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Characterization Of Methane-Air Diffusion Flames For Flame Synthesis Application Through Optical Diagnostics, Zhaojin Diao 2018 University of Kentucky

Characterization Of Methane-Air Diffusion Flames For Flame Synthesis Application Through Optical Diagnostics, Zhaojin Diao

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Flame synthesis is a growing field of research aiming at forming new materials and coatings through injection of seed materials into a flame. Accurate prediction of the thermal structure of these flames requires detailed information on the radiative properties and a thorough understanding of the governing combustion processes. The objective of this work is to establish a basic optical diagnostic characterization of different methane-air diffusion flames of different complexity. The basic principles are developed and demonstrated at a rotational symmetric co-flow burner and finally applied to a burner consisting of six clustered microflames which is designed for future flame synthesis ...


Effects Of Air-Fuel Ratio And Operating Conditions On Particle Emissions From A Small Diesel Engine, Odinmma John-Paul Ofili 2018 Bucknell University

Effects Of Air-Fuel Ratio And Operating Conditions On Particle Emissions From A Small Diesel Engine, Odinmma John-Paul Ofili

Master’s Theses

Automotive engineers typically increase the air-fuel ratio (AFR) of an engine to control the amount of smoke emitted, but it not quite known how this process affects particulate number (PN). In the work presented, AFR was independently varied to study its effects on PN. It was found that increasing the AFR reduced the concentrations of larger particles from 108 #/cm3 to 106 #/cm3 which is an effect observable as a reduction in smoke. However, the same increases in AFR only resulted in an energy specific PN change from 1015 #/kWh to 1014 #/kWh. The ...


Laminar And Turbulent Study Of Combustion In Stratified Environments Using Laser Based Measurements, Stephen William Grib 2018 University of Kentucky

Laminar And Turbulent Study Of Combustion In Stratified Environments Using Laser Based Measurements, Stephen William Grib

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Practical gas turbine engine combustors create extremely non-uniform flowfields, which are highly stratified making it imperative that similar environments are well understood. Laser diagnostics were utilized in a variety of stratified environments, which led to temperature or chemical composition gradients, to better understand autoignition, extinction, and flame stability behavior. This work ranged from laminar and steady flames to turbulent flame studies in which time resolved measurements were used.

Edge flames, formed in the presence of species stratification, were studied by first developing a simple measurement technique which is capable of estimating an important quantity for edge flames, the advective heat ...


NoX Formation In Light-Hydrocarbon, Premixed Flames, Robert T. Hughes 2018 University of Kentucky

NoX Formation In Light-Hydrocarbon, Premixed Flames, Robert T. Hughes

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

This study explores the reactions and related species of NOx pollutants in methane flames in order to understand their production and consumption during the combustion process. To do this, several analytical simulations were run to explore the behavior of nitrogen species in the pre-flame, post- flame, and reaction layer regions. The results were then analyzed in order to identify all "steady-state" species in the flame as well as the determine all the unnecessary reactions and species that are not required to meet a defined accuracy. The reductions were then applied and proven to be viable.


Spacecraft Fire Safety Research: Combustion Of Lithium-Ion Batteries To Predict Fire Scenarios, Elisabeth Meyer 2018 The University of Akron

Spacecraft Fire Safety Research: Combustion Of Lithium-Ion Batteries To Predict Fire Scenarios, Elisabeth Meyer

Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project was to research characteristics of a Lithium-ion battery fire to determine if trends exist in measured fire characteristics that can help predict different fire scenarios. These experiments will ultimately aid in developing an alarm threshold for a spacecraft smoke detector, specifically for Orion, a new, multi-purpose crew vehicle under development by NASA. Orion is the next-generation of spacecraft designed to replace the space shuttle and will play an important role in NASA’s journey to Mars.

In the experiments performed, Lithium-ion batteries were placed in a test chamber and ignited while smoke concentration was measured ...


Reduced Exhaust Emissions Through Blending N-Butanol With Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel And Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene In Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion, Remi Gaubert 2018 Georgia Southern University

Reduced Exhaust Emissions Through Blending N-Butanol With Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel And Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene In Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion, Remi Gaubert

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Increasing restrictions on the emitted exhaust emissions in diesel engines are becoming a more challenging task than in previous years. An electronic common rail fuel injection system and a port fuel injection (PFI) system were developed for an experimental engine to research dual fuel combustion. The experimental research was conducted at 1500 rpm and 4, 5, and 6 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). n-Butanol was port fuel injected at a 60% by mass fraction coupled with direct injection (DI) of three fuels, including ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD RCCI), a 50-50 wt-% blend of ULSD and butanol (ULSD-Bu RCCI), and ...


Heat Transfer Vest, Nicholas Forsgaard 2018 Central Washington University

Heat Transfer Vest, Nicholas Forsgaard

All Undergraduate Projects

The purpose of this report is to document the progression of the authors senior project. . The of that project was the research of Liquid Cooled Garment (LCG) technology, the generation of a novel LCG prototype and the testing of that prototype relative to a commercial benchmark. As such, this report is a complete narrative of the of these tasks, their execution and the underlying assumptions and commentary. The motivation for this report is to satisfy the capstone requirements of the MET program at CWU by documenting the Senior Project and its subordinate tasks. First, the student designed a LCG system ...


Pyrolysis Of Fiber-Plastic Waste Blends, Shreyas Kolapkar 2018 Michigan Technological University

Pyrolysis Of Fiber-Plastic Waste Blends, Shreyas Kolapkar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The main objective of this work is to investigate fast pyrolysis of fiber and plastic feedstocks in order to understand the synergistic effect from their co-pyrolysis. In this on-going work, fiber, plastic and their blend are characterized and pyrolysis oil is produced from them in the fast batch pyrolysis reactor. Based on a heat transfer model it is shown that results of oil produced from batch reactor will be applicable to the continuous paddle reactor. From feedstock characterization, chlorine was observed particularly in the plastic feedstock. Thus, chlorine removal method using torrefaction and high shear mixing was implemented and was ...


Thermomagnetic Convective Cooling Of Hall Effect Thruster, Elizabeth M. Vanheusden 2018 Michigan Technological University

Thermomagnetic Convective Cooling Of Hall Effect Thruster, Elizabeth M. Vanheusden

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This work proposes and shows that thermomagnetic convection could be used in zero gravity to cool components of a Hall-effect thruster. A ferrofluid cavity was develop in the thermal and geometric model of a Hall-effect thruster. Simulations show that with an Ionic Liquid Ferrofluid after two minutes of thruster operations thermomagnetic convection occurs and in zero gravity will produce a larger velocity then natural convection that occurs in earth gravity. However, experiments did not result in heat transfer enhancement due to the limitation of the ferrofluid. Replacement of the Ferrotec EFH1 dispersant with dodecylbenzene did not result in Ionic Liquid ...


A New Technique To Determine Accommodation Coefficients Of Cryogenic Propellants, Kishan Bellur 2018 Michigan Technological University

A New Technique To Determine Accommodation Coefficients Of Cryogenic Propellants, Kishan Bellur

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The control of propellant boil-off is essential in long-term space missions. However, a clear understanding of cryogenic propellant phase change and the values of accommodation coefficients are lacking. To that effect, a new method to determine accommodation coefficients using a combination of neutron imaging, thin film evaporation modeling and CFD modeling has been established. Phase change experiments were conducted in the BT-2 Neutron Imaging Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) by introducing cryogenic vapor (H2 and CH4) at a set pressure into Al6061 and SS316L test cells placed inside a 70mm cryostat. Condensation is achieved by ...


Simulation Of An Ethylene Flame With Turbulence, Soot And Radiation Modeling, Santu Golder 2018 South Dakota State University

Simulation Of An Ethylene Flame With Turbulence, Soot And Radiation Modeling, Santu Golder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis will investigate soot models that are available in commercial codes. We will look at the effect of turbulence models, gravity, soot models and radiation. Simulations will be compared to Coppalle and Joyeux [1]. The flame is an ethylene air diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 5700. Simulations show the SST turbulence model, one-step soot model and Rosseland radiation model including gravity agree well with experimental data (temperature and soot). Flamelet soot modeling from Carbonell et al. [2] and flamelet radiation modeling from Doom [3] has been incorporated and compared as well.


Optimization Of Heat Sinks In A Range Of Configurations., Archibald Allswell Amoako 2018 South Dakota State University

Optimization Of Heat Sinks In A Range Of Configurations., Archibald Allswell Amoako

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, different heatsink geometries used for electronic cooling are studied and compared to each other to determine the most efficient. The goal is to optimize heat transfer of the heat sinks studied in a range of configuration based on fin geometry. Heat sinks are thermal conductive material devices designed to absorb and disperse heat from high-temperature objects (e.g. Computer CPU). Common materials used in the manufacturing of heat sinks are aluminum and copper due to their relatively high thermal conductivity and lightweight [1]. Aluminum is used as the material for the heatsinks studied in this research project ...


Ignition Studies Of Oxy-Syngas/Co2 Mixtures Using Shock Tube For Cleaner Combustion Engines, Samuel Barak 2018 University of Central Florida

Ignition Studies Of Oxy-Syngas/Co2 Mixtures Using Shock Tube For Cleaner Combustion Engines, Samuel Barak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, syngas combustion was investigated behind reflected shock waves in order to gain insight into the behavior of ignition delay times and effects of the CO2 dilution. Pressure and light emissions time-histories measurements were taken at a 2 cm axial location away from the end wall. High-speed visualization of the experiments from the end wall was also conducted. Oxy-syngas mixtures that were tested in the shock tube were diluted with CO2 fractions ranging from 60% - 85% by volume. A 10% fuel concentration was consistently used throughout the experiments. This study looked at the effects of changing the equivalence ...


The Kentucky Re-Entry Universal Payload System (Krups): Sub-Orbital Flights, James Devin Sparks 2018 University of Kentucky

The Kentucky Re-Entry Universal Payload System (Krups): Sub-Orbital Flights, James Devin Sparks

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

The Kentucky Re-entry Universal Payload System (KRUPS) is an adaptable testbed for atmosphere entry science experiments, with an initial application to thermal protection systems (TPS). Because of the uniqueness of atmospheric entry conditions that ground testing is unable to replicate, scientists principally rely on numerical models for predicting entry conditions. The KRUPS spacecraft, developed at the University of Kentucky, provides an inexpensive means of obtaining validation data to verify and improve these models.

To increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of the spacecraft, two sub-orbital missions were developed. The first mission, KUDOS, launched August 13th, 2017 on a Terrier-Improved Malamute ...


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2018, June 18-20, Brussels, Belgium, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2017 Wojciech Budzianowski Consulting Services

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2018, June 18-20, Brussels, Belgium, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Design And Validation Of An Experimental Setup To Study Single Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement Of Femtosecond Laser Processed Metallic Surfaces, Sarah Jane Wallis 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Design And Validation Of An Experimental Setup To Study Single Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement Of Femtosecond Laser Processed Metallic Surfaces, Sarah Jane Wallis

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

In the present work, a single phase flow heat transfer experimental loop was designed with the intention of studying the effects of femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) on metallic surfaces with the specific goal of enhancing heat transfer in compact heat exchangers currently in use by NASA. This experimental setup went through two major design iterations which are detailed in this thesis. The first iteration consisted of a counterflow fluid-to-fluid heat exchanger, which measured overall heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops, where the overall heat transfer coefficient is defined in terms of the total thermal resistance to heat transfer between ...


A Multi-Scale Approach For Modeling Shock Ignition And Burn Of Granular Hmx, Pratap Thamanna Rao 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

A Multi-Scale Approach For Modeling Shock Ignition And Burn Of Granular Hmx, Pratap Thamanna Rao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in confined, low-density granular HMX (65%-85% Theoretical Maximum Density, TMD) occurs by a complex mechanism that involves compaction shock interactions within the material. Piston driven DDT experiments indicate that detonation is abruptly triggered by the interaction of a strong burn-supported secondary shock and a piston-supported primary (input) shock, where the nature of the interaction depends on initial packing density and primary shock strength. These interactions influence transition by affecting hot-spot formation within the micro-structure during pore collapse. In this study, meso-scale simulations of hot-spot formation in shock loaded granular HMX are used to guide the development ...


The Development And Numerical Modelling Of A Representative Elemental Volume For Packed Sand, Ashraf Thabet 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Development And Numerical Modelling Of A Representative Elemental Volume For Packed Sand, Ashraf Thabet

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The motivation of this thesis is the development of simple microscopic-scale model (representative elemental volume; REV) that can be used to conduct flow and heat transfer simulations from which closure coefficients can be established for the volume-averaged transport equations for porous media (packed bed). The thesis provides a brief introduction to the computational technique adopted for the geometric generation of the REV (YADE), followed by a parametric study undertaken to reveal the minimum number of particles inside the REV that are required to mimic the appropriate physics. Additional analysis was conducted with the goal of determining the influence of deviation ...


The Onset Of Convection In Rarefied Gases, Md Asif Zobaer 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Onset Of Convection In Rarefied Gases, Md Asif Zobaer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The onset of convection in the Rayleigh-Bénard problem for a monatomic rarefied gas at small Knudsen number has been investigated. Compressibility-induced density variations have been considered without imposing any restriction on the magnitude of temperature difference. A linear temporal stability analysis has been conducted for a compressible slip-flow model considering a Maxwellian gas and the dispersion relation is calculated using a Chebyshev collocation method. A neutral stability curve obtained in the Froude-Knudsen number plane marks transition to convection from a pure conduction state. The critical wave number observed for the onset of convection is in good agreement with the existing ...


Induction Heating Of Thin Films, Paul L. Bergstrom, Melissa L. Trombley 2017 Michigan Technological University

Induction Heating Of Thin Films, Paul L. Bergstrom, Melissa L. Trombley

Paul Bergstrom

A method of performing regional heating of a system having a substrate. The method may include applying a thin film to the system, and controllably energizing a coil positioned near the thin film. The energized coils thereby generate a magnetic flux. The method further includes inducing a current in the thin film with the magnetic flux thereby heating the system.


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