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Electrical Stimulus Controlled Binding/Unbinding Of Human Thrombin-Aptamer Complex, Pranav Shrotriya, Agnivo Gosai, Xiao Ma, Ganesh Balasubraminian 2018 Iowa State University

Electrical Stimulus Controlled Binding/Unbinding Of Human Thrombin-Aptamer Complex, Pranav Shrotriya, Agnivo Gosai, Xiao Ma, Ganesh Balasubraminian

Pranav Shrotriya

The binding/unbinding of the human thrombin and its 15-mer single stranded DNA aptamer, under the application of external stimulus in the form of electrostatic potential/electric field, is investigated by a combination of continuum analysis and atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. In agreement with the experiments that demonstrate the influence of electrostatic potential on the thrombin/aptamer complex, our computations show that the application of positive electric field successfully unbinds the thrombin from the aptamer. Results from umbrella sampling simulations reveal that there is a decrease in the free energy of binding between the thrombin and aptamer in presence of ...


Application Of Pca To Cardiac Optical Mapping, Louis Woodhams 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Application Of Pca To Cardiac Optical Mapping, Louis Woodhams

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Structural remodeling of the heart due to pathologies such as hypertension and myocardial infarction leads to the appearance of myofibroblasts, a phenotype largely absent in physiologic myocardium. While myofibroblasts are responsible for wound healing and structural repair of damaged myocardium, they are thought to have deleterious effects on electrical and mechanical properties of the heart. Understanding these effects is critical to developing effective treatments, and has motivated the development of a series of in vitro engineered heart tissues and cardiomyocyte-myofibroblast co-cultures whose mechanical and electrophysiological function can be deduced from video analysis. Electrophysiological properties are evident from changes in intensity ...


Prognosis Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Data-Driven Approach, Abhijit Chandra, Oliva Kar, Kuan Chuen Wu, Michelle Hall, Jason C. Gillette 2017 Iowa State University

Prognosis Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Data-Driven Approach, Abhijit Chandra, Oliva Kar, Kuan Chuen Wu, Michelle Hall, Jason C. Gillette

Jason C Gillette

Individuals who suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are at higher risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) and almost 50% display symptoms 10–20 years post injury. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often does not protect against knee OA development. Accordingly, a multi-scale formulation for data-driven prognosis (DDP) of post-ACLR is developed. Unlike traditional predictive strategies that require controlled off-line measurements or ‘training’ for determination of constitutive parameters to derive the transitional statistics, the proposed DDP algorithm relies solely on in situmeasurements. The proposed DDP scheme is capable of predicting onset of instabilities. As the need for off-line testing ...


Usa Boccia Ball Ramp For Athletes With Quadriplegia, Alissa A. Koukourikos, Nathan Bernards, Matthew Lee 2017 Cal Poly State University San Luis Obispo

Usa Boccia Ball Ramp For Athletes With Quadriplegia, Alissa A. Koukourikos, Nathan Bernards, Matthew Lee

Mechanical Engineering

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Scapular Notching On Contact Mechanics And Simulator Wear Of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Implants, Michael William Griffiths 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Influence Of Scapular Notching On Contact Mechanics And Simulator Wear Of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Implants, Michael William Griffiths

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Scapular notching is a common complication of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) wherein the predominant focus of current literature has been on changes in osseous anatomy. However, the implications on RTSA performance from the damaged humeral cup is largely unknown. Therefore the present work describes the effects of the initiation and propagation of the humeral cup defect resulting from scapular notching through the use of finite element modeling and wear simulation, in order to assess changes in RTSA contact mechanics and tribological properties. A significant decrease in articular contact area and increase in maximum contact stress values was found for ...


Design Of A Passive Ankle Prosthesis With Energy Return That Increases With Increasing Walking Velocity, Alexander J. Folz 2017 Marquette University

Design Of A Passive Ankle Prosthesis With Energy Return That Increases With Increasing Walking Velocity, Alexander J. Folz

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Patients who undergo a transtibial (below the knee) amputation are often met with a difficult decision: selection of a prosthesis. Limitations of currently available prostheses motivate work on a new solution, the EaSY Walk, a passive device that mimics two key aspects of the natural ankle: non-linear rotational stiffness through implementation of a stiffening flexure mechanism and rotational work output that varies as a function of walking velocity to propel the user forward. To achieve the latter, a strategy to convert the maximum available translational energy acquired from deflection along the leg into rotational energy about the ankle joint through ...


Experimental Measurements Of Far Field Cough Airflows Produced By Healthy And Influenza- Infected Human Subjects, Ahmed Faraj Alarbi Mohamed 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Experimental Measurements Of Far Field Cough Airflows Produced By Healthy And Influenza- Infected Human Subjects, Ahmed Faraj Alarbi Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present work details an experimental study of the cough airflow fields produced by subjects infected with influenza and when they are convalescent, together with data from healthy cohorts. The PIV and HWA measurements were taken far downstream at 1 m from the source within a cough chamber, along with droplet sampling at two different locations and nasal swabs from the sick subjects. The measured data over different seasons were used to evaluate and compare the results from sick, convalescent and healthy subjects. Although a total of 8 sick participants from winter 2014 and 2017 yielded positive nasal swab analysis ...


Application Of Pca To Cardiac Optical Mapping, Louis Woodhams 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Application Of Pca To Cardiac Optical Mapping, Louis Woodhams

Louis Woodhams

Structural remodeling of the heart due to pathologies such as hypertension and myocardial infarction leads to the appearance of myofibroblasts, a phenotype largely absent in physiologic myocardium. While myofibroblasts are responsible for wound healing and structural repair of damaged myocardium, they are thought to have deleterious effects on electrical and mechanical properties of the heart. Understanding these effects is critical to developing effective treatments, and has motivated the development of a series of in vitro engineered heart tissues and cardiomyocyte-myofibroblast co-cultures whose mechanical and electrophysiological function can be deduced from video analysis. Electrophysiological properties are evident from changes in intensity ...


Cancer Diagnosis By Bioimpedance Spectroscopy And Computer-Assisted Pattern Recognition, Shahriar Shams 2017 Southern Methodist University

Cancer Diagnosis By Bioimpedance Spectroscopy And Computer-Assisted Pattern Recognition, Shahriar Shams

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

The field of cancer diagnostics has always been one of the most complex and challenging areas in biomedical research, and there has been an increasing demand for more advanced clinical diagnostic equipment over the past four decades. In this thesis, a custom-made coaxial bioimpedance sensor was used, in combination with computer-aided pattern recognition tools, to identify cancer in tissue samples obtained from the formalin-fixed kidney of a 60 year-old male patient. Impedance data was collected using the coaxial sensor at 401 logarithmically-spaced frequency points ranging from 10 kHz to 100 MHz. Principle Component Analysis and Naive Bayes Classification techniques were ...


Comparative Analysis Of Impact Attenuation Properties From Soccer Headgear, Kevin G. McIver, Goutham N. Sankaran, Justin J. Markel, Tom M. Talavage, Larry J. Leverenz, Eric A. Nauman 2017 Purdue University

Comparative Analysis Of Impact Attenuation Properties From Soccer Headgear, Kevin G. Mciver, Goutham N. Sankaran, Justin J. Markel, Tom M. Talavage, Larry J. Leverenz, Eric A. Nauman

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Athletes suffering from long-term neurocognitive deficiency due to subconcussive impacts is a major concern for football and soccer players today. Football players wear helmets that can help reduce injury risks like skull fractures, and these helmets must meet standard criteria that determinines how well a functional helmet should reduce accelerations of the player’s head. Currently no standard exists for testing soccer headgear despite studies demonstrating soccer players experience similar magnitudes of impacts. In this study, a modal impact hammer was used in conjunction with a Hybrid III 50th percentile test dummy head to simulate impacts experienced by soccer players ...


Intrinsic Regulators Of Actomyosin Contractility Engendering Pulsatile Behaviors, Qilin Yu, Jing Li, Taeyoon Kim 2017 Purdue University

Intrinsic Regulators Of Actomyosin Contractility Engendering Pulsatile Behaviors, Qilin Yu, Jing Li, Taeyoon Kim

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Actomyosin contractility regulates various biological processes including cell migration, muscle contraction, and tissue morphogenesis. Cell cortex underlying a membrane, which is a representative actomyosin network in eukaryote cells, exhibits dynamic contractile behaviors. Interestingly, the cell cortex shows reversible aggregation of actin and myosin called pulsatile contraction in diverse cellular phenomena, such as embryogenesis and tissue morphogenesis. While contractile behaviors have been studied in several in vitro experiments and computational studies, none of them demonstrated the pulsatile contraction of actomyosin networks observed in vivo. Here, we used an agent-based computational model based on Brownian dynamics to identify factors facilitating the pulsatile ...


A Parametric Study Of The Mechanics Of Different Skin Flap Techniques, Steven J. Meza, Adrián Tepole Buganza 2017 California State University, Northridge

A Parametric Study Of The Mechanics Of Different Skin Flap Techniques, Steven J. Meza, Adrián Tepole Buganza

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In modern day plastic and reconstructive surgeries numerous skin flap designs have been developed and are used to close open wounds. Skin flaps are developed with the intention of imposing minimal tension in skin closure. Excessive tension can lead to poor blood flow that result in post-surgery complications such as necrosis. Currently there is no standard in choosing a skin flap design and a surgeon's choice is based personal experience. A comparison of the mechanical loading in these various designs has not yet been done. We have developed a parametric study, using finite element analysis, of two advancement skin ...


Bacterial Motility And Its Role In Biofilm Formation, Clayton J. Culp, Arezoo M. Ardekani, Adib Ahmadzadegan 2017 Purdue University

Bacterial Motility And Its Role In Biofilm Formation, Clayton J. Culp, Arezoo M. Ardekani, Adib Ahmadzadegan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bacterial biofilms are known to cause millions of dollars in damage in the medical industry per year via infection of central venous catheters, urinary catheters, and mechanical heart valves. Unfortunately, there are some characteristics of biofilm formation that are yet to be fully understood. Recently much work has been done to investigate the motility characteristics of bacteria with hopes of better understanding the phenomena of biofilm formation. Still, one of the least understood stages is bacterial attachment or adhesion, a process designed to anchor bacteria in an advantageous environment. Providing a better understanding of bacterial motility near solid interfaces will ...


Biomechanical Testing Of An Exercise For Strengthening The Proximal Femur., Alyssa Osbourne 2017 University of Louisville

Biomechanical Testing Of An Exercise For Strengthening The Proximal Femur., Alyssa Osbourne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Based on the principles of cutting edge bone remodeling research, a unique therapeutic exercise device was designed specifically to improve bone quality at the most critical location of the proximal femur prone to fracture: the superior-lateral femoral neck where the fracture first initiates during a fall. The exercise/device is intended to work by inducing enough strain in the bone to stimulate the body’s natural bone remodeling mechanisms to increase bone density in the proximal femur and consequently prevent a fracture from arising if a fall to the side does occur.

In order to test the proposed exercise, experiments ...


Optimization Of Prosthetic Hands: Utilizing Modularity To Improve Grip Force, Grasp, And Versatility, Jordan William Harris 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Optimization Of Prosthetic Hands: Utilizing Modularity To Improve Grip Force, Grasp, And Versatility, Jordan William Harris

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

It has been demonstrated that although many varieties of upper limb prosthetics exist, commercially available prosthetics are outdated and unsatisfactory. Ineffectiveness and limitations have led to some prosthesis wearers having to own multiple devices, whereas others have given up on them entirely. Even though ample research has been conducted to design and test new hand designs, the industry appears to rest in an overall stagnated state.

It was proposed here, that one problem with prosthetic research is an excess of variables involved in testing, and therefore the improper application of the scientific method. It seems that each time a research ...


A Functional Subnetwork Approach To Designing Synthetic Nervous Systems That Control Legged Robot Locomotion, Nicholas Szczecinski, Alexander J. Hunt, Roger Quinn 2017 Case Western Reserve University

A Functional Subnetwork Approach To Designing Synthetic Nervous Systems That Control Legged Robot Locomotion, Nicholas Szczecinski, Alexander J. Hunt, Roger Quinn

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

A dynamical model of an animal’s nervous system, or synthetic nervous system (SNS), is a potentially transformational control method. Due to increasingly detailed data on the connectivity and dynamics of both mammalian and insect nervous systems, controlling a legged robot with an SNS is largely a problem of parameter tuning. Our approach to this problem is to design functional subnetworks that perform specific operations, and then assemble them into larger models of the nervous system. In this paper, we present networks that perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation, and integration of incoming signals. Parameters are set within each subnetwork ...


Flow Characterization Under Idealized Stenosis Geometry And Performance Assessment Of The Hemodynamic Flow Facility, Marin Vratonjic 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Flow Characterization Under Idealized Stenosis Geometry And Performance Assessment Of The Hemodynamic Flow Facility, Marin Vratonjic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is well known that regions inside the human arterial network susceptible to atherosclerosis experience a complex flow environment. Endothelial Cells (ECs) lining the inner wall of arteries are sensors to spatially and temporally varying shear stress (i.e. wall shear stress gradients). This complex force-loading can disrupt local cell-to-cell attachment regions triggering a cascade of biological events leading to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently, researchers predominantly use a Parallel Plate Flow Chamber (PPFC) to study the hemodynamic-cell cycle relationship due to its simplicity and ability to achieve a two-dimensional fully-developed steady laminar flow across the cell monolayer. Researchers ...


The Effect Of Bone And Ligament Morphology Of Ankle Joint Loading In The Neutral Position, Jinhyuk Kim 2017 Old Dominion University

The Effect Of Bone And Ligament Morphology Of Ankle Joint Loading In The Neutral Position, Jinhyuk Kim

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Computational modeling of joints is used to investigate the effect of injuries, to plan surgeries, and to answer questions about joints that cannot be answered experimentally. Existing models of the ankle joint are moving toward being able to model specific patients, however, they do not include all of the anatomy (e.g., bones and/or ligaments) and have restrictive boundary conditions. These simplification in anatomy are made to minimize pre-processing and computation time. Because biomechanical modeling is increasingly focused on the implementation of patient specific cases, the effects of including more anatomical structures and determining how they affect the model ...


An End-To-End Convolutional Selective Autoencoder Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Eggs Detection, Adedotun Akintayo, Nigel Lee, Vikas Chawla, Mark P. Mullaney, Christopher C. Marett, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Gregory L. Tylka, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar 2017 Iowa State University

An End-To-End Convolutional Selective Autoencoder Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Eggs Detection, Adedotun Akintayo, Nigel Lee, Vikas Chawla, Mark P. Mullaney, Christopher C. Marett, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Gregory L. Tylka, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Soybean cyst nematodes (SCNs), Heterodera glycines, are unwanted micro-organisms that reduce yields of a major source of food–soybeans. In the United States alone, approximately $1 billion is lost per annum due to cyst nematode infections on soybean plants. Experts have conceived methods of mitigating the losses through phenotyping techniques via SCN eggs density estimation, and then applying the right control measures. Currently, they rely on labor intensive and time-consuming identification of SCN eggs in soil samples processed onto microscopic frames. However, phenotyping a vast array of fields requires automated high-throughput techniques. From an automation perspective, detection of rarely occurring ...


Modeling Fluidization In Biomass Gasification Processes, Emmanuela Gavi, Theodore J. Heindel, Rodney O. Fox 2017 Iowa State University

Modeling Fluidization In Biomass Gasification Processes, Emmanuela Gavi, Theodore J. Heindel, Rodney O. Fox

Rodney O. Fox

Extensive validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models is required when modeling biomass fluidization, because several required model inputs are not know or not easily measured experimentally for biomass. In the present work, CFD fluidization modeling of a biomass bed is validated by comparison with X-ray computed tomography experimental data. A parametric study was carried out by employing ground walnut shell or ground corncob as model biomass bed materials, and fluidization was performed at a gas velocity twice the minimum fluidization velocity. An important result is the use of an "effective density" for biomass in the CFD model, the use ...


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