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Strength And Fatigue Of Three Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite Bridge Decks With Mechanical Deck To Stringer Connections, Andrew Gleason, Peter Dusicka 2012 Portland State University

Strength And Fatigue Of Three Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite Bridge Decks With Mechanical Deck To Stringer Connections, Andrew Gleason, Peter Dusicka

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Replacement of the steel grating deck on the lift span of the Morrison Bridge in Portland, OR, will utilize glass fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) panels to address ongoing maintenance issues of the deteriorated existing deck, improve driver safety and introduce bridge water runoff treatment. This report outlines the testing methods and results of an experimental program aimed primarily at evaluating a new open cell deck. While most FRP panels are connected via shear studs that are grouted within isolated pockets, the panels in this case were bolted directly to the steel stringers. Two different FRP deck options were evaluated for ...


Experimental Verification Of The Linear Relationship Between Stress And The Reciprocal Of The Peak Barkhausen Voltage In Astm A36 Steel, Orfeas Kypris, Ikenna Nlebedim, David Jiles 2012 University of Oxford

Experimental Verification Of The Linear Relationship Between Stress And The Reciprocal Of The Peak Barkhausen Voltage In Astm A36 Steel, Orfeas Kypris, Ikenna Nlebedim, David Jiles

Orfeas Kypris

This study presents an experimental validation of a model theory for determining the relationship between a nondestructive measurement parameter and a property of interest. It was found that the reciprocal of the peak envelope amplitude of the Barkhausen emission voltage follows a linear relationship with stress. A linear relationship between stress and the reciprocal of the root mean square voltage was also obtained. These observations represent an important step towards improving the use of Barkhausen signals for magnetic non-destructive evaluation of stress as a function of depth in ferromagnetic load bearing structures.


Material Characterization And Computational Simulation Of Steel Foam For Use In Structural Applications, Brooks H. Smith 2012 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Material Characterization And Computational Simulation Of Steel Foam For Use In Structural Applications, Brooks H. Smith

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Cellular metals made from aluminum, titanium, or other metals are becoming increasingly popular for use in structural components of automobiles, aircraft, and orthopaedic implants. Civil engineering applications remain largely absent, primarily due to poor understanding of the material and its structural properties. However, the material features a high stiffness to weight ratio, excellent energy dissipation, and low thermal conductivity, suggesting that it could become a highly valuable new material in structural engineering. Previous attempts to characterize the mechanical properties of steel foam have focused almost exclusively upon uniaxial compression tests, both in experimental research and in computational simulations. Further, computational ...


Vibration Reduction Of Offshore Wind Turbines Using Tuned Liquid Column Dampers, Colin Roderick 2012 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Vibration Reduction Of Offshore Wind Turbines Using Tuned Liquid Column Dampers, Colin Roderick

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Offshore wind turbines (OWTs) are becoming an accepted method for generating electricity. The environmental conditions of offshore locations often impose high wind and wave forces on OWTs making them susceptible to intense loading and undesirable vibrations. One method to reduce system vibrations is through the use of structural control devices typically utilized in civil structures. Tuned liquid column dampers (TLCDs) show great promise in the application to OWTs due to their high performance and low cost. This thesis examines the use of TLCDs in OWTs.

Equations of motion for limited degree-of-freedom TLCD-turbine models are presented. A baseline analysis of each ...


Interfacial Strength Between Prestressed Hollow Core Slabs And Cast-In-Place Concrete Toppings, Ryan M. Mones 2012 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Interfacial Strength Between Prestressed Hollow Core Slabs And Cast-In-Place Concrete Toppings, Ryan M. Mones

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The horizontal shear strength of the interface between prestressed concrete hollow core slabs and cast-in-place concrete topping slabs was evaluated through a set of 24 push-off experiments. The push-off test specimens featured segments of dry-mix and wet-mix hollow core slabs with a variety of surface treatments including machine finished, sandblasted, broom roughened, rake roughened and grouted. A cast-in-place slab was poured on top of the hollow core specimens to form a 15 inch by 15 inch interface between the two materials. Results indicate the average horizontal shear strength of the push-off specimens was 227 psi. Higher shear strength and slip ...


Probabilistic Analysis Of Offshore Wind Turbine Soil-Structure Interaction, Wystan Carswell 2012 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Probabilistic Analysis Of Offshore Wind Turbine Soil-Structure Interaction, Wystan Carswell

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

A literature review of current design and analysis methods for offshore wind turbine (OWT) foundations is presented, focusing primarily on the monopile foundation. Laterally loaded monopile foundations are typically designed using the American Petroleum Institute (API) p-y method for offshore oil platforms, which presents several issues when extended to OWTs, mostly with respect to the large pile diameters required and the effect of cyclic loading from wind and waves. Although remedies have been proposed, none have been incorporated into current design standards. Foundations must be uniquely designed for each wind farm due to extreme dependence on site characteristics. The uncertainty ...


Load Reduction Of Floating Wind Turbines Using Tuned Mass Dampers, Gordon M. Stewart 2012 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Load Reduction Of Floating Wind Turbines Using Tuned Mass Dampers, Gordon M. Stewart

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Offshore wind turbines have the potential to be an important part of the United States' energy production profile in the coming years. In order to accomplish this wind integration, offshore wind turbines need to be made more reliable and cost efficient to be competitive with other sources of energy. To capitalize on high speed and high quality winds over deep water, floating platforms for offshore wind turbines have been developed, but they suffer from greatly increased loading. One method to reduce loads in offshore wind turbines is the application of structural control techniques usually used in skyscrapers and bridges. Tuned ...


Lane Changing Control To Reduce Traffic Load Effect On Long-Span Bridges, Colin C. Caprani, Bernard Enright, Colm Carey 2012 Dublin Institute of Technology

Lane Changing Control To Reduce Traffic Load Effect On Long-Span Bridges, Colin C. Caprani, Bernard Enright, Colm Carey

Conference papers

Long span bridges are critical parts of a nation’s infrastructure network and congested traffic loading is the governing form of traffic loading. Groups of trucks travelling in conveys are created when fast-er moving vehicles, such as cars, change lane. In this research the authors investigate how the control of these lane-changing events can help reduce the traffic load effects on long span bridges. Real traffic data is used to simulate a traffic stream on a virtual road and bridge using a microsimulation model. Various lane-changing restrictions are examined and compared to the typical case of free lane changing. It ...


The Effect Of Lane Changing On Long-Span Highway Bridge Traffic Loading, Bernard Enright, Colm Carey, Colin C. Caprani 2012 Dublin Institute of Technology

The Effect Of Lane Changing On Long-Span Highway Bridge Traffic Loading, Bernard Enright, Colm Carey, Colin C. Caprani

Conference papers

Maximum loading on long-span bridges typically occurs in congested traffic conditions. As traffic becomes congested car drivers may change lane, increasing the tendency for trucks to travel in platoons. For long-span bridges this phenomenon may increase the regularity and severity of bridge repair programs, with potential significant associated costs. This research investigates the effect of lane changing by car drivers on bridge loading. A Monte Carlo simulation model in which individual car drivers probabilistically decide, based on a lane-changing bias probability, whether or not to change lane has been developed. The sensitivity of bridge loading to this factor is investigated ...


Probabilistic Study Of Lifetime Load Effect Distribution Of Bridges, Donya Hajializadeh, Eugene J. OBrien, Bernard Enright, Colin C. Caprani, Emma Sheils, Simon Wilson 2012 University College Dublin

Probabilistic Study Of Lifetime Load Effect Distribution Of Bridges, Donya Hajializadeh, Eugene J. Obrien, Bernard Enright, Colin C. Caprani, Emma Sheils, Simon Wilson

Conference papers

Assessment of highway bridge safety requires a prediction of the probability of occurrence of extreme load effects during the remaining life of the structure. While the assessment of the strength of an existing bridge is relatively well understood, the traffic loading it is subject to, has received less attention in the literature. The recorded traffic data are often limited to a number of days or weeks due to the cost of data collection. Studies in the literature have used many different methods to predict the lifetime maximum bridge load effect using a small amount of data, including fitting block maximum ...


Portable Bridge Wim Data Collection Strategy For Secondary Roads, Bernard Enright, Cathal Leahy, Eugene J. OBrien, Jennifer Keenahan 2012 Dublin Institute of Technology

Portable Bridge Wim Data Collection Strategy For Secondary Roads, Bernard Enright, Cathal Leahy, Eugene J. Obrien, Jennifer Keenahan

Conference papers

A common method of collecting traffic loading data across a large road network is to use a network of permanent pavement-based WIM systems. An alternative is to use one or more portable Bridge Weigh-In-Motion systems which are moved periodically between bridges on the network. To make optimum use of such a system, a suitable data collection strategy is needed to choose locations for the system. This paper describes a number of possible strategies which the authors have investigated for the National Roads Authority in Ireland. The different strategies are examined and their advantages and disadvantages compared. Their effectiveness at detecting ...


The Effect Of Clusters Within Crowds Of Pedestrians On The Vertical Response Of A Flexible Footbridge, Joe Keogh, Colin C. Caprani, Paul Archbold, Paul Fanning 2012 Dublin Institute of Technology

The Effect Of Clusters Within Crowds Of Pedestrians On The Vertical Response Of A Flexible Footbridge, Joe Keogh, Colin C. Caprani, Paul Archbold, Paul Fanning

Conference papers

The issue of excessive vibrations of footbridges due to the passage of pedestrians has been well documented in the past decade. Despite this there still remains great uncertainty as to how to predict the acceleration response of a footbridge due to crowd loading. This paper investigates the vibration response of a flexible footbridge subjected to crowd loading. Using a statistical model which caters for the variability of pedestrians, the vibration response of the footbridge is obtained. In this work, the effect of social groups or clusters of pedestrians in a crowd is investigated. Herein a cluster is defined as two ...


The Response Of A Footbridge To Pedestrians Carrying Additional Mass, Darragh O'Sullivan, Colin Caprani, Joe Keogh 2012 Dublin Institute of Technology

The Response Of A Footbridge To Pedestrians Carrying Additional Mass, Darragh O'Sullivan, Colin Caprani, Joe Keogh

Conference papers

Footbridges with low natural frequency are susceptible to excessive vibration serviceability problems if the pedestrian pacing frequency matches the bridge natural frequency. Much research has been done into describing the response of a footbridge to single pedestrian loading. However, many pedestrians carry additional mass such as shopping bags and backpacks, and this has generally not been accounted for in previous research. This work examines this problem using an experimental bridge excited with many single pedestrian events, both with and without additional mass. The vertical acceleration response is measured and compared to moving force, moving mass, and moving spring-mass-damper models. The ...


Reliability Analysis Of Footbridge Serviceability Considering Crowd Loading, Joe Keogh, Colin C. Caprani, Paul Archbold, Paul Fanning 2012 Dublin Institute of Technology

Reliability Analysis Of Footbridge Serviceability Considering Crowd Loading, Joe Keogh, Colin C. Caprani, Paul Archbold, Paul Fanning

Conference papers

The characteristic vertical response of flexible footbridges subjected to single pedestrian and crowd loading is examined in this paper. Typically, bridge vibrations produced from a crowd of pedestrians are estimated by using an enhancement factor applied to the effect caused by a single pedestrian. In this paper a moving force model is used in Monte Carlo simulations of a non-homogeneous sample of single pedestrians and crowds to estimate characteristic vertical vibration levels. Also in this work, statistical distributions of the bridge parameters are considered, these include flexural rigidity, mass and rotational stiffness at the supports. It was previously proven by ...


Vertical Response Of A Footbridge Subjected To Stocastic Crowd Loading, Joe Keogh 2012 Athlone Institute of Technology

Vertical Response Of A Footbridge Subjected To Stocastic Crowd Loading, Joe Keogh

Conference papers

No abstract provided.


Nonlinear Response Of Structures To Characteristic Loading Scenarios, Donya Hajializadeh, Eugene J. OBrien, Bernard Enright, Emma Sheils 2012 University College Dublin

Nonlinear Response Of Structures To Characteristic Loading Scenarios, Donya Hajializadeh, Eugene J. Obrien, Bernard Enright, Emma Sheils

Conference papers

To assess the safety of an existing bridge, the traffic loads to which it may be subjected in its lifetime need to be accurately quantified. In this paper the 75 year characteristic maximum traffic load effects are found using a carefully calibrated traffic load simulation model. To generate the bridge loading scenarios, an extensive weigh in motion (WIM) database, from three different European countries, is used. Statistical distributions for vehicle weights, inter-vehicle gaps and other characteristics are derived from the measurements, and are used as the basis for Monte Carlo simulations of traffic representing many years. An advantage of this ...


Monte Carlo Simulation Of Extreme Traffic Loading On Short And Medium Span Bridges, Bernard Enright, Eugene J. OBrien 2012 Dublin Institute of Technology

Monte Carlo Simulation Of Extreme Traffic Loading On Short And Medium Span Bridges, Bernard Enright, Eugene J. Obrien

Articles

The accurate estimation of site-specific lifetime extreme traffic load effects is an important element in the cost-effective assessment of bridges. A common approach is to use statistical distributions derived from weigh-in-motion measurements as the basis for Monte Carlo simulation of traffic loading. However, results are highly sensitive to the assumptions made, not just with regard to vehicle weights but also to axle configurations and gaps between vehicles. This paper presents a comprehensive model for Monte Carlo simulation of bridge loading for free-flowing traffic, and shows how the model matches results from measurements on five European highways. The model has been ...


New Technologies In Short Span Bridges: A Study Of Three Innovative Systems, Andrew Lahovich 2012 University of Massachusetts Amherst

New Technologies In Short Span Bridges: A Study Of Three Innovative Systems, Andrew Lahovich

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Short span bridges are commonly used throughout the United States to span small waterways and highway overpasses. New technologies in the civil engineering industry have aided in the creation of many unique designs of these short span highway bridges in efforts to decrease construction cost, decrease maintenance costs, increase efficiency, increase constructability, and increase safety. Three innovative systems, the Integral Abutment Bridge, “Bridge-in-a-Backpack”, and the Folded Plate Girder bridge will be analyzed to study how the bridges behave under various types of loading.

Detailed finite element models were created for integral abutment bridges of varying geometry. These models are used ...


Estimating Characteristic Bridge Loads On A Non-Primary Road Network, Eugene J. OBrien, Bernard Enright, Brendan Williams, Cathal Leahy 2012 University College Dublin

Estimating Characteristic Bridge Loads On A Non-Primary Road Network, Eugene J. Obrien, Bernard Enright, Brendan Williams, Cathal Leahy

Conference papers

When collecting truck loading data on a primary road network a common approach is to install a large network of permanent pavement-based Weigh-In-Motion systems. An alternative to this approach would be to use one or more portable Bridge Weigh-In-Motion systems which could be moved between bridges at regular intervals to determine the traffic loading throughout the network. A data collection strategy is needed to put such a system to best use. This paper details the data collection strategies which were examined for the National Roads Authority in Ireland. The use of urban economic concepts including Central Place Theory are discussed ...


Estimation Of Lifetime Maximum Distributions Of Bridge Traffic Load Effects, Eugene J. OBrien, Donya Hajializadeh, Emma Sheils, Bernard Enright 2012 University College Dublin

Estimation Of Lifetime Maximum Distributions Of Bridge Traffic Load Effects, Eugene J. Obrien, Donya Hajializadeh, Emma Sheils, Bernard Enright

Conference papers

This paper considers the problem of assessing traffic loading on road bridges. A database of European WIM data is used to determine accurate annual maximum distributions of load effect. These in turn are used to find the probability of failure for a number of load effects. Using the probability of failure as the benchmark, traditional measures of safety – factor of safety and reliability index – are reviewed. Both are found to give inconsistent results, i.e., a given factor of safety or reliability index actually corresponds to a range of different probabilities of failure.


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