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Electrode Materials, Thermal Annealing Sequences, And Lateral/Vertical Phase Separation Of Polymer Solar Cells From Multiscale Molecular Simulations, Cheng-Kuang Lee, Olga Wodo, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Chun-Wei Pao 2017 University of California, Berkeley

Electrode Materials, Thermal Annealing Sequences, And Lateral/Vertical Phase Separation Of Polymer Solar Cells From Multiscale Molecular Simulations, Cheng-Kuang Lee, Olga Wodo, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Chun-Wei Pao

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and ...


Comparing Training Performance With Vibrotactile Hit Alerts Vs. Audio Alerts, Stephen B. Gilbert, Anthony Civitate, Jonathan W. Kelly, Frederick Thompson, Alisha Smith, Ken Kopecky, Eliot Winer, Julio de la Cruz 2017 Iowa State University

Comparing Training Performance With Vibrotactile Hit Alerts Vs. Audio Alerts, Stephen B. Gilbert, Anthony Civitate, Jonathan W. Kelly, Frederick Thompson, Alisha Smith, Ken Kopecky, Eliot Winer, Julio De La Cruz

Stephen B. Gilbert

Live, virtual, and constructive training that integrates dismounted warfighter training with convoy training, pilot training, and other systems has been demonstrated to reduce training time, and studies have shown that a high level of immersion and the illusion of presence in a VR environment contribute to this success. However, current force-on-force training simulators lack one major quality that is needed to impart this strong sense of presence for warfighters: the consequence of getting shot.

Simulated return-fire systems have been developed for different purposes including military, police and entertainment. Some use projectiles, but that approach is usually limited to a shoot ...


Dependence Of Recombination Mechanisms And Strength On Processing Conditions In Polymer Solar Cells, Kanwar S. Nalwa, Hari K. Kodali, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Sumit Chaudhary 2017 Iowa State University

Dependence Of Recombination Mechanisms And Strength On Processing Conditions In Polymer Solar Cells, Kanwar S. Nalwa, Hari K. Kodali, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Sumit Chaudhary

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Charge carrier recombination due to carrier trapping is not often considered in polymer based solar cells, except in those using non-fullerene acceptors or new donor polymers with limited short-range order. However, we show that even for the canonical poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) system, relative strengths of bimolecular and trap-assisted recombination are strongly dependent on processing conditions. For slow-grown active-layers, bimolecular recombination is indeed the major loss mechanism under one sun illumination. However, for fast-grown active-layers, trap-assisted recombination dominates over bimolecular recombination by an order of magnitude, and recombination strength at short-circuit condition is 3-4 times higher ...


Applied Strength Of Materials For Engineering Technology, Barry Dupen 2017 Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne

Applied Strength Of Materials For Engineering Technology, Barry Dupen

Manufacturing and Construction Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Study On The Mechanical Behavior Of Directly Compounded Long Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6 Composites, Yuchao Liu 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Study On The Mechanical Behavior Of Directly Compounded Long Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6 Composites, Yuchao Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With great lightweight potential, high performance-to-cost ratio and mass productivity, direct-compounded long fiber thermoplastics (D-LFT) have drawn great attention from the automotive industry. With better mechanical properties and higher service temperature, polyamide 6 (PA6) was used to replace polypropylene (PP) which is almost the exclusively used matrix for the D-LFT process currently. The investigation was performed on this new material with a focus on the effect of fiber content, processing parameters, temperature and tailored reinforcement on mechanical behavior. The results show that the mechanical properties of this new material are sensitive to the variation of fiber content and service temperature ...


Software For Extracting Deformation Gradient And Stress From Md Simulations: Simulations Using The Charmm Force Field, Mehrdad Negahban, Lili Zhang, Zesheng Zhang, John Jasa, Antoine Jérusalem 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Software For Extracting Deformation Gradient And Stress From Md Simulations: Simulations Using The Charmm Force Field, Mehrdad Negahban, Lili Zhang, Zesheng Zhang, John Jasa, Antoine Jérusalem

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Software was developed, and is provided under a general use license, to calculate continuum level deformation gradient and stress for any group of atoms in an MD simulation that uses the Charmm force fields. This software can also calculate the interaction stress applied by one group of atoms on any other group. To obtain deformation gradient and stress, the user needs to provide the selected group(s) of atoms in an atom group identification file, and provide the associated LAMMPS format files and force field parameter file. An example is included to demonstrate the use of the software.


Negahban Group Report: Saw-Tooth Shear Response Of Aged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (Pmma), Mehrdad Negahban 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Negahban Group Report: Saw-Tooth Shear Response Of Aged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (Pmma), Mehrdad Negahban

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Results for isothermal saw-tooth shear loading experiments conducted on annealed and oven-cooled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) at temperatures between 50oC and 140oC. The experiments were conducted 1996.


Formation Of Mound-Like Multiscale Surface Structures On Titanium By Femtosecond Laser Processing, Edwin Peng, Alfred Tsubaki, Craig A. Zuhlke, Ryan Bell, Meiyu Wang, Dennis R. Alexander, George Gogos, Jeffrey E. Shield 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Formation Of Mound-Like Multiscale Surface Structures On Titanium By Femtosecond Laser Processing, Edwin Peng, Alfred Tsubaki, Craig A. Zuhlke, Ryan Bell, Meiyu Wang, Dennis R. Alexander, George Gogos, Jeffrey E. Shield

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Surface Functionalization Technique • Femtosecond Laser Surface Processing (FLSP) • Utilize high power, femtosecond (10-15 s) laser pulses • Produce self-organized, multiscale surface micro/nanostructures • Diverse range of applicable substrates: semiconductors, metals, polymers, & composites

Why? • What are the different types of FLSP structures on Ti? • Physical evidence needed for FLSP formation models • Optimize FLSP of Ti for biomedical & other applications

How? • Obtain evidence of mound growth processes by examining underlying microstructure • Utilize dual beam Scanning Electron Microscope-Focused Ion Beam instrument to cross section surface structures & fabricate transmission electron microscopy samples


Quantification Of Re-Absorption And Re-Emission Processes To Determine Photon Recycling Efficiency In Perovskite Single Crystals, Yanjun Fang, Haotong Wei, Qingfeng Dong, Jinsong Huang 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Quantification Of Re-Absorption And Re-Emission Processes To Determine Photon Recycling Efficiency In Perovskite Single Crystals, Yanjun Fang, Haotong Wei, Qingfeng Dong, Jinsong Huang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Photon recycling, that is, iterative self-absorption and re-emission by the photoactive layer itself, has been speculated to contribute to the high open-circuit voltage in several types of high efficiency solar cells. For organic–inorganic halide perovskites that have yielded highly efficient photovoltaic devices, however, it remains unclear whether the photon recycling effect is significant enough to improve solar cell efficiency. Here we quantitatively evaluate the re-absorption and re-emission processes to determine photon recycling efficiency in hybrid perovskite with its single crystals by measuring the ratio of the re-emitted photons to the initially excited photons, which is realized by modulating their ...


Low-Drag Events In Transitional Wall-Bounded Turbulence, Richard D. Whalley, Jae Sung Park, Anubhav Kushwaha, David J.C. Dennis, Michael D. Graham, Robert J. Poole 2017 Newcastle University

Low-Drag Events In Transitional Wall-Bounded Turbulence, Richard D. Whalley, Jae Sung Park, Anubhav Kushwaha, David J.C. Dennis, Michael D. Graham, Robert J. Poole

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Intermittency of low-drag pointwise wall shear stress measurements within Newtonian turbulent channel flow at transitional Reynolds numbers (friction Reynolds numbers 70 – 130) is characterized using experiments and simulations. Conditional mean velocity profiles during low-drag events closely approach that of a recently discovered nonlinear traveling wave solution; both profiles are near the so-called maximum drag reduction profile, a general feature of turbulent flow of liquids containing polymer additives (despite the fact that all results presented are for Newtonian fluids only). Similarities between temporal intermittency in small domains and spatiotemporal intermittency in large domains is thereby found.


Flowtaxis Of Osteoblast Migration Under Fluid Shear And The Effect Of Rhoa Kinase Silencing, Brandon D. Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Il Keun Kwon, Jung Yul Lim 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Flowtaxis Of Osteoblast Migration Under Fluid Shear And The Effect Of Rhoa Kinase Silencing, Brandon D. Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Il Keun Kwon, Jung Yul Lim

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Despite the important role of mechanical signals in bone remodeling, relatively little is known about how fluid shear affects osteoblastic cell migration behavior. Here we demonstrated that MC3T3-E1 osteoblast migration could be activated by physiologically-relevant levels of fluid shear in a shear stress-dependent manner. Interestingly, shear-sensitive osteoblast migration behavior was prominent only during the initial period after the onset of the steady flow (for about 30 min), exhibiting shear stress-dependent migration speed, displacement, arrest coefficient, and motility coefficient. For example, cell speed at 1 min was 0.28, 0.47, 0.51, and 0.84 μm min-1 for static ...


Atomically Informed Nonlocal Semidiscrete Variational Peierls-Nabarro Model For Planar Core Dislocations, Guisen Liu, Xi Cheng, Jian Wang, Kaiguo Chen, Yao Shen 2017 Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Atomically Informed Nonlocal Semidiscrete Variational Peierls-Nabarro Model For Planar Core Dislocations, Guisen Liu, Xi Cheng, Jian Wang, Kaiguo Chen, Yao Shen

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Prediction of Peierls stress associated with dislocation glide is of fundamental concern in understanding and designing the plasticity and mechanical properties of crystalline materials. Here, we develop a nonlocal semi-discrete variational Peierls-Nabarro (SVPN) model by incorporating the nonlocal atomic interactions into the semi-discrete variational Peierls framework. The nonlocal kernel is simplified by limiting the nonlocal atomic interaction in the nearest neighbor region, and the nonlocal coefficient is directly computed from the dislocation core structure. Our model is capable of accurately predicting the displacement profile, and the Peierls stress, of planar-extended core dislocations in face-centered cubic structures. Our model could be ...


Fluid-Structure Interaction In Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effect Of Modeling Techniques, Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Yonghua Bi, Siyeong Ju, Linxia Gu 2017 Xiamen University of Technology

Fluid-Structure Interaction In Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effect Of Modeling Techniques, Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Yonghua Bi, Siyeong Ju, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

In this work, the impact of modeling techniques on predicting the mechanical behaviors of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is systematically investigated. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for simultaneously capturing the transient interaction between blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics was compared with its simplified techniques, that is, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or computational solid stress (CSS) model. Results demonstrated that CFD exhibited relatively smaller vortexes and tends to overestimate the fluid wall shear stress, compared to FSI. On the contrary, the minimal differences in wall stresses and deformation were observed between FSI and CSS models. Furthermore, it was found that ...


High Temperature Near-Field Nanothermomechanical Rectification, Mahmoud Elzouka, Sidy Ndao 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

High Temperature Near-Field Nanothermomechanical Rectification, Mahmoud Elzouka, Sidy Ndao

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Limited performance and reliability of electronic devices at extreme temperatures, intensive electromagnetic fields, and radiation found in space exploration missions (i.e., Venus & Jupiter planetary exploration, and heliophysics missions) and earth-based applications requires the development of alternative computing technologies. In the pursuit of alternative technologies, research efforts have looked into developing thermal memory and logic devices that use heat instead of electricity to perform computations. However, most of the proposed technologies operate at room or cryogenic temperatures, due to their dependence on material’s temperature-dependent properties. Here in this research, we show experimentally—for the first time—the use of ...


Frontal Crash Analysis Of A Conformable Cng Tank Using Finite Element Analysis, Datta Sandesh Manjunath 2017 Michigan Technological University

Frontal Crash Analysis Of A Conformable Cng Tank Using Finite Element Analysis, Datta Sandesh Manjunath

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The purpose of this study is to computationally model and analyze a Conformable Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fuel tank for frontal crashes using Finite Element Analysis. Researchers have developed a CNG fuel tank, which is conformable, non-conventional and non-cylindrical. This tank increases cost efficiency, volumetric efficiency and cargo efficiency in CNG vehicle applications. A lightweight pickup truck (2015 Chevrolet Silverado) has been used to integrate the CNG tanks and field-testing has been conducted to demonstrate the application.

The report mainly focuses on the effective finite element modeling of the chassis, brackets and tanks using HYPERMESH and RADIOSS. The frontal crash ...


Applied Strength Of Materials For Engineering Technology, Barry Dupen 2017 Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne

Applied Strength Of Materials For Engineering Technology, Barry Dupen

Manufacturing and Construction Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Fatigue Crack Monitoring Under High-Cycle Fatigue Loading Using Large-Area Soft Elastomeric Capacitive Sensor, Jian Li, Xiangxiong Kong, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Simon Laflamme 2016 University of Kansas

Fatigue Crack Monitoring Under High-Cycle Fatigue Loading Using Large-Area Soft Elastomeric Capacitive Sensor, Jian Li, Xiangxiong Kong, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Simon Laflamme

Simon Laflamme

Fatigue cracks under high-cycle fatigue loading due to normal traffic are one of the major damage modes of steel bridges. Monitoring these cracks is of great importance especially for fracture-critical bridges in order to ensure safe operation by preventing catastrophic failure due to excessive damage. A newly developed soft elastomeric capacitive (SEC) sensor [1] is able to monitor strain changes over a large area of structural surface and resist large deformation due to cracking without being damaged. To examine the feasibility of monitoring fatigue cracks under high-cycle fatigue loading using the SEC sensor, a compact tension specimen is tested under ...


The Effect Of A Powered Ankle Foot Orthosis On Walking In A Stroke Subject: A Case Study, Ali Pourghasem, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Mohammad Kamali, Mohammad Jannesari, Iman Salafian 2016 Iran University of Medical Sciences

The Effect Of A Powered Ankle Foot Orthosis On Walking In A Stroke Subject: A Case Study, Ali Pourghasem, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Mohammad Kamali, Mohammad Jannesari, Iman Salafian

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

[Purpose] Standing and walking are impaired in stroke patients. Therefore, assisted devices are required to restore their walking abilities. The ankle foot orthosis with an external powered source is a new type of orthosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a powered ankle foot orthosis compared with unpowered orthoses in a stroke patient.

[Subjects and Methods] A single stroke subject participated in this study. The subject was fitted with three types of ankle foot orthosis (powered, posterior leg spring, and carbon ankle foot orthoses). He was asked to walk with and without the three types ...


Microstructure Control And Correlation To Creep Properties In Grade 91 Steel Weldment After Thermo-Mechanical Treatments And An Fe-30cr-3al Alloy Strengthened By Fe2nb Laves Phase, Benjamin Allen Shassere 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microstructure Control And Correlation To Creep Properties In Grade 91 Steel Weldment After Thermo-Mechanical Treatments And An Fe-30cr-3al Alloy Strengthened By Fe2nb Laves Phase, Benjamin Allen Shassere

Doctoral Dissertations

Type IV cracking in weldments of steel pipes after creep deformation is a concern in modern fossil-fueled power plants. Two possible methods for minimizing or eliminating Type IV cracking will be discussed. The first method alters the initial microstructure of typical Grade 91 steel base metal before welding, while the second provides baseline microstructure characteristics and creep performance of a new alloy that is strengthened by the intermetallic Fe2Nb Laves phase. The initial microstructure of the Grade 91 steel can be controlled by Thermo-Mechanical Treatments, which aids in precipitation of fine (5-10 nm) MX particles in austenite before transformation to ...


Self-Patterning Gd Nano-Fibers In Mg-Gd Alloys, Yangxin Li, Jian Wang, Kaiguo Chen, Meiyue Shao, Yao Shen, Li Jin, Guo-zhen Zhu 2016 Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Self-Patterning Gd Nano-Fibers In Mg-Gd Alloys, Yangxin Li, Jian Wang, Kaiguo Chen, Meiyue Shao, Yao Shen, Li Jin, Guo-Zhen Zhu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Manipulating the shape and distribution of strengthening units, e.g. particles, fibers, and precipitates, in a bulk metal, has been a widely applied strategy of tailoring their mechanical properties. Here, we report self-assembled patterns of Gd nano-fibers in Mg-Gd alloys for the purpose of improving their strength and deformability. 1-nm Gd nano-fibers, with a 〈c〉-rod shape, are formed and hexagonally patterned in association with Gd segregations along dislocations that nucleated during hot extrusion. Such Gd-fiber patterns are able to regulate the relative activities of slips and twinning, as a result, overcome the inherent limitations in strength and ductility of ...


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