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Biomechanical Engineering Commons

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All Articles in Biomechanical Engineering

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Force-Feedback Design For Robotics: Bio-Based Design And Simulation, Husnain Khan, Zhou Zhang 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Force-Feedback Design For Robotics: Bio-Based Design And Simulation, Husnain Khan, Zhou Zhang

Publications and Research

The great challenge for the Virtual Assembly Platform is how to make the users have the in-person feeling with the augmented tools. Hands are the most important organs that are used to provide touch feeling. In a real assembly scenario, the force from the components and tools will be feedback to the brain via the hands. Unfortunately, the virtual assembly failed to mimic the in-person scenarios since it will not provide such kind of feedback. As a result, the users’ real identities are lost. Then, the users’ slower-progressing wrong habits will prevent them from success in the future. Therefore, it ...


Make And Characterize Microfluidic Devices With Gelatin: Do-It-Yourself (Diy) Laboratory At Home, Marissa Youderian, Xilai Song, Mark Lancaster, Ahana Jhamb, David J. Jones, Gyuseok L. Kim 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Make And Characterize Microfluidic Devices With Gelatin: Do-It-Yourself (Diy) Laboratory At Home, Marissa Youderian, Xilai Song, Mark Lancaster, Ahana Jhamb, David J. Jones, Gyuseok L. Kim

Educational Materials

Microfluidic devices have been fabricated with gelatin and paper clips. Optimization of fabrication and characterization process has been carried out systemically by varying gelatin-to-water ratio, bonding time and connector type. We find that the higher gelatin-to-water ratio and the luer lock syringe tip provide a greater success rate, whereas the influence of bonding time is limited. The Reynolds number was calculated to identify whether the fluid shows laminar or turbulent flow.


Significance Of The Vehicle Front Design And Gait Postures On Traumatic Brain Injuries Sustained By Different Pedestrian Populations During Car-To-Pedestrian Collisions (Cpcs) - A Computational Approach, Thava Kalishwara Kumar Gunasekaran 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Significance Of The Vehicle Front Design And Gait Postures On Traumatic Brain Injuries Sustained By Different Pedestrian Populations During Car-To-Pedestrian Collisions (Cpcs) - A Computational Approach, Thava Kalishwara Kumar Gunasekaran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With the increasing prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in road traffic accidents (RTAs), it was identified that the shape of the vehicle's front end and pedestrian postures prior to impact significantly influence pedestrian head injuries. However, the effect of vehicle front shape parameters and gait postures on TBIs sustained in car-to-pedestrian collisions (CPCs) has yet to be quantified. This study used a computational approach to analyze the effect of vehicle shape parameters and pedestrian gait postures on pedestrian TBI risks across a diverse pedestrian population with varying body sizes. Our findings indicate that vehicle shape parameter such as ...


Collision Tracking And Brain Mapping, Carl Russell III 2021 Purdue University

Collision Tracking And Brain Mapping, Carl Russell Iii

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Creating Reel Designs: Reflecting On Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita In The Community, Iris Layadi 2021 Purdue University

Creating Reel Designs: Reflecting On Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita In The Community, Iris Layadi

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Because of its extreme rarity, the genetic disease arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) and the needs of individuals with the diagnosis are often overlooked. AMC refers to the development of nonprogressive contractures in disparate areas of the body and is characterized by decreased flexibility in joints, muscle atrophy, and developmental delays. Colton Darst, a seven-year-old boy from Indianapolis, Indiana, was born with the disorder, and since then, he has undergone numerous surgical interventions and continues to receive orthopedic therapy to reduce his physical limitations. His parents, Michael and Amber Darst, have hopes for him to regain his limbic motion and are ...


Visuomotor Adaptation During Asymmetric Walking, Charles Napoli 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Visuomotor Adaptation During Asymmetric Walking, Charles Napoli

Masters Theses

Necessary for effective ambulation, head stability affords optimal conditions for the perception of visual information during dynamic tasks. This maintenance of head-in-space equilibrium is achieved, in part, by the attenuation of the high frequency impact shock resulting from ground contact. While a great deal of experimentation has been done on the matter during steady state locomotion, little is known about how head stability or dynamic visual acuity is maintained during asymmetric walking.

In this study, fifteen participants were instructed to walk on a split-belt treadmill for ten minutes while verbally reporting the orientation of a randomized Landolt-C optotype that was ...


Build Your Own Body Mod: Empowerment Through Prototyping And Design, Anaiss Arreola, Katherine R. Ganim 2021 Make Just Right

Build Your Own Body Mod: Empowerment Through Prototyping And Design, Anaiss Arreola, Katherine R. Ganim

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

When you don’t have a hand, what could you have instead? This article introduces the impact of inviting youth with disabilities to learn tools and technology to design their own solutions and advocate for their own future. This approach to programming is rooted in a mindset of designing WITH, not FOR. Not only are design outcomes improved when users are incorporated into the process, but this approach has been shown to improve confidence in creating one’s own solutions. These programs include hands-on “design-your-own-body-mod” workshops, as well as a budding inclusive design consultancy led by youth with disabilities. Through ...


Development Of A Shoulder Implant Testing System To Evaluate Implant Fixation, Allen Sun 2021 Western University

Development Of A Shoulder Implant Testing System To Evaluate Implant Fixation, Allen Sun

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

This poster outlines the initial methodology and testing related to the development of an optical measurement system used to quantify shoulder implant micromotion in the laboratory.


Development Of A Novel Haptic Feedback System For Gait Training Applications, Mohsen Alizadeh Noghani 2021 University of Maine

Development Of A Novel Haptic Feedback System For Gait Training Applications, Mohsen Alizadeh Noghani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Until recently, study and correction of motor or gait functions required costly sensors and measurement setups (e.g., optical motion capture systems) which were only available in laboratories or clinical environments. However, due to (1) the growing availability and affordability of inertial measurement units (IMUs) with high accuracy, and (2) progress in wireless, high bandwidth, and energy-efficient networking technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), it is now possible to measure and provide feedback in real-time for biomechanical parameters outside of those specialized settings. To enable gait training without an expert who can provide verbal feedback, augmented feedback, which is ...


Significance Of The Neck In Concussive Head Impacts – A Computational Approach, Sakib Ul Islam 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Significance Of The Neck In Concussive Head Impacts – A Computational Approach, Sakib Ul Islam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With the rising concern of concussions in contact sports, it is believed that cervical muscles could play a vital role in attenuating force to the head. However, the biomechanical effect of cervical muscles on head and brain response is not clearly understood. This study adopted a finite element head and neck model to replicate football impacts under various loading conditions to study the effect of neck muscles on head kinematics. Our results indicate that neck muscles have the highest amount of internal energy absorption in early impact, particularly at the time when peak head kinematics develop. Both deep and superficial ...


Biomaterial For Cervical Intervertebral Disc Prosthesis, Helium Mak 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Biomaterial For Cervical Intervertebral Disc Prosthesis, Helium Mak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recent long-term follow-up studies have shown that the cervical disc arthroplasty treatment have potentials in developing surrounding heterotopic ossification (HO). While its cause requires further investigation, this thesis has hypothesized that it may be the result of the continual remodeling of the injured vertebrae caused by the prostheses with smaller footprints introducing abnormal stresses. The research objective of this thesis is to develop a new prosthesis material that can be molded into any form conforming to the size and shape of the end-plates of the affected patient vertebrae. For prototype development, a composite material consisting of 10wt% polyvinyl alcohol cryogel ...


Deformation Of An Airfoil-Shaped Brain Surrogate Under Shock Wave Loading, Ling Zhang, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil 2021 Iowa State University

Deformation Of An Airfoil-Shaped Brain Surrogate Under Shock Wave Loading, Ling Zhang, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs), during military operations, has increased the incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). The shock wave is created following detonation of the IED. This shock wave propagates through the atmosphere and may cause bTBI. As a result, bTBI research has gained increased attention since this injury's mechanism is not thoroughly understood. To develop better protection and treatment against bTBI, further studies of soft material (e.g. brain and brain surrogate) deformation due to shock wave exposure are essential. However, the dynamic mechanical behavior of soft materials, subjected to high strain rates from shock wave exposure ...


Investigation Of Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (Srpas) To Human Head Impact, Yuhu Weng 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (Srpas) To Human Head Impact, Yuhu Weng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Small remotely piloted aircraft system (sRPAS) to ground human head impact could cause injuries to the public. Skull fractures and brain injuries have been observed in sRPAS-related impacts, which varied in angles, locations and velocities. This study developed a representative quadcopter sRPAS finite element model and incorporated it with THUMS ver 4.02 50th percentile male and 5th percentile small female models to simulate sRPAS to human head impacts. The simulations were validated with cadaver experiments. The common injury metrics such as head injury criteria (HIC) and brain injury criterion (BrIC) were correlated with head injury-related responses such ...


Developing Multi-Species Brain-Strain-Based Scaling Law Using Finite Element Analysis., Xingyu Liu 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Developing Multi-Species Brain-Strain-Based Scaling Law Using Finite Element Analysis., Xingyu Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To better understand traumatic brain injury (TBI), various laboratory animal experiments have been developed. However, there lacks an effective scaling to connect animal TBI models with human brain injuries. With the help of the finite element (FE) model, brain mechanical responses such as strains can be predicted, and hence can serve as a parameter to facilitate animal to human scaling, as these tissue-level strains directly link to neuronal damage. In this thesis, first, a comprehensive comparison of brain strains between animal TBI models and human TBI cases was conducted. Then, a brain-strain-based scaling law between mouse and human was developed ...


Development Of A Wireless Telemetry Load And Displacement Sensor For Orthopaedic Applications, William Anderson 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of A Wireless Telemetry Load And Displacement Sensor For Orthopaedic Applications, William Anderson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Due to sensor size and supporting circuitry, in vivo load and deformation measurements are currently restricted to applications within larger orthopaedic implants. The objective of this thesis is to repurpose a commercially available low-power, miniature, wireless, telemetric, tire-pressure sensor (FXTH87) to measure load and deformation for future use in biomechanical applications. The capacitive transducer membrane of the FXTH87 was modified, and a relationship was reported between applied compressive deformation and sensor signal value. The sensor package was embedded within a deformable enclosure to illustrate potential applications of the sensor for monitoring load. Finite element analysis was an effective tool to ...


Handwriting Correction System Using Wearable Sleeve With Optimal Tactor Configuration, Dhanya Nair, Grant Stankaitis, Sean Duback, Robert Geoffrion, Justin B. Jackson 2021 Chapman University

Handwriting Correction System Using Wearable Sleeve With Optimal Tactor Configuration, Dhanya Nair, Grant Stankaitis, Sean Duback, Robert Geoffrion, Justin B. Jackson

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Handwriting remains an elusive skill with practice worksheets being the common method of learning. Since these worksheets provide only visual feedback and no quantitative feedback, it can often be a challenge to improve. For children with learning disabilities, learning handwriting skills is one of the most difficult tasks. We propose a handwriting training system that uses off-the-shelf webcam, a pen tracking software and a haptic sleeve which provides active feedback to the user based on their deviation from the original pattern. The sleeve has 4 individual motors that vibrate at different intensities based on the direction (right, left, up or ...


Scalability Of The Size Of Patterns Drawn Using Tactile Hand Guidance, Dhanya Nair 2021 Chapman University

Scalability Of The Size Of Patterns Drawn Using Tactile Hand Guidance, Dhanya Nair

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Haptic feedback for handwriting training has been extensively studied, but with primary focus on kinematic feedback. We provide vibrotactile feedback through a wrist worn sleeve to guide the user to recreate unknown patterns and study the impact of vibrational duration (1, 2, 3 seconds) on pattern scaling. User traces a line at 90° angles, while attempting to maintain a constant speed, in the direction of the motor activated till a different motor activation is perceived. Shape and size are two features of good letter formation. Study performed on three subjects showed the ability to utilize four vibrotactile motors to guide ...


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: The Effect Of Age And Other Factors On The Intensity Of The Quadruple Butterfly Coil, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Jenna Runge, David C. Jiles 2021 Iowa State University

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: The Effect Of Age And Other Factors On The Intensity Of The Quadruple Butterfly Coil, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Jenna Runge, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat certain neurological disorders. When comparing TMS to techniques with similar desired outcomes, such as conventional brain surgery, TMS has far fewer risks due to its non-invasive nature. TMS works by inducing an electric field (E-field) that polarizes or depolarizes brain tissues depending on treatment mode. The human brain reaches 90 % of its adult volume at about age six and does not reach full maturity until approximately 25 years. The differences in the brain volume from adolescents to adults could alter the ...


Experimental Investigation Of The Performance Of A Hybrid Self-Healing System In Porous Asphalt Under Fatigue Loadings, Shi Xu, liu Xueyan, Amir Tabakovic, Erik Schlangen 2021 Delft University of Technology

Experimental Investigation Of The Performance Of A Hybrid Self-Healing System In Porous Asphalt Under Fatigue Loadings, Shi Xu, Liu Xueyan, Amir Tabakovic, Erik Schlangen

Articles

Self-healing asphalt, which is designed to achieve autonomic damage repair in asphalt pavement, offers a great life-extension prospect and therefore not only reduces pavement maintenance costs but also saves energy and reduces CO2 emissions. The combined asphalt self-healing system, incorporating both encapsulated rejuvenator and induction heating, can heal cracks with melted binder and aged binder rejuvenation, and the synergistic effect of the two technologies shows significant advantages in healing efficiency over the single self-healing method. This study explores the fatigue life extension prospect of the combined healing system in porous asphalt. To this aim, porous asphalt (PA) test specimens with ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Commotio Cordis In Children's Baseball - A Computational Approach, Grant J. Dickey 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Biomechanical Analysis Of Commotio Cordis In Children's Baseball - A Computational Approach, Grant J. Dickey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Commotio cordis is the second leading cause of cardiac death in young athletes. This rare sudden-death mechanism most commonly affects young children playing baseball. It is caused by impacts to the chest during the repolarization phase of the cardiac cycle, which causes the heart to go into ventricular fibrillation, often leading to death. This study adopted the detailed and validated CHARM-10 child finite element model to replicate commotio cordis instances by simulating baseball impacts to the chest. New commotio cordis injury metrics were developed to create a more accurate prediction for chest protector effectiveness. The conventionally used injury metrics for ...


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