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Nanodomains Due To Phason Defects At A Quasicrystal Surface, T. Duguet, Barış Ünal, J. Ledieu, J.-M. Dubois, V. Fournée, Patricia A. Thiel 2011 Institut Jean Lamour

Nanodomains Due To Phason Defects At A Quasicrystal Surface, T. Duguet, Barış Ünal, J. Ledieu, J.-M. Dubois, V. Fournée, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

Among the three coexisting types of terraces found on the twofold surface of the d-Al-Cu-Co quasicrystal, nanodomains are essentially observed on the transition-metal rich ones, with a coherent interface boundary. Both clean surface and Ag growth analyses, demonstrate that nanodomain surfaces are structurally identical to one of the two other terraces, which contains 85 at. % Al. We provide evidence that the nanodomains are a manifestation of phason defects that extend downward toward the bulk, and state that nanodomains develop because the energetic cost of creating the phason is outweighed by the change in surface energy. Consequently, the formation of nanodomains ...


Digital Holographic Imaging Of Aerosol Particles In Flight, Matthew J. Berg, Gorden Videen 2011 US Army Research Laboratory

Digital Holographic Imaging Of Aerosol Particles In Flight, Matthew J. Berg, Gorden Videen

US Army Research

This work describes the design and application of an apparatus to image aerosol
particles using digital holography in a flow-through, contact-free manner. Particles in an aerosol stream are illuminated by a triggered, pulsed laser and the pattern produced by the interference of this light with that scattered by the particles is recorded by a digital camera. The recorded pattern constitutes a digital hologram from which an image of the particles is computationally reconstructed using a fast Fourier transform. This imaging is validated using a cluster of ragweed pollen particles. Examples involving mineral-dust aerosols demonstrate the technique’s in situ imaging ...


A New Explanation Of The Extinction Paradox, Matthew J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, A. Chakrabarti 2011 US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD

A New Explanation Of The Extinction Paradox, Matthew J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, A. Chakrabarti

US Army Research

This work presents a new explanation for the extinction paradox and shows that the canonical explanations are incorrect. This paradox refers to the large size limit of a particle’s extinction cross section. It is called a paradox because the geometrical optics approximation, which should be valid in this limit, predicts a cross section that is half of the true value. The new explanation is achieved by formulating the scattered wave in terms of an integral over the particle’s surface where the seemingly unrelated Ewald–Oseen theorem appears in the formulation. By expressing the cross section in terms of ...


Application Of Hyperspectral Vegetation Indices To Detect Variations In High Leaf Area Index Temperate Shrub Thicket Canopies, Steven T. Brantley, Julie C. Zinnert, Donald R. Young 2011 Virginia Commonwealth University

Application Of Hyperspectral Vegetation Indices To Detect Variations In High Leaf Area Index Temperate Shrub Thicket Canopies, Steven T. Brantley, Julie C. Zinnert, Donald R. Young

US Army Research

Accurate measurement of leaf area index (LAI), an important characteristic of plant canopies directly linked to primary production, is essential for monitoring changes in ecosystem C stocks and other ecosystem level fluxes. Direct measurement of LAI is labor intensive, impractical at large scales and does not capture seasonal or annual variations in canopy biomass. The need to monitor canopy related fluxes across landscapes makes remote sensing an attractive technique for estimating LAI. Many vegetation indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), tend to saturate at LAI levels >4 although tropical and temperate forested ecosystems often exceed that threshold. Using ...


A Phase Field Model Of Deformation Twinning: Nonlinear Theory And Numerical Simulations, J. D. Clayton, J. Knap 2011 US Army Research Laboratory

A Phase Field Model Of Deformation Twinning: Nonlinear Theory And Numerical Simulations, J. D. Clayton, J. Knap

US Army Research

A continuum phase field theory and corresponding numerical solution methods are developed to describe deformation twinning in crystalline solids. An order parameter is associated with the magnitude of twinning shear, i.e., the lattice transformation associated with twinning. The general theory addresses the following physics: large deformations, nonlinear anisotropic elastic behavior, and anisotropic phase boundary energy. The theory is applied towards prediction of equilibrium phenomena in the athermal and non-dissipative limit, whereby equilibrium configurations of an externally stressed crystal are obtained via incremental minimization of a free energy functional. Outcomes of such calculations are elastic fields (e.g., displacement, strain ...


Clostridium Difficile Infections In Patients With Severe Burns, Scott J. Crabtree, Janelle L. Robertson, Kevin K. Chung, Evan M. Renz, Steven E. Wolf, Duane R. Hospenthal, Clinton K. Murray 2011 San Antonio Military Medical Center

Clostridium Difficile Infections In Patients With Severe Burns, Scott J. Crabtree, Janelle L. Robertson, Kevin K. Chung, Evan M. Renz, Steven E. Wolf, Duane R. Hospenthal, Clinton K. Murray

US Army Research

With improved survival in burn patients, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a significant potential complication. The incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes of CDI in severely burned patients are poorly studied and remain unclear. This study involves retrospective case control and cohort studies using electronic medical records from February 1, 2002 to January 31, 2009 at the US Department of Defense’s only burn unit. Demographic, risk factor, and outcome data were collected for all C. difficile toxin positive patients in the burn, medical, and surgical intensive care units and the hospital’s step down unit along with an ...


Relationship Of Surface Changes To Metal Leaching From Tungsten Composite Shot Exposed To Three Different Soil Types, Deborah Felt, Steven Larson, Chris Griggs, Catherine Nestler, Michelle Wynter 2011 US Army Engineer Research and Development Center

Relationship Of Surface Changes To Metal Leaching From Tungsten Composite Shot Exposed To Three Different Soil Types, Deborah Felt, Steven Larson, Chris Griggs, Catherine Nestler, Michelle Wynter

US Army Research

Physical changes that occur on the surface of fired shots due to firing and impact with soil may increase the dissolution of muniton metals. Increased metal dissolution could potentially increase metal transport and leaching, affecting metal concentrations in surface and groundwater. This research describes the relationship between the surface changes on fired tungsten–nickel–iron (94% W:2% Ni:4% Fe) composite shots and metals leaching from those shots. Tungsten composite shot was fired into, and aged in, three soil types (Silty Sand, Sandy Clay, and Silt) in mesoscale rainfall lysimeters to simulate live-fire conditions and subsequent interactions between the ...


Nanoindentation Characterization Of Deformation And Failure Of Aluminum Oxynitride, J. J. Guo, K. Wang, T. Fujita, J. W. McCauley, J. P. Singh, M. W. Chen 2011 Tohoku University

Nanoindentation Characterization Of Deformation And Failure Of Aluminum Oxynitride, J. J. Guo, K. Wang, T. Fujita, J. W. Mccauley, J. P. Singh, M. W. Chen

US Army Research

A systematic study of the mechanical deformation and failure of transparent ceramic aluminum oxynitride (AlON) has been conducted using a depth-sensitive nanoindentation technique combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Although discrete displacement bursts appear in the load–depth profiles at high applied forces, a detectable high-pressure phase transition has not been found by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy and TEM. Instead, a high density of dissociated (1 1 0) dislocations can be observed underneath the nanoindenters, suggesting that extensive plastic deformation takes place in the brittle ceramic at high contact pressures. Moreover, nanoindentation-induced micro-cracks oriented along well-defined crystallographic ...


Mechanical Response Of Pig Skin Under Dynamic Tensile Loading, Jaeyoung Lim, Jihye Hong, Weinong W. Chen, Tusit Weerasooriya 2011 Purdue University

Mechanical Response Of Pig Skin Under Dynamic Tensile Loading, Jaeyoung Lim, Jihye Hong, Weinong W. Chen, Tusit Weerasooriya

US Army Research

Uniaxial tensile experiments were performed on pig skin to investigate the tensile stressestrain response at both quasi-static and dynamic rates of deformation. A Kolsky tension bar, also called a split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB), was modified to conduct the dynamic experiments. Semiconductor strain gages were used to measure the low levels of the transmitted signal from pig skin. A pulse shaper technique was used for generating a suitable incident pulse to ensure stress equilibrium and approximate constant strain rate in the specimen of a thin skin sheet wrapped around the ends of the bars for minimizing radial inertia. In order ...


Fatigue-Induced Grain Coarsening In Nanocrystalline Platinum Films, Roi A. Meirom, Daan Hein Alsem, Amber L. Romasco, Trevor Clark, Ronald G. Polcawich, Jeffrey S. Pulskamp, Madan Dubey, Robert O. Ritchie, Christopher L. Muhlstein 2011 Pennsylvania State University

Fatigue-Induced Grain Coarsening In Nanocrystalline Platinum Films, Roi A. Meirom, Daan Hein Alsem, Amber L. Romasco, Trevor Clark, Ronald G. Polcawich, Jeffrey S. Pulskamp, Madan Dubey, Robert O. Ritchie, Christopher L. Muhlstein

US Army Research

Mechanisms to explain the unique mechanical behavior of nanograined metals focus primarily on grain and grain boundary mobility. In most nanograined metal materials systems (both pure and alloyed) it has not been possible to decouple these time- and cycle-dependent contributions. In contrast, the 460 nm thick, (1 1 1) textured, nanograined platinum thin films evaluated in this work have robust grain morphologies that allow us to uniquely identify the fatigue damage accumulation processes. Unlike other reports of face-centered cubic metal behavior, the platinum films exhibited a particularly limited range of fatigue crack growth (<3 MPa √m) with extremely large (~10.5) power law exponents typically associated with fatigue of structural ceramics and ordered intermetallics. Transmission electron microscopy and fatigue crack growth data suggest that the crack growth mechanism appears to be intrinsic in origin and dislocation mediated.


Thermoreversible And Remendable Glass–Polymer Interface For Fiber-Reinforced Composites, Amy M. Peterson, Robert E. Jensen, Giuseppe R. Palmese 2011 Drexel University

Thermoreversible And Remendable Glass–Polymer Interface For Fiber-Reinforced Composites, Amy M. Peterson, Robert E. Jensen, Giuseppe R. Palmese

US Army Research

Adhesion of the reinforcement to the polymer matrix is essential for load transfer from the polymer matrix to the reinforcement material in fiber-reinforced composites. The reversible Diels–Alder reaction between a furan-functionalized epoxy-amine thermosetting matrix with a maleimide-functionalized glass fiber was used to impart remendability at the polymer–glass interface for potential application in glass fiber-reinforced composites. At room temperature the Diels–Alder adduct is formed spontaneously and above 90 °C the adduct breaks apart to reform the original furan and maleimide moieties. Healing of the interface was investigated with single fiber microdroplet pull-out testing. Following complete failure of this ...


Micro-Cracks Informed Damage Models For Brittle Solids, Xiaodan Ren, Jiun-Shyan Chen, Jie Li, T. R. Slawson, M. J. Roth 2011 Tongji University

Micro-Cracks Informed Damage Models For Brittle Solids, Xiaodan Ren, Jiun-Shyan Chen, Jie Li, T. R. Slawson, M. J. Roth

US Army Research

A class of micro-cracks informed damage models for describing the softening behavior of brittle solids is proposed, in which damage evolution is treated as a consequence of micro-crack propagation. The homogenized stress–strain relation in the cracked microscopic cell defines the degradation tensor, which can be obtained by the equivalence between the averaged strain energy of the microscopic cell and the strain energy density of the homogenized material. This energy equivalence relationship serves as an energy bridging vehicle between the damaged continuum and the cracked microstructure. Several damage evolution equations are obtained by this energy bridging method. The size effect ...


Detection Of Six Serotypes Of Botulinum Neurotoxin Using Fluorogenic Reporters, Daniel R. Ruge, F. Mark Dunning, Timothy M. Piazza, Brian E. Molles, Michael Adler, Füsûn N. Zeytin, Ward C. Tucker 2011 BioSentinel Pharmaceuticals

Detection Of Six Serotypes Of Botulinum Neurotoxin Using Fluorogenic Reporters, Daniel R. Ruge, F. Mark Dunning, Timothy M. Piazza, Brian E. Molles, Michael Adler, Füsûn N. Zeytin, Ward C. Tucker

US Army Research

Methods that do not require animal sacrifice to detect botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are critical for BoNT antagonist discovery and the advancement of quantitative assays for biodefense and pharmaceutical applications. Here we describe the development and optimization of fluorogenic reporters that detect the proteolytic activity of BoNT/A, B, D, E, F, and G serotypes in real time with femtomolar to picomolar sensitivity. Notably, the reporters can detect femtomolar concentrations of BoNT/A in 4 h and BoNT/E in 20 h, sensitivity that equals that of animal-based methods. The reporters can be used to determine the specific activity of BoNT ...


Prophylaxis With Human Serum Butyrylcholinesterase Protects Guinea Pigs Exposed To Multiple Lethal Doses Of Soman Or Vx, Ashima Saxena, Wei Sun, James M. Fedorko, Irwin Koplovitz, Bhupendra P. Doctor 2011 Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Prophylaxis With Human Serum Butyrylcholinesterase Protects Guinea Pigs Exposed To Multiple Lethal Doses Of Soman Or Vx, Ashima Saxena, Wei Sun, James M. Fedorko, Irwin Koplovitz, Bhupendra P. Doctor

US Army Research

Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is currently under advanced development as a bioscavenger for the prophylaxis of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent toxicity in humans. It is estimated that a dose of 200 mg will be required to protect a human against 2 × LD50 of soman. To provide data for initiating an investigational new drug application for the use of this enzyme as a bioscavenger in humans, we purified enzyme from Cohn fraction IV-4 paste and initiated safety and efficacy evaluations in mice, guinea pigs, and non-human primates. In mice, we demonstrated that a single dose of enzyme that is ...


Antimicrobial Decapeptide Ksl-W Attenuates Candida Albicans Virulence By Modulating Its Effects On Toll-Like Receptor, Human Β-Defensin, And Cytokine Expression By Engineered Human Oral Mucosa, A. Semlali, K. P. Leung, S. Curt, M. Rouabhia 2011 Laval University

Antimicrobial Decapeptide Ksl-W Attenuates Candida Albicans Virulence By Modulating Its Effects On Toll-Like Receptor, Human Β-Defensin, And Cytokine Expression By Engineered Human Oral Mucosa, A. Semlali, K. P. Leung, S. Curt, M. Rouabhia

US Army Research

We investigated the toxicity of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W on normal human gingival epithelial cell cultures, its effect on Candida albicans adhesion and growth, and the activation of epithelial cell innate immunity. Our results indicate that KSL-W had no toxic effect on cell adhesion or growth, suggesting its safe use with human cells. Pre-treating C. albicans with KSL-W attenuated the yeast’s virulence as demonstrated by its reduced adhesion and growth on engineered human oral mucosa epithelium and the subsequent decreased expression of some innate defense molecules by targeted epithelial cells. Indeed, the expression of Toll-like receptors and human β-defensins ...


Safety And Protective Efficacy Of Ina-Inactivated Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus: Implication In Vaccine Development, Anuj Sharma, Paridhi Gupta, Pamela J. Glass, Michael D. Parker, Radha K. Maheshwari 2011 Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Safety And Protective Efficacy Of Ina-Inactivated Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus: Implication In Vaccine Development, Anuj Sharma, Paridhi Gupta, Pamela J. Glass, Michael D. Parker, Radha K. Maheshwari

US Army Research

We have previously shown that a hydrophobic alkylating compound, 1,5-iodonaphthyl-azide (INA) can efficiently inactivate the virulent strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), V3000 in vitro. In this study, we have evaluated the safety of INA-inactivated V3000 and V3526 and the protective efficacy of INA-inactivated V3000. INA-inactivated V3000 and V3526 did not cause disease in suckling mice. RNA isolated from the INA-inactivated V3000 and V3526 was also not infectious. Immunization of adult mice with INA-inactivated V3000 induced an anti-VEEV antibody response and protected mice from virulent VEEV challenge. The protective efficacy of INA-inactivated V3000 increased with the use of ...


Protective Efficacy Of Catalytic Bioscavenger, Paraoxonase 1 Against Sarin And Soman Exposure In Guinea Pigs, Manojkumar Valiyaveettil, Yonas Alamneh, Peter Rezk, Lionel Biggemann, Michael W. Perkins, Alfred M. Sciuto, Bhupendra P. Doctor, Madhusoodana P. Nambiar 2011 Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Protective Efficacy Of Catalytic Bioscavenger, Paraoxonase 1 Against Sarin And Soman Exposure In Guinea Pigs, Manojkumar Valiyaveettil, Yonas Alamneh, Peter Rezk, Lionel Biggemann, Michael W. Perkins, Alfred M. Sciuto, Bhupendra P. Doctor, Madhusoodana P. Nambiar

US Army Research

Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been portrayed as a catalytic bioscavenger which can hydrolyze large amounts of chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) and organophosphate (OP) pesticides compared to the stoichiometric bioscavengers such as butyrylcholinesterase. We evaluated the protective efficacy of purified human and rabbit serum PON1 against nerve agents sarin and soman in guinea pigs. Catalytically active PON1 purified from human and rabbit serum was intravenously injected to guinea pigs, which were 30 min later exposed to 1.2 × LCt50 sarin or soman using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technology. Pre-treatment with 5 units of purified human and rabbit serum ...


Recombinant Paraoxonase 1 Protects Against Sarin And Soman Toxicity Following Microinstillation Inhalation Exposure In Guinea Pigs, Manojkumar Valiyaveettil, Yonas Alamneh, Peter Rezk, Michael W. Perkins, Alfred M. Sciuto, Bhupendra P. Doctor, Madhusoodana P. Nambiar 2011 Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Recombinant Paraoxonase 1 Protects Against Sarin And Soman Toxicity Following Microinstillation Inhalation Exposure In Guinea Pigs, Manojkumar Valiyaveettil, Yonas Alamneh, Peter Rezk, Michael W. Perkins, Alfred M. Sciuto, Bhupendra P. Doctor, Madhusoodana P. Nambiar

US Army Research

To explore the efficacy of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as a catalytic bioscavenger, we evaluated human recombinant PON1 (rePON1) expressed in Trichoplusia ni larvae against sarin and soman toxicity using microinstillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs. Animals were pretreated intravenously with catalytically active rePON1, followed by exposure to 1.2 X LCt50 sarin or soman. Administration of 5 units of rePON1 showed mild increase in the blood activity of the enzyme after 30 min, but protected the animals with a significant increase in survival rate along with minimal signs of nerve agent toxicity. Recombinant PON1 pretreated animals exposed to sarin ...


Finite Element Simulation Of Fire Induced Spalling In High Strength Concrete Slabs, Shunan Bo 2011 Lehigh University

Finite Element Simulation Of Fire Induced Spalling In High Strength Concrete Slabs, Shunan Bo

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Interdiction And Discrete Bilevel Linear Programming, Scott DeNegre 2011 Lehigh University

Interdiction And Discrete Bilevel Linear Programming, Scott Denegre

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


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