Cancer Diagnosis By Bioimpedance Spectroscopy And Computer-Assisted Pattern Recognition, 2017 Southern Methodist University
Cancer Diagnosis By Bioimpedance Spectroscopy And Computer-Assisted Pattern Recognition, Shahriar Shams
Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertation
The field of cancer diagnostics has always been one of the most complex and challenging areas in biomedical research, and there has been an increasing demand for more advanced clinical diagnostic equipment over the past four decades. In this thesis, a custom-made coaxial bioimpedance sensor was used, in combination with computer-aided pattern recognition tools, to identify cancer in tissue samples obtained from the formalin-fixed kidney of a 60 year-old male patient. Impedance data was collected using the coaxial sensor at 401 logarithmically-spaced frequency points ranging from 10 kHz to 100 MHz. Principle Component Analysis and Naive Bayes Classification techniques were ...
Comparative Analysis Of Impact Attenuation Properties From Soccer Headgear, 2017 Purdue University
Comparative Analysis Of Impact Attenuation Properties From Soccer Headgear, Kevin G. Mciver, Goutham N. Sankaran, Justin J. Markel, Tom M. Talavage, Larry J. Leverenz, Eric A. Nauman
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Athletes suffering from long-term neurocognitive deficiency due to subconcussive impacts is a major concern for football and soccer players today. Football players wear helmets that can help reduce injury risks like skull fractures, and these helmets must meet standard criteria that determinines how well a functional helmet should reduce accelerations of the player’s head. Currently no standard exists for testing soccer headgear despite studies demonstrating soccer players experience similar magnitudes of impacts. In this study, a modal impact hammer was used in conjunction with a Hybrid III 50th percentile test dummy head to simulate impacts experienced by soccer players ...
Intrinsic Regulators Of Actomyosin Contractility Engendering Pulsatile Behaviors, 2017 Purdue University
Intrinsic Regulators Of Actomyosin Contractility Engendering Pulsatile Behaviors, Qilin Yu, Jing Li, Taeyoon Kim
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Actomyosin contractility regulates various biological processes including cell migration, muscle contraction, and tissue morphogenesis. Cell cortex underlying a membrane, which is a representative actomyosin network in eukaryote cells, exhibits dynamic contractile behaviors. Interestingly, the cell cortex shows reversible aggregation of actin and myosin called pulsatile contraction in diverse cellular phenomena, such as embryogenesis and tissue morphogenesis. While contractile behaviors have been studied in several in vitro experiments and computational studies, none of them demonstrated the pulsatile contraction of actomyosin networks observed in vivo. Here, we used an agent-based computational model based on Brownian dynamics to identify factors facilitating the pulsatile ...
A Parametric Study Of The Mechanics Of Different Skin Flap Techniques, 2017 California State University, Northridge
A Parametric Study Of The Mechanics Of Different Skin Flap Techniques, Steven J. Meza, Adrián Tepole Buganza
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
In modern day plastic and reconstructive surgeries numerous skin flap designs have been developed and are used to close open wounds. Skin flaps are developed with the intention of imposing minimal tension in skin closure. Excessive tension can lead to poor blood flow that result in post-surgery complications such as necrosis. Currently there is no standard in choosing a skin flap design and a surgeon's choice is based personal experience. A comparison of the mechanical loading in these various designs has not yet been done. We have developed a parametric study, using finite element analysis, of two advancement skin ...
Bacterial Motility And Its Role In Biofilm Formation, 2017 Purdue University
Bacterial Motility And Its Role In Biofilm Formation, Clayton J. Culp, Arezoo M. Ardekani, Adib Ahmadzadegan
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Bacterial biofilms are known to cause millions of dollars in damage in the medical industry per year via infection of central venous catheters, urinary catheters, and mechanical heart valves. Unfortunately, there are some characteristics of biofilm formation that are yet to be fully understood. Recently much work has been done to investigate the motility characteristics of bacteria with hopes of better understanding the phenomena of biofilm formation. Still, one of the least understood stages is bacterial attachment or adhesion, a process designed to anchor bacteria in an advantageous environment. Providing a better understanding of bacterial motility near solid interfaces will ...
A Functional Subnetwork Approach To Designing Synthetic Nervous Systems That Control Legged Robot Locomotion, 2017 Case Western Reserve University
A Functional Subnetwork Approach To Designing Synthetic Nervous Systems That Control Legged Robot Locomotion, Nicholas Szczecinski, Alexander J. Hunt, Roger Quinn
Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations
A dynamical model of an animal’s nervous system, or synthetic nervous system (SNS), is a potentially transformational control method. Due to increasingly detailed data on the connectivity and dynamics of both mammalian and insect nervous systems, controlling a legged robot with an SNS is largely a problem of parameter tuning. Our approach to this problem is to design functional subnetworks that perform specific operations, and then assemble them into larger models of the nervous system. In this paper, we present networks that perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation, and integration of incoming signals. Parameters are set within each subnetwork ...
Flow Characterization Under Idealized Stenosis Geometry And Performance Assessment Of The Hemodynamic Flow Facility, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Flow Characterization Under Idealized Stenosis Geometry And Performance Assessment Of The Hemodynamic Flow Facility, Marin Vratonjic
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
It is well known that regions inside the human arterial network susceptible to atherosclerosis experience a complex flow environment. Endothelial Cells (ECs) lining the inner wall of arteries are sensors to spatially and temporally varying shear stress (i.e. wall shear stress gradients). This complex force-loading can disrupt local cell-to-cell attachment regions triggering a cascade of biological events leading to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently, researchers predominantly use a Parallel Plate Flow Chamber (PPFC) to study the hemodynamic-cell cycle relationship due to its simplicity and ability to achieve a two-dimensional fully-developed steady laminar flow across the cell monolayer. Researchers ...
An End-To-End Convolutional Selective Autoencoder Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Eggs Detection, 2017 Iowa State University
An End-To-End Convolutional Selective Autoencoder Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Eggs Detection, Adedotun Akintayo, Nigel Lee, Vikas Chawla, Mark P. Mullaney, Christopher C. Marett, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Gregory L. Tylka, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar
Soybean cyst nematodes (SCNs), Heterodera glycines, are unwanted micro-organisms that reduce yields of a major source of food–soybeans. In the United States alone, approximately $1 billion is lost per annum due to cyst nematode infections on soybean plants. Experts have conceived methods of mitigating the losses through phenotyping techniques via SCN eggs density estimation, and then applying the right control measures. Currently, they rely on labor intensive and time-consuming identification of SCN eggs in soil samples processed onto microscopic frames. However, phenotyping a vast array of fields requires automated high-throughput techniques. From an automation perspective, detection of rarely occurring ...
Modeling Fluidization In Biomass Gasification Processes, 2017 Iowa State University
Modeling Fluidization In Biomass Gasification Processes, Emmanuela Gavi, Theodore J. Heindel, Rodney O. Fox
Rodney O. Fox
Extensive validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models is required when modeling biomass fluidization, because several required model inputs are not know or not easily measured experimentally for biomass. In the present work, CFD fluidization modeling of a biomass bed is validated by comparison with X-ray computed tomography experimental data. A parametric study was carried out by employing ground walnut shell or ground corncob as model biomass bed materials, and fluidization was performed at a gas velocity twice the minimum fluidization velocity. An important result is the use of an "effective density" for biomass in the CFD model, the use ...
Instantaneous Particle Acceleration Model For Gas-Solid Suspensions At Moderate Reynolds Numbers, 2017 Iowa State University
Instantaneous Particle Acceleration Model For Gas-Solid Suspensions At Moderate Reynolds Numbers, Sudheer Tenneti, Rodney O. Fox, Shankar Subramaniam
Rodney O. Fox
Gas-solid flows are encountered in many industrial applications such as fluidized beds and coal gasification. The design and scale-up of such industrial devices required a better understanding of the characteristics of gas-solid suspensions. Device-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that solve for average quantities such as solid volume fraction and phasic mean velocity fields are being extensively used in the industrial design process. The capability of the simulations to accurately predict the characteristics of gas-solid flow depends upon the accuracy of the models for unclosed terms that appear in the equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation. Hrenya and Sinclair ...
Differential Surface Stress Sensor For Detection Of Chemical And Biological Species, 2017 Iowa State University
Differential Surface Stress Sensor For Detection Of Chemical And Biological Species, K. Kang, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya
We report a sensor consisting of two micromachined cantilevers (a sensing/reference pair) that is suitable for detection of chemical and biological species. The sensing strategy involves coating the sensing cantilever with receptors that have high affinities for the analyte. The presence of analyte is detected by determining the differential surface stress associated with its adsorption/absorption to the sensing cantilever. An interferometric technique is utilized to measure the differential bending of the sensing cantilever with respect to reference. Surface stress associated with hybridization of single stranded DNA is measured to demonstrate the unique advantages of the sensor.
An Rna Aptamer-Based Microcantilever Sensor To Detect The Inflammatory Marker, Mouse Lipocalin-2, 2017 Iowa State University
An Rna Aptamer-Based Microcantilever Sensor To Detect The Inflammatory Marker, Mouse Lipocalin-2, Lijie Zhai, Tianjiao Wang, Kyungho Kang, Yue Zhao, Pranav Shrotriya, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton
Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is a biomarker for many inflammatory-based diseases, including acute kidney injury, cardiovascular stress, diabetes, and various cancers. Inflammatory transitions occur rapidly in kidney and cardiovascular disease, for which an in-line monitor could be beneficial. Microcantilever devices with aptamers as recognition elements can be effective and rapidly responsive sensors. Here, we have selected and characterized an RNA aptamer that specifically binds mouse Lcn2 (mLcn2) with a dissociation constant of 340 ± 70 nM in solution and 38 ± 22 nM when immobilized on a surface. The higher apparent affinity of the immobilized aptamer may result from its effective multivalency that decreases ...
Space Perception In Virtual Environments: Displacement From The Center Of Projection Causes Less Distortion Than Predicted By Cue-Based Models, Jonathan W. Kelly, Melissa Burton, Brice Pollock, Eduardo Rubio, Michael Curtis, Julio De La Cruz, Stephen B. Gilbert, Eliot H. Winer
Jonathan W. Kelly
Virtual reality systems commonly include both monocular and binocular depth cues, which have the potential to provide viewers with a realistic impression of spatial properties of the virtual environment. However, when multiple viewers share the same display, only one viewer typically receives the projectively correct images. All other viewers experience the same images despite displacement from the center of projection (CoP). Three experiments evaluated perceptual distortions caused by displacement from the CoP and compared those percepts to predictions of models based on monocular and binocular viewing geometry. Leftward and rightward displacement from the CoP caused virtual angles on the ground ...
Cellulose–Hemicellulose And Cellulose–Lignin Interactions During Fast Pyrolysis, 2017 Iowa State University
Cellulose–Hemicellulose And Cellulose–Lignin Interactions During Fast Pyrolysis, Jing Zhang, Yong S. Choi, Chang G. Yoo, Tae H. Kim, Robert C. Brown, Brent H. Shanks
Brent H Shanks
Previously, the primary product distribution resulting from fast pyrolysis of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin was quantified. This study extends the analysis to the examinations of interactions between cellulose–hemicellulose and cellulose–lignin, which were determined by comparing the pyrolysis products from their native mixture, physical mixture, and superposition of individual components. Negligible interactions were found for both binary physical mixtures. For the native cellulose–hemicellulose mixture, no significant interaction was identified either. In the case of the native cellulose–lignin mixture, herbaceous biomass exhibited an apparent interaction, represented by diminished yield of levoglucosan and enhanced yield of low molecular weight ...
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study On Bidirectional Glenn Shunt Flow With An Additional Pulsatile Flow Through A Modified Blalock-Taussig Shunt, Seda Aslan
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
The blood flow through the Bidirectional Glenn shunt (BGS) and modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (mBTS) to the pulmonary arteries (PAs) was analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This study consisted of the steady and pulsatile cases. In case one, the results of blood flow through the BGS for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosity models were compared. Case two focused on having an additional pulsatile blood flow through the mBTS using the non-Newtonian Carreau viscosity model. The geometries were created based on the angiograms. In case one, boundary conditions to be specified at the inlets were obtained from the flow rate measurements via ...
Design And Validation Of An In Vivo Long-Term Attachment Capsule Robot, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Design And Validation Of An In Vivo Long-Term Attachment Capsule Robot, Wanchuan Xie
Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research
The invention of capsule endoscopy (CE) made the non-invasive monitoring of the entire small bowel possible and became the primary means for diagnosing small bowel pathology. In the last decade, capsule robots have been transformed from diagnostic devices into a widely studied biomedical platform with the potential for active locomotion, drug delivery and therapeutic capabilities. To perform accurate on-site drug release and therapy, it is necessary for a capsule robot to be able to attach to the intestinal tissue and maintain its position long-term. Design challenges derive from the task of long-term mucosal adhesion which requires firm, quick-response attachment without ...
Development And Evaluation Of A Biocompatible Electroactive Sensor For Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement., 2017 University of Louisville
Development And Evaluation Of A Biocompatible Electroactive Sensor For Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement., Scott D. Cambron
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Piezo-active composites have been implemented for sensing and transduction for decades. The 0-3 ceramic/polymer composite is one of the most common composite types used for sensing applications, owing to their tailorable properties of the two-phase composition, consisting of a three-dimensionally connected polymer/rubber matrix (inactive phase) with a dispersion of isolated piezo-ceramic particles (active phase). This thesis describes a method to develop novel biocompatible perivascular band comprised of a two-phase piezo-active composite to be fabricated using simple manufacturing processes. Biomaterials such as tissue scaffolds comprised of silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS), and biocompatible soft rubbers will be implemented ...
Kinematics Of The Lower Extremities During Fundamental Martial Arts Tricking Techniques, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Kinematics Of The Lower Extremities During Fundamental Martial Arts Tricking Techniques, Kevin P. Grassie
Honors Scholar Theses
Martial Arts Tricking (MAT) is a relatively new sport that combines martial arts, gymnastics, acrobatics, and breakdancing for the purposes of creating aesthetic and impressive combinations of kicks, flips and twists. It has been growing exponentially through social media and the overall athletic and entertainment communities. The sport is very unique in that the movements, with their blended influences, provide novel ways for athletes to generate and utilize their momentum in a creative way. The results often include off-axis flips and twists, single-leg landings, and complicated yet fluid techniques that easily chain together.
Due to the sport only being a ...
Estimation Of The Centre Of Mass From Motion Capture And Force Plate Recordings: A Study On The Elderly, 2017 Universite de Montpellier II
Estimation Of The Centre Of Mass From Motion Capture And Force Plate Recordings: A Study On The Elderly, Sebastien Cotton, Michele Vanoncini, Philippe Fraisse, Nacim Ramdani, Emel Demircan, Andrew P. Murray, Thierry Keller
Andrew P. Murray
The estimation of the centre of mass position in humans is usually based on biomechanical models developed from anthropometric tables. This method can potentially introduce errors in studies involving elderly people, since the ageing process is typically associated with a modification of the distribution of the body mass. In this paper, an alternative technique is proposed, and evaluated with an experimental study on 9 elderly volunteers. The technique is based on a virtual chain, identified from experimental data and locating the subject's centre of mass. Its configuration defines the location of the centre of mass, and is a function ...
A Finite Element Approach To Self-Consistent Field Theory Calculations Of Multiblock Polymers, 2017 Iowa State University
A Finite Element Approach To Self-Consistent Field Theory Calculations Of Multiblock Polymers, David M. Ackerman, Kris Delaney, Glenn H. Fredrickson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian
Mechanical Engineering Publications
Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) has proven to be a powerful tool for modeling equilibrium microstructures of soft materials, particularly for multiblock polymers. A very successful approach to numerically solving the SCFT set of equations is based on using a spectral approach. While widely successful, this approach has limitations especially in the context of current technologically relevant applications. These limitations include non-trivial approaches for modeling complex geometries, difficulties in extending to non-periodic domains, as well as non-trivial extensions for spatial adaptivity. As a viable alternative to spectral schemes, we develop a finite element formulation of the SCFT paradigm for calculating equilibrium ...