment Exposures, Guilherme R. Lotufo, William Blackburn, Sydney J. Marlborough, John W. Fleeger

US Army Research

The bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) spiked to sediment was evaluated in juvenile sheeps head minnows (JSHM, Cyprinodon variegatus) and adult freckled blennies (FB, Hypsoblennius ionthas). The JSHM were exposed for 4 days in the presence or absence of a mesh separating fish from sediment. FB were exposed to sediment for 7 days. During the 24-day storage period(4 °C), extensive transformation of spiked TNT occurred and concentrations are expressed as the sum of TNT, aminodinitrotoluenes and diaminonitrotoluenes (Sum TNT), on a dry weight basis. Sum TNT in the overlying water, not exchanged during exposure, increased ...


Shrapnel-Induced Mandibular Hypomobility, David E. Palo, Paul J. Warden 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Shrapnel-Induced Mandibular Hypomobility, David E. Palo, Paul J. Warden

US Army Research

Mandibular hypomobility can develop from direct injury to, or as a result of disorders affecting, the supporting structures of the temporomandibular joint. This can be subdivided into intra-articular and extraarticular processes. Ankylosis is commonly associated with trauma (31% to 98%), followed by infections (10% to 49%) and systemic disease (10%). Temporomandibular joint ankylosis is an intra-articular process characterized by fibrous, fibro-osseous, or osseous obliteration of the joint space. Pseudoankylosis involves extracapsular causes of restricted jaw motion that include, but are not limited to, coronoid-zygomatic fusion, coronoid hypertrophy, and muscular fibrosis. Shrapnel injuries can be as devastating as high-velocity gunshot wounds ...


Impact Of Woven Fabric: Experiments And Mesostructure-Based Continuum-Level Simulations, Ethan M. Parsons, Tusit Weerasooriya, Sai Sarva, Simona Socrate 2010 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Impact Of Woven Fabric: Experiments And Mesostructure-Based Continuum-Level Simulations, Ethan M. Parsons, Tusit Weerasooriya, Sai Sarva, Simona Socrate

US Army Research

Woven fabric is an increasingly important component of many defense and commercial systems, including deployable structures, restraint systems, numerous forms of protective armor, and a variety of structural applications where it serves as the reinforcement phase of composite materials. With the prevalence of these systems and the desire to explore new applications, acomprehensive, computationally efficient model for the deformation of woven fabrics is needed. However, modeling woven fabrics is difficult due, inparticular, to the need to simulate the response both at the scale of the entire fabric and at the meso-level, the scale of the yarns that compose the weave ...


Multiscale Modeling Of The Impact Of Textile Fabrics Based On Hybrid Element Analysis, Gaurav Nilakantan, Michael Keefe, Travis A. Bogetti, John W. Gillespie Jr. 2010 University of Delaware

Multiscale Modeling Of The Impact Of Textile Fabrics Based On Hybrid Element Analysis, Gaurav Nilakantan, Michael Keefe, Travis A. Bogetti, John W. Gillespie Jr.

US Army Research

In this work, a multi scale modeling approach has been developed to simulate the impact of woven fabrics using a finite element (FE) analysis. A yarn level of resolution is used in the model. This approach, referred to as the hybrid element analysis (HEA) is based on decreasing the complexity of the finite element model with distance away from the impact zone based on the multiscale nature of the fabric architecture and the physics of the impact event. Solid elements are used to discretize the yarns around the impact region, which transition to shell elements in the surrounding region. A ...


Biological Transformation Pathways Of 2,4-Dinitro Anisole And N-Methyl Paranitro Aniline In Anaerobic Fluidized-Bed Bioreactors, William E. Platten III, David Bailey, Makram T. Suidan, Stephen W. Maloney 2010 University of Cincinnati - Main Campus

Biological Transformation Pathways Of 2,4-Dinitro Anisole And N-Methyl Paranitro Aniline In Anaerobic Fluidized-Bed Bioreactors, William E. Platten Iii, David Bailey, Makram T. Suidan, Stephen W. Maloney

US Army Research

The US Army is evaluating new, insensitive explosives to produce safer munitions. Two potential new components are 2,4-dinitro anisole (DNAN) and N-methyl paranitro aniline (MNA), which would eventually make their way to waste streams generated in the production and handling of new munitions. The effectiveness of anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactors (AFBB) was studied for treatment and transformation of these two new chemical components in munitions. Each compound was fed into a separate reactor and monitored for removal and transformation, using ethanol as the electron donor. The results show that both were degradable using the AFBB system. DNAN was found to ...


Characterization Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Flow-Field Flow Fractionation Interfaced To Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, A. R. Poda, A. J. Bednar, A. Harmon, M. Hull, D. M. Mitrano, J. F. Ranville, J. Steevens 2010 US Army Engineer Research and Development Center

Characterization Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Flow-Field Flow Fractionation Interfaced To Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, A. R. Poda, A. J. Bednar, A. Harmon, M. Hull, D. M. Mitrano, J. F. Ranville, J. Steevens

US Army Research

The ability to detect and identify the physiochemical form of contaminants in the environment is important for degradation, fate and transport, and toxicity studies. This is particularly true of nanomaterials that exist as discrete particles rather than dissolved or sorbed contaminant molecules in the environment. Nanoparticles will tend to agglomerate or dissolve, based on solution chemistry, which will drastically affect their environmental properties. The current study investigates the use of field flow fractionation (FFF) interfaced to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry(ICPMS) as a sensitive and selective method for detection and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used ...


Biological Opinion On The Operation Of The Missouri River Main Stem System, Operation And Maintenance Of The Missouri River Bank Stabilization And Navigation Project, And Operation Of The Kansas River Reservoir System, 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Biological Opinion On The Operation Of The Missouri River Main Stem System, Operation And Maintenance Of The Missouri River Bank Stabilization And Navigation Project, And Operation Of The Kansas River Reservoir System

US Army Corps of Engineers

This Annual Report summarizes implementation efforts in response to the Biological Opinion on the Operation of the Missouri River Main Stem System, Operation and Maintenance of the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project, and Operation of the Kansas River Reservoir System. The document improves upon the previous annual Biological Opinion (BiOp) compliance reports by incorporating:

• The first combined U.S. Fish and Wildlife (USFWS) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) report documenting recovery efforts on the Missouri River satisfying reporting requirements of the 2003 Amended BiOp on the Operation of the Missouri River Main Stem System (System ...


Missouri River Recovery Program Emergent Sandbar Habitat Complexes In The Missouri River, Nebraska And South Dakota, Draft Project Implementation Report (Pir) With Integrated Environmental Assessment, 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Missouri River Recovery Program Emergent Sandbar Habitat Complexes In The Missouri River, Nebraska And South Dakota, Draft Project Implementation Report (Pir) With Integrated Environmental Assessment

US Army Corps of Engineers

The Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) was developed to address actions included in the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) 2000 and 2003 Amended Biological Opinions (BiOp) on the Operation of the Missouri River System and the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project (Mitigation Project) authorized by the Water Resources Development Acts of 1986 and 1999 (WRDA86 and WRDA99). The BiOp and Mitigation Project provide authority and direction to complete projects for fish and wildlife habitat along Missouri River. These actions are being undertaken to address endangered species needs and mitigate for the loss of ...


Status And Trend Of Cottonwood Forests Along The Missouri River, Mark D. Dixon, W. Carter Johnson, Michael L. Scott, Daniel Bowen 2010 University of South Dakota

Status And Trend Of Cottonwood Forests Along The Missouri River, Mark D. Dixon, W. Carter Johnson, Michael L. Scott, Daniel Bowen

US Army Corps of Engineers

From 2007-2009, we studied the current (2006) and historic (1892, mid-1950s) extent, current age distribution, and plant species composition of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and non-cottonwood riparian stands along eight study segments of the Missouri River between Fort Benton, Montana and Kansas City Missouri, covering 930 river miles (1500 km) or over 1/3 of the river's length. These segments included all of the unchannelized and unimpounded segments below Fort Benton, as well as portions of two impounded and one channelized segment. Based on GIS analyses of historic maps and aerial photography, the combined area of forests, woodlands, and ...


Missouri River Recovery Program: Integrated Science Program General Science Questions & Key Findings, 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Missouri River Recovery Program: Integrated Science Program General Science Questions & Key Findings

US Army Corps of Engineers

I.

What is the population of pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River and its tributaries? .....5
1. What are the population trends over time? ...........................5

II.

Is propagation a viable short-term solution to augment pallid sturgeon populations?
2. Can pallid sturgeon be propagated?......................................6
3. Will stocked fish survive in the river? .....................................6
4. Will stocked fish spawn in the river?........................................7
5. What is the appropriate level of stocking?................................7

III.

Do pallid sturgeon spawn in the Missouri River? ..........................7
6. Where are the locations of spawning sites? .............................7
7. What is the timing of the spawn?...........................................8
8 ...


Proposed Implementation Of A Cottonwood Management Plan Along Six Priority Segments Of The Missouri River, 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Proposed Implementation Of A Cottonwood Management Plan Along Six Priority Segments Of The Missouri River

US Army Corps of Engineers

The Missouri River originates in the Rocky Mountains of south-central Montana and flows approximately 2,341 miles through seven states, ending at its confluence with the Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri. The plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) was once the dominant floodplain vegetation in the Missouri River ecosystem (Corps 2006a). Natural cottonwood regeneration has largely ceased along the Missouri River following the construction of the Missouri River Mainstem Reservoir System (System) and Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project (BSNP). The reduction in the number of young cottonwoods to replace older cottonwoods concerns biologists because a variety of plant and wildlife species ...


Effect Of Magnetron Frequency On Heating Pattern In Domestic Oven, Sohan Birla, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, David D. Jones 2010 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

Effect Of Magnetron Frequency On Heating Pattern In Domestic Oven, Sohan Birla, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, David D. Jones

Conference Presentations and White Papers: Biological Systems Engineering

In this study a computer model was developed to simulate microwave heating of a model food with a range of magnetron frequencies. The range was decided upon performing the frequency spectrum analysis of microwave leakage from the microwave oven. Simulation results showed that the magnetron input as sinusoidal frequency from 2.44 GHz to 2.48 GHz generates different heating profiles. The simulated heating profiles were compared with experimental heating profiles obtained by using an IR camera. None of simulations with individual frequency exactly matches with experimental temperature profile. The closet match between simulated and observed temperature profiles was found ...


Heating Performance Assessment Of Domestic Microwave Ovens, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Sohan Birla, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, David D. Jones 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Heating Performance Assessment Of Domestic Microwave Ovens, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Sohan Birla, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, David D. Jones

Conference Presentations and White Papers: Biological Systems Engineering

Due to inherent nature of standing wave patterns of microwaves inside a cavity and dielectric properties of different components in a food, microwave heating leaves non-uniform distribution of energy inside the food volumetrically. Achieving heating uniformity plays critical role in improving the safety of microwave heated products. In this paper, we present a method for assessing heating uniformity within domestic microwave ovens. A custom designed container
was used to assess heating uniformity of a range of microwave ovens using IR camera. The study suggested that the best place to place food in a microwave oven is not at center but ...


Testing Fuel Efficiency Of Tractors With Both Continuously Variable And Standard Geared Transmissions, Christopher N. Howard 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Testing Fuel Efficiency Of Tractors With Both Continuously Variable And Standard Geared Transmissions, Christopher N. Howard

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A John Deere 8295R IVT tractor with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and a John Deere 8295R PowerShift (PST) tractor (Waterloo, Iowa) with a standard geared transmission (GT) were tested for fuel consumption at three different travel speeds with six different load levels applied per speed. The JD 8295R PST tractor was tested both at full throttle (FT) and shifted up two gears and throttled back (SUTB) to achieve the same travel speed as at full throttle conditions. The three speeds tested corresponded to the maximum speeds achieved in 6th, 8th and 10th gear for the JD 8295R PST tractor ...


Evaluation Of Biological Cell Properties Using Dynamic Indentation Measurement, Guoxin Cao, Namas Chandra 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of Biological Cell Properties Using Dynamic Indentation Measurement, Guoxin Cao, Namas Chandra

Faculty Publications from the Department of Engineering Mechanics

Viscoelastic mechanical properties of biological cells are commonly measured using atomic force microscope (AFM) dynamic indentation with spherical tips. A semiempirical analysis based on numerical simulation is built to determine the cell mechanical properties. It is shown that the existing analysis cannot reflect the accurate values of cell elastic/dynamic modulus due to the effects of substrate, indenter tip size, and cell size. Among these factors, substrate not only increases the true contact radius but also interferes the indentation stress field, which can cause the overestimation of cell moduli. Typically, the substrate effect is much stronger than the other two ...


Dynamics Of Fibrillar Precursors Of Shishes As A Function Of Stress, Luigi Balzano, Dario Cavallo, Tim B. van Erp, Zhe Ma, Jan-Willem Housmans, Lucia Fernandez-Ballester, Gerrit W. M. Peters 2010 Eindhoven University of Technology

Dynamics Of Fibrillar Precursors Of Shishes As A Function Of Stress, Luigi Balzano, Dario Cavallo, Tim B. Van Erp, Zhe Ma, Jan-Willem Housmans, Lucia Fernandez-Ballester, Gerrit W. M. Peters

Faculty Publications from the Department of Engineering Mechanics

Shishes are fibrillar crystallites that can be created by deforming a polymer melt. The formation of shishes takes place when flow is strong enough to stretch molecules. In the early stages, bundles of stretched molecules with pre-crystalline order form metastable precursors whose stability depends on their size and, hence, on the stress level. We find that for a specific isotactic polypropylene, close to the nominal melting point, a stress larger than 0.10 MPa leads to stable fibrillar precursors that are partially crystalline immediately after flow. On the other hand, below 0.10 MPa, the aspect ratio of precursors tends ...


Missouri River Recovery Program Sandy Point Bend Shallow Water Habitat Construction Project Draft Project Implementation Report May 2010, 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Missouri River Recovery Program Sandy Point Bend Shallow Water Habitat Construction Project Draft Project Implementation Report May 2010

US Army Corps of Engineers

The Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District (Corps) to address actions included in the 2000 and 2003 Amended Biological Opinions (BiOp) on the Operation of the Missouri River System and the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project (Mitigation Project) authorized by the Water Resources Development Acts of 1986 and 1999 (WRDA86 and WRDA99). The BiOp and Mitigation Project provide direction and authority to complete projects that provide fish and wildlife habitat along Missouri River. These actions are being undertaken to address endangered species needs ...


Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement For The Mechanical Creation And Maintenance Of Emergent Sandbar Habitat In The Riverine Segments Of The Upper Missouri River, Vol. 1 And 2, 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement For The Mechanical Creation And Maintenance Of Emergent Sandbar Habitat In The Riverine Segments Of The Upper Missouri River, Vol. 1 And 2

US Army Corps of Engineers

This Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) analyzes the potential environmental consequences of implementing the Emergent Sandbar Habitat (ESH) program on the Upper Missouri River. The purpose of the ESH program is to support least tern and piping plover populations on the Missouri River by supplementing natural habitat through the mechanical creation and replacement of ESH. The PEIS allows the public, cooperating agencies (the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the National Park Service (NPS)), and Corps decision makers to compare impacts among a range of alternatives. The PEIS is meant to inform the selection of a preferred ...


Linearized Theory Of Peridynamic States, S. A. Silling 2010 Sandia National Laboratories

Linearized Theory Of Peridynamic States, S. A. Silling

US Department of Energy Publications

A state-based peridynamic material model describes internal forces acting on a point in terms of the collective deformation of all the material within a neighborhood of the point. In this paper, the response of a state-based peridynamic material is investigated for a small deformation superposed on a large deformation. The appropriate notion of a small deformation restricts the relative displacement between points, but it does not involve the deformation gradient (which would be undefined on a crack). The material properties that govern the linearized material response are expressed in terms of a new quantity called the modulus state. This determines ...


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