Kasi: A Ka-Band And S-Band Cross-Track Interferometer, 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Kasi: A Ka-Band And S-Band Cross-Track Interferometer, Gerard Ruiz Carregal
A dual-frequency system is needed to better understand natural processes that constitute the environment and seasonal cycles of the Earth. A system working at two different wavelengths acquiring data simultaneously will give a valuable dataset since the conditions on the ground will be exactly the same. Hence, elements such as wind, soil moisture or any other changes on the ground will not interfere in the mea- surements. This thesis explains how an S-band radar was built and tested. Moreover, the experiments done with a Ka-band radar used as a scatterometer are explained as well as the data processing and analysis ...
Sensor Characterization And Signal Fusion For Instanteye, 2017 University of New Hampshire, Durham
Sensor Characterization And Signal Fusion For Instanteye, Wyman T. Smith
Honors Theses and Capstones
The practicality and effectiveness of using a TerraRanger Duo—a parallel sonar and infrared time-of-flight distance sensor—payload for obstacle detection is investigated for use with Physical Science Inc.’s InstantEye drone. A Python program was developed to interface with the serial data output before comparing the sensor’s empirical performance against its data sheet. The two signals from the distinct sensor modules, each with their characterized strengths and weaknesses, were then fused with a Kalman filter. This was further refined by imposing conditional weighting based on the known sensor characteristics. The filter output, with conditional corrections, was able to ...
Time Domain Sar Processing With Gpus For Airborne Platforms, 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Time Domain Sar Processing With Gpus For Airborne Platforms, Dustin Lagoy
A time-domain backprojection processor for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed at the University of Massachusetts’ Microwave Remote Sensing Lab (MIRSL). The aim of this work is to produce a SAR processor capable of addressing the motion compensation issues faced by frequency-domain processing algorithms, in order to create well focused SAR imagery suitable for interferometry. The time-domain backprojection algorithm inherently compensates for non-linear platform motion, dependent on the availability of accurate measurements of the motion. The implementation must manage the relatively high computational burden of the backprojection algorithm, which is done using modern graphics processing units (GPUs), programmed ...
Image Processing And Understanding Based On Graph Similarity Testing: Algorithm Design And Software Development, 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Image Processing And Understanding Based On Graph Similarity Testing: Algorithm Design And Software Development, Jieqi Kang
Image processing and understanding is a key task in the human visual system. Among all related topics, content based image retrieval and classification is the most typical and important problem. Successful image retrieval/classification models require an effective fundamental step of image representation and feature extraction. While traditional methods are not capable of capturing all structural information on the image, using graph to represent the image is not only biologically plausible but also has certain advantages.
Graphs have been widely used in image related applications. Traditional graph-based image analysis models include pixel-based graph-cut techniques for image segmentation, low-level and high-level ...
Topography Measurements Using An Airborne Ka-Band Fmcw Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Topography Measurements Using An Airborne Ka-Band Fmcw Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Kan Fu
Radar interferometry at millimeter-wave frequencies has the ability of topography measurement of different types of terrain, such as water surfaces and tree canopies. A Ka-band interferometric radar was mounted on an airborne platform, and flown over the Connecticut river region in western Massachusetts near Amherst on June 11, 2012. More than 20 Gigabytes of raw data was recorded. This dissertation outline presents the results of the data processing, which includes (1) the estimation and removal of the embedded high frequency phase error in the raw data; (2) the synthetic aperture processing; (3) the interferometric processing. The digital elevation model (DEM ...
Lip Detection And Adaptive Tracking, 2017 California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo
Lip Detection And Adaptive Tracking, Benjamin Wang
Master's Theses and Project Reports
Performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems utilizing only acoustic information degrades significantly in noisy environments such as a car cabins. Incorporating audio and visual information together can improve performance in these situations. This work proposes a lip detection and tracking algorithm to serve as a visual front end to an audio-visual automatic speech recognition (AVASR) system.
Several color spaces are examined that are effective for segmenting lips from skin pixels. These color components and several features are used to characterize lips and to train cascaded lip detectors. Pre- and post-processing techniques are employed to maximize detector accuracy. The trained ...
Accurate Acoustic Ranging System Using Android Smartphones, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Accurate Acoustic Ranging System Using Android Smartphones, Mohammadbagher Fotouhi
Theses and Dissertations
ACCURATE ACOUSTIC RANGING SYSTEM USING ANDROID SMARTPHONES
By Mohammadbagher Fotouhi, Master of Science
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at Virginia Commonwealth University
Virginia Commonwealth University 2017
Major Director: Dr. Ruixin Niu, Associate Professor of Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
In this thesis, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of an android ranging system, a high-accuracy acoustic-based ranging system which allows two android mobile phones to learn their physical distance from each other.
In this system we propose a practical solution for accurate ranging based on acoustic communication ...
Time-Frequency Masking Performance For Improved Intelligibility With Microphone Arrays, 2017 University of Kentucky
Time-Frequency Masking Performance For Improved Intelligibility With Microphone Arrays, Joshua P. Morgan
Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering
Time-Frequency (TF) masking is an audio processing technique useful for isolating an audio source from interfering sources. TF masking has been applied and studied in monaural and binaural applications, but has only recently been applied to distributed microphone arrays. This work focuses on evaluating the TF masking technique's ability to isolate human speech and improve speech intelligibility in an immersive "cocktail party" environment. In particular, an upper-bound on TF masking performance is established and compared to the traditional delay-sum and general sidelobe canceler (GSC) beamformers. Additionally, the novel technique of combining the GSC with TF masking is investigated and ...
Constant False Alarm Rate Performance Of Sound Source Detection With Time Delay Of Arrival Algorithm, 2017 University of Kentucky
Constant False Alarm Rate Performance Of Sound Source Detection With Time Delay Of Arrival Algorithm, Xipeng Wang
Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering
Time Delay of Arrival (TDOA) based algorithms and Steered Response Power (SRP) based algorithms are two most commonly used methods for sound source detection and localization. SRP is more robust under high reverberation and multi-target conditions, while TDOA is less computationally intensive. This thesis introduces a modified TDOA algorithm, TDOA delay table search (TDOA-DTS), that has more stable performance than the original TDOA, and requires only 4% of the SRP computation load for a 3-dimensional space of a typical room. A 2-step adaptive thresholding procedure based on a Weibull noise peak distributions for the cross-correlations and a binomial distribution for ...
Experimental Investigation Of Reading Passive Uhf Tags In A Multi-Tag Environment, 2017 University of Kentucky
Experimental Investigation Of Reading Passive Uhf Tags In A Multi-Tag Environment, Yi Zhou
Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering
Recently, the Internet of things (IoT) has emerged as a promising solution for several industrial applications. One of the key components in IoT is passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags which do not require a power source for operations. Specifically, ultra-high frequency (UHF) tags are studied in this paper. However, due to factors such as tag-to-tag interference and inaccurate localization, RFID tags that are closely spaced together are difficult to detect and program accurately with unique identifiers. This thesis investigates several factors that affect the ability to encode a specific tag with unique information in the presence of other tags ...
Constrained Channel Estimation Methods In Underwater Acoustics, 2017 University of Iowa
Constrained Channel Estimation Methods In Underwater Acoustics, Emma Hawk
University of Iowa Honors Theses
Underwater acoustic signal processing aims to reconstruct the shallow water acoustic channel from both direct arrival and delayed multipath reflections. This enables accurate acoustic communications in shallow water, such as between underwater autonomous vehicles (UAVs), which are essential for coastal surveillance and other applications. In this work, we take a previously implemented algorithm for channel estimation and apply practical constraints motivated by shallow water acoustic physics. We base our estimation constraints on the physical properties of the rapidly fluctuating reflections from the moving sea surface and rough sea bottom. Our work aims to reduce the computation time and prediction error ...
Smart Sensing Skin For Detection And Localization Of Fatigue Cracks, 2016 Iowa State University
Smart Sensing Skin For Detection And Localization Of Fatigue Cracks, Sari Kharroub, Simon Laflamme, Chunhui Song, Daji Qiao, Brent M. Phares, Jian Li
Fatigue cracks on steel components may have strong consequences on the structure's serviceability and strength. Their detection and localization is a difficult task. Existing technologies enabling structural health monitoring have a complex link signal-to-damage or have economic barriers impeding large-scale deployment. A solution is to develop sensing methods that are inexpensive, scalable, with signals that can directly relate to damage. The authors have recently proposed a smart sensing skin for structural health monitoring applications to mesosystems. The sensor is a thin film soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) that transduces strain into a measurable change in capacitance. Arranged in a network ...
Development Of An Agent-Based Distribution Test Feeder With Smart-Grid Functionality, 2016 Iowa State University
Development Of An Agent-Based Distribution Test Feeder With Smart-Grid Functionality, Pedram Jahangiri, Di Wu, Wanning Li, Dionysios C. Aliprantis, Leigh Tesfatsion
This paper reports on the development of an agent-based distribution test feeder with smart-grid functionality. The test feeder is based on an actual distribution feeder with various additional features incorporated, including rooftop photovoltaic generation and price-responsive loads (e.g., plug-in electric vehicles and intelligent air-conditioning systems). This work aims to enable the integrated study of wholesale electric power markets coupled with detailed representations of the retail-side distribution systems.
Derivation Of Locational Marginal Prices For Restructured Wholesale Power Markets, 2016 California Independent System Operator Corporation
Derivation Of Locational Marginal Prices For Restructured Wholesale Power Markets, Haifeng Liu, Leigh Tesfatsion, Ali A. Chowdhury
Although locational marginal pricing (LMP) plays an important role in many restructured wholesale power markets, the detailed derivation of LMP as it is actually used in industrial practice is not readily available. This lack of transparency greatly hinders the efforts of researchers to evaluate the performance of these markets. In this paper, different alternating current and direct current optimal power flow models are presented to help us understand the derivation of LMP. As a byproduct of this analysis, we are able to provide a rigorous explanation of the basic LMP and LMP-decomposition formulas (neglecting real power losses) that are presented ...
Disrupting Long-Range Polar Order With An Electric Field, 2016 Iowa State University
Disrupting Long-Range Polar Order With An Electric Field, Hanzheng Guo, Xiaoming Liu, Fei Xue, Long-Qing Chen, Wei Hong, Xiaoli Tan
lectric fields are known to favor long-range polar order through the aligning of electric dipoles in relation to Coulomb's force. Therefore, it would be surprising to observe a disordered polar state induced from an ordered state by electric fields. Here we show such an unusual phenomenon in a polycrystalline oxide where electric fields induce a ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition. The nonergodic relaxor phase with disordered dipoles appears as an intermediate state under electric fields during polarization reversal of the ferroelectric phase. Using the phenomenological theory, the underlying mechanism for this unexpected behavior can be attributed to the slow kinetics of ...
Data Logging System For A Synthetic Aperture Radar Unit, 2016 Kennesaw State University
Data Logging System For A Synthetic Aperture Radar Unit, Nicholas J. Testin, Philip Davis, Ian Dorell, Alexander Gillespie
Honors College Capstones and Theses
A small, existing radar unit lacked the ability to automatically store the data it was receiving, which made its use clunky and cumbersome. A system was constructed to allow an on-board microprocessor to track distance traveled, and automatically store the data output from the radar unit to a portable memory unit for later data processing. Distance traveled is determined using a specially designed mobile cart, which electronically converts the rotation of a wheel into an electrical signal while also providing stability for taking accurate radar measurements. The output data from the radar unit is stored as a properly-formatted sound file ...
A Quantitative Measure Of Mono-Componentness For Time-Frequency Analysis, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
A Quantitative Measure Of Mono-Componentness For Time-Frequency Analysis, Austin P. Albright
Joint time-frequency (TF) analysis is an ideal method for analyzing non-stationary signals, but is challenging to use leading to it often being neglected. The exceptions being the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and spectrogram. Even then, the inability to have simultaneously high time and frequency resolution is a frustrating issue with the STFT and spectrogram. However, there is a family of joint TF analysis techniques that do have simultaneously high time and frequency resolution – the quadratic TF distribution (QTFD) family. Unfortunately, QTFDs are often more troublesome than beneficial. The issue is interference/cross-terms that causes these methods to become so difficult ...
Electronic Deer Warning System, 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Electronic Deer Warning System, David Zhuo, Anlang Lu
Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are extremely dangerous, often injuring or even killing drivers. Unfortunately, this form of automotive accident is commonplace in the United States. According to the NHTSA, DVCs result in 200 human deaths a year.2
Despite these deadly incidents, there currently are no deployed federal or state systems for preventing DVCs. There are many consumer electronic deer deterrent products, but their long-term effectiveness is questionable.3 In fact, there does not appear to be much research into electronic deer deterrent systems. Aside from constant audio output and electric shock, no other means of electronic deterrent exist. Even if ...
Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization And Energy Efficiency Optimization For Mimo Cognitive Radio., 2016 University of Louisville
Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization And Energy Efficiency Optimization For Mimo Cognitive Radio., Xiaohui Zhang
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This dissertation studies two separate topics in wireless communication systems. One topic focuses on the Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization (SC-FDE), which is a promising technique to mitigate the multipath effect in the broadband wireless communication. Another topic targets on the energy efficiency optimization in a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) cognitive radio network. For SC-FDE, the conventional linear receivers suffer from the noise amplification in deep fading channel. To overcome this, a fractional spaced frequency domain (FSFD) receiver based on frequency domain oversampling (FDO) is proposed for SC-FDE to improve the performance of the linear receiver under deep fading ...
Psychophysiological Analysis Of A Pedagogical Agent And Robotic Peer For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders., 2016 University of Louisville
Psychophysiological Analysis Of A Pedagogical Agent And Robotic Peer For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders., Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by ongoing problems in social interaction and communication, and engagement in repetitive behaviors. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 in 68 children in the United States has ASD. Mounting evidence shows that many of these individuals display an interest in social interaction with computers and robots and, in general, feel comfortable spending time in such environments. It is known that the subtlety and unpredictability of people’s social behavior are intimidating and confusing for many individuals with ASD. Computerized learning environments and robots, however, prepare a ...