Biodegradable Nano-Hybrid Polymer Composite Networks For Regulating Cellular Behavior, 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Biodegradable Nano-Hybrid Polymer Composite Networks For Regulating Cellular Behavior, Charles Henley Sprague
Photo-crosslinkable polymeric biomaterials have emerged in the field of biomedical research to promote tissue regeneration. For example, scaffolds that can be crosslinked and hardened in situ have been known to make suitable implant alternatives. Since injectable and photo-crosslinkable biomaterials offer the advantage of being minimally invasive, they have emerged to compete with autografts, a current highly invasive method to repair diseased tissue. A series of novel photo-crosslinkable, injectable, and biodegradable nano-hybrid polymers consisting of poly(ε-caprolactone fumarate) (PCLF) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) has been synthesized in our laboratory via polycondensation. To engineer the material properties of the nano-hybrid networks ...
Molecular Dynamics Investigation Of The Arabinan-Cellulose Interface For Cellulose Nanocomposite Applications, 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo
Molecular Dynamics Investigation Of The Arabinan-Cellulose Interface For Cellulose Nanocomposite Applications, Luke Thornley
Atom level computer simulations of the arabinan and cellulose interface were performed to better understand the mechanisms that give arabinan-cellulose composites (ArCCs) their strength with the goal to improve man-made ArCCs. The molecular dynamics (MD) software LAMMPS was used in conjunction with the ReaxFF/c force field to model the bond between cellulose and arabinan. A cellulose nanocrystal with dimensions 51 x 32 x 8 Å was minimized with various weight percent of water, 0%, 3%, 5%, 8%, 10%, and 12%. After the system was equilibrated for at least 100,000 femtoseconds, an arabinan molecule composed of 8 arabinose rings ...
Methods For Growing Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Current Protocols And Future Recommendations, 2015 Utah State University
Methods For Growing Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Current Protocols And Future Recommendations, Aaron H. Fronk
All Graduate Plan B and other Reports
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a layer of tissue found in the vertebrate eye between Bruch’s membrane and the photoreceptor layer of the neural retina . It is derived from the outer layer of the optic cup , possesses an innate immune system , and consists of a monolayer of highly pigmented cells that fit together in a tight matrix (fig. 1) –. The monolayer is often compared to a mosaic or cobblestones in its configuration, while the shape of the individual cells is usually described as polygonal/hexagonal, columnar (aligned perpendicular to the underlying membrane), or ...
Investigation Of The Interaction Between Graphene Oxide And A Biopolymer Surface, 2015 College of William and Mary
Investigation Of The Interaction Between Graphene Oxide And A Biopolymer Surface, Pei Pang
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Graphene oxide (GO) is functionalized graphene sheet. Due to its exceptional mechanical properties, GO is widely considered a promising filler material for producing nanocomposites. Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organism. They are as strong and tough as synthetic polymers, yet feature exceptional biocompatibility. The combination of GO and biopolymers, then, can yield potential novel nanocomposites. These novel materials have the potential to possess a combination of outstanding properties. They would be thin, lightweight, strong, and biocompatible. Therefore, these materials can have many applications in various fields, such as biocompatible coatings and body implants. In this project, we report an ...
Designing A Clarifier To Recover Wastewater Algae Biomass For Production Of Biofuels, 2015 Utah State Univesity
Designing A Clarifier To Recover Wastewater Algae Biomass For Production Of Biofuels, Elizabeth Martinez
All Graduate Plan B and other Reports
The Logan Lagoons, Logan City’s Wastewater Treatment Facility ensures 15 million gallons of wastewater are cleaned and filtered each day. With the implementation of new and stricter wastewater effluent standards, the city of Logan now has to guarantee the phosphorous concentration in the effluent is also reduced. Algal biomass produced and harvested from the lagoons has been proven to affect the way nitrogen and phosphorous are removed, while having the potential to be converted to biofuels. Therefore, implementing a secondary type clarifier in the Logan Lagoons would produce treated water with a reduced phosphorous concentration, and algae feedstock for ...
Using Biomaterials To Reduce Fibrous Encapsulation Of Biomedical Implants, 2015 Iowa State University
Using Biomaterials To Reduce Fibrous Encapsulation Of Biomedical Implants, Catherine Le Denmat
Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression
Fibrous encapsulation, commonly referred to as scar formation, can cause failure in many biomedical implants, such as in the artificial pancreas for type I diabetes treatment. Scar tissue prevents wastes and nutrients from being able to be exchanged in the implant, ultimately rendering the treatment painful or ineffective. For example, one potential therapeutic for type I diabetes involves using a polymer to protect insulin-producing cells. This artificial pancreas provides diabetics with their much needed insulin on-demand. If scar tissue forms around this artificial pancreas, the device loses the ability to deliver insulin and becomes useless. Our goal is to reduce ...
Test Submission Title, 2015 University of Wyoming
Test Submission Title, Demo Uwyo
Biomimetic Oral Mucin From Polymer Micelle Networks, 2015 University of Kentucky
Biomimetic Oral Mucin From Polymer Micelle Networks, Sundar Prasanth Authimoolam
Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering
Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated ...
Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, 2015 University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, William G. Herrick
The goal of this dissertation was to parse the roles of physical, mechanical and chemical cues in the phenotype plasticity of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerosis. We first developed and characterized a novel synthetic hydrogel with desirable traits for studying mechanotransduction in vitro. This hydrogel, PEG-PC, is a co-polymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and phosphorylcholine with an incredible range of Young’s moduli (~1 kPa - 9 MPa) that enables reproduction of nearly any tissue stiffness, exceptional optical and anti-fouling properties, and support for covalent attachment of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. To our knowledge, this combination of mechanical range, low ...
Functional Nanostructures From Nanoparticle Building Blocks, 2015 Polymer Science and Engineering
Functional Nanostructures From Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Jimmy Lawrence
Advances in the synthetic strategies of engineered nanomaterials, multifunctional molecules and polymers have opened pathways for the development of functional nanomaterials having unique optoelectronic, mechanical, and biological properties. By designing the chemistry of surface ligands, the organic interface of nanoparticles, one can further the versatility and utilization of engineered nanomaterials, opening pathways for breakthroughs in sensing, catalysis, and delivery using nanomaterials.
This thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of small molecule and polymer ligand functionalized inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., metal, semiconducting). Embedding specific chemical functionality into the ligand periphery of nanoparticles enables the resulting functional nanoparticles to react selectively with ...
Cell Adhesion Biophysics On Dynamic Polymer Constructs, 2015 University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Cell Adhesion Biophysics On Dynamic Polymer Constructs, Andreas Kourouklis
The biophysical characteristics of cell adhesion from single protein to cell length scales have primarily been studied using purely elastic substrates. However, natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is viscoelastic and contains mobile components. In this work, we combined chemistry and cell biology tools to design and characterize laterally mobile viscoelastic polymer films that promote receptor-specific cell adhesion. Moreover, we used amphiphilic block copolymers that are end-labeled with RGD peptide ligands to allow for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. The addition of a trace hydrophobic homopolymer in the supported bilayer block-copolymer films is used to tune the lateral mobility of the films. NIH 3T3 ...
Effect Of Surface Hydrophobicity On The Function Of The Immobilized Biomineralization Protein Mms6, 2015 Iowa State University
Effect Of Surface Hydrophobicity On The Function Of The Immobilized Biomineralization Protein Mms6, Xunpei Liu, Honghu Zhang, Srikanth Nayak, German Parada, James W. Anderegg, Shuren Feng, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Mufit Akinc, Surya K. Mallapragada
Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications
Magnetotactic bacteria produce magnetic nanocrystals with uniform shapes and sizes in nature, which has inspired in vitro synthesis of uniformly sized magnetite nanocrystals under mild conditions. Mms6, a biomineralization protein from magnetotactic bacteria with a hydrophobic N-terminal domain and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain, can promote formation of magnetite nanocrystals in vitro with well-defined shape and size in gels under mild conditions. Here we investigate the role of surface hydrophobicity on the ability of Mms6 to template magnetite nanoparticle formation on surfaces. Our results confirmed that Mms6 can form a protein network structure on a monolayer of hydrophobic octadecanethiol (ODT)-coated ...
Biocorrosion Rate And Mechanism Of Metallic Magnesium In Model Arterial Environments, 2015 Michigan Technological University
Biocorrosion Rate And Mechanism Of Metallic Magnesium In Model Arterial Environments, Patrick Bowen
Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports
A new paradigm in biomedical engineering calls for biologically active implants that are absorbed by the body over time. One popular application for this concept is in the engineering of endovascular stents that are delivered concurrently with balloon angioplasty. These devices enable the injured vessels to remain patent during healing, but are not needed for more than a few months after the procedure. Early studies of iron- and magnesium-based stents have concluded that magnesium is a potentially suitable base material for such a device; alloys can achieve acceptable mechanical properties and do not seem to harm the artery during degradation ...
Quantitative Characterization Of Collagen In The Fibrotic Capsule Surrounding Implanted Polymeric Microparticles Through Second Harmonic Generation Imaging, Dana Akilbekova, Kaitlin M. Bratlie
Materials Science and Engineering Publications
The collagenous capsule formed around an implant will ultimately determine the nature of its in vivo fate. To provide a better understanding of how surface modifications can alter the collagen orientation and composition in the fibrotic capsule, we used second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to evaluate collagen organization and structure generated in mice subcutaneously injected with chemically functionalized polystyrene particles. SHG is sensitive to the orientation of a molecule, making it a powerful tool for measuring the alignment of collagen fibers. Additionally, SHG arises from the second order susceptibility of the interrogated molecule in response to the electric field. Variation ...
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy-Based Biomarker Detection For B-Cell Malignancies, 2015 Utah State University
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy-Based Biomarker Detection For B-Cell Malignancies, Nathan Israelsen
All Graduate Theses and Dissertations
This thesis presents a light scattering-based method for biomarker detection, which could potentially be used for the quantification of multiple biomarkers specific to B-cell malignancies. This method uses fabricated gold nanoparticle probes to amplify inelastic light scattering in a process referred to as surface-enhanced Raman scattering. These gold nanoparticle probes were conjugated to antibodies for specific and targeted molecular binding. The spectrum of the amplified inelastic light scattering was detected using a spectrometer and a detector. To detect the light scattering signal from the gold nanoparticle probes, several commercial Raman spectrometer instruments were evaluated. Initial results from these evaluations are ...
Limits To The Effect Of Substrate Roughness Or Smoothness On The Odd–Even Effect In Wetting Properties Of N-Alkanethiolate Monolayers, Jiahao Chen, Zhengjia Wang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Symon M. Gathiaka, Martin M. Thuo
Materials Science and Engineering Publications
This study investigates the effect of roughness on interfacial properties of an n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and uses hydrophobicity to demonstrate the existence of upper and lower limits. This article also sheds light on the origin of the previously unexplained gradual increase in contact angles with increases in the size of the molecule making the SAM. We prepared Au surfaces with a root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of ∼0.2–0.5 nm and compared the wetting properties of n-alkanethiolate (C10–C16) SAMs fabricated on these surfaces. Static contact angles, θs, formed between the SAM and water, diethylene glycol, and ...
The Porter-Whitesides Discrepancy: Revisiting Odd-Even Effects In Wetting Properties Of N-Alkanethiolate Sams, 2015 Iowa State University
The Porter-Whitesides Discrepancy: Revisiting Odd-Even Effects In Wetting Properties Of N-Alkanethiolate Sams, Zhengjia Wang, Jiahao Chen, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Martin M. Thuo
Materials Science and Engineering Publications
This review discusses the Porter-Whitesides discrepancy in wetting properties of n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). About 25 years ago, Whitesides and coworker failed to observe any odd-even effect in wetting, however, Porter and his coworker did, albeit in select cases. Most previous studies agreed with Whitesides’ results, suggesting the absence of the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity of n-alkanethiolate SAMs. Recent reports have, however, found the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity of n-alkanethiolate SAMs on smooth substrates, indicating that hydrophobicity, and analogous interfacial properties, of n-alkanethiolate SAMs significantly depends on the properties of substrate. Unfortunately, the Whitesides and Porter papers do not report ...
Influence Of Polymer Chemistry On Cytokine Secretion From Polarized Macrophages, 2015 Iowa State University
Influence Of Polymer Chemistry On Cytokine Secretion From Polarized Macrophages, Daniel Wang, Kaitlin M. Bratlie
Materials Science and Engineering Publications
Of central importance to tissue engineering and drug delivery is identifying polymer parameters that increase or decrease specific cytokines in response to biomaterials. In this study, we have interrogated the effects of material descriptors and material characteristics on pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and naïve macrophages using polymeric particles (∼600 nm), functionalized with 13 different moieties. We characterized tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion for the three macrophage populations and used the quantitative structure–activity relationship method (QSAR) to accurately predict cytokine secretion for the different macrophage phenotypes. The findings presented here demonstrate that altering cellular responses to polymers can be ...
Double- And Multi-Sided Adhesive Devices: Patent Application, 2014 University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Double- And Multi-Sided Adhesive Devices: Patent Application, Alfred J. Crosby, Michael D. Bartlett
An Investigation On Biocompatibility Of Bio-Absorbable Polymer Coated Magnesium Alloys, 2014 Florida International University
An Investigation On Biocompatibility Of Bio-Absorbable Polymer Coated Magnesium Alloys, Sushma Amruthaluri
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Advances in biomaterials have enabled medical practitioners to replace diseased body parts or to assist in the healing process. In situations where a permanent biomaterial implant is used for a temporary application, additional surgeries are required to remove these implants once the healing process is complete, which increases medical costs and patient morbidity. Bio-absorbable materials dissolve and are metabolized by the body after the healing process is complete thereby negating additional surgeries for removal of implants.
Magnesium alloys as novel bio-absorbable biomaterials, have attracted great attention recently because of their good mechanical properties, biocompatibility and corrosion rate in physiological environments ...