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Analytical Content Vulnerability Assessment Methodology For Earthquake Catastrophe Models, Keivan Rokneddin, Amir Safiey, Mohammad Javanbarg, Vijay Manghnani, Weichiang Pang 2019 AIG

Analytical Content Vulnerability Assessment Methodology For Earthquake Catastrophe Models, Keivan Rokneddin, Amir Safiey, Mohammad Javanbarg, Vijay Manghnani, Weichiang Pang

Amir Safiey

The scarcity of detailed claims data for building contents (Coverage C) from historical earthquake events poses a significant challenge for property insurance catastrophe models to reliably estimate the losses associated to building contents. To develop content vulnerability functions empirically, one would need to have access to data from a multitude of historical events; however, loss disaggregation by coverage is rarely reported even when claims data become available from recent significant events such as Maule (2010) and Tohoku (2011). While damage to the building structure (Coverage A) can be estimated analytically using simulation-based fragility functions to amend sparse historical observations, the ...


Development Of Earthquake Vulnerability Functions And Risk Curves For Low And Mid-Rise Hotel Buildings Using A Performance-Based Loss Estimation Framework, Amir Safiey, Weichiang Pang, Mohammad Javanbarg, Keivan Rokneddin, Ershad Ziaei 2019 Clemson University

Development Of Earthquake Vulnerability Functions And Risk Curves For Low And Mid-Rise Hotel Buildings Using A Performance-Based Loss Estimation Framework, Amir Safiey, Weichiang Pang, Mohammad Javanbarg, Keivan Rokneddin, Ershad Ziaei

Amir Safiey

The concept of performance-based earthquake engineering has gained significant attentions in both the research and engineering communities. The development of a performance-based seismic loss assessment framework, known as the FEMA P-58 method, allows one to estimate the potential financial losses of a building using performance-based engineering method. This research employs a seismic loss estimation framework derived using the P-58 method to estimate the monetary loss of a mid-rise wood-frame hotel building which is assumed to be located in Napa Valley, California. A 3D structural model representative of the dynamic behavior of the wood-frame hotel was created and subjected to Incremental ...


Adhesion Of Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbides (Mxenes) And Graphene To Silicon, Yanxiao Li, Shuohan Huang, Congjie Wei, Chenglin Bob Wu, Vadym Mochalin 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Adhesion Of Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbides (Mxenes) And Graphene To Silicon, Yanxiao Li, Shuohan Huang, Congjie Wei, Chenglin Bob Wu, Vadym Mochalin

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Two-dimensional transition metal carbides (MXenes) have attracted a great interest of the research community as a relatively recently discovered large class of materials with unique electronic and optical properties. Understanding of adhesion between MXenes and various substrates is critically important for MXene device fabrication and performance. We report results of direct atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of adhesion of two MXenes (Ti3C2Tx and Ti2CTx) with a SiO2 coated Si spherical tip. The Maugis-Dugdale theory was applied to convert the AFM measured adhesion force to adhesion energy, while taking into account surface ...


Features Of Designing The Architecture Of Intelligent Transport Systems, Jaffar Daeibal, Vyacheslav Lapshin, Dmitry Elkin, Sergey A. Kucherov 2019 Southern Federal University

Features Of Designing The Architecture Of Intelligent Transport Systems, Jaffar Daeibal, Vyacheslav Lapshin, Dmitry Elkin, Sergey A. Kucherov

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

In the global experience, intelligent transport systems (ITS) are recognized as a general transport ideology for integrating the achievements of telematics in all types of transport activities to solve economic and social problems: reducing accidents, improving the efficiency of public transport and cargo transportation, ensuring overall transport security, and improving environmental performance. Considering the design features of the intelligent transport system (ITS), there is a need to develop requirements for the functional and physical architecture as the main part of the ITS development. The creation of functional and physical architecture touches upon issues such as: the scheme of interaction between ...


Quantifying Repeatability Reproducibility Sources Of Error And Capacity Of A Measurement: Demonstrated Using Laboratory Soil Plasticity Tests, Cheng Li, Jeramy C. Ashlock, Xuhao Wang 2019 Chang’an University

Quantifying Repeatability Reproducibility Sources Of Error And Capacity Of A Measurement: Demonstrated Using Laboratory Soil Plasticity Tests, Cheng Li, Jeramy C. Ashlock, Xuhao Wang

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

The repeatability, reproducibility, and sources of error inherent in a given measurement are important considerations for potential users. To quantify errors arising from a single operator or multiple laboratories, most testing standards uses a one-way analysis of variance- (ANOVA-) based method, which utilizes a simple standard deviation across all measurements. However, this method does not allow users to quantify the sources of error and capacity (i.e., the precision to tolerance ratio). In this study, an innovative two-way ANOVA-based analysis method is selected to quantify the relative contributions of different sources of error and determine whether a measurement can be ...


Twenty-Three Unsolved Problems In Hydrology (Uph) – A Community Perspective, Günter Blöschl, Marc F.P. Bierkens, Antonio Chambel, Christophe Cudennec, Georgia Destouni, Aldo Fiori, James W. Kirchner, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, Hubert H.G. Savenije, Murugesu Sivapalan, Christine Stumpp, Elena Toth, Elena Volpi, Gemma Carr, David G. Tarboton, et. al 2019 Vienna University of Technology

Twenty-Three Unsolved Problems In Hydrology (Uph) – A Community Perspective, Günter Blöschl, Marc F.P. Bierkens, Antonio Chambel, Christophe Cudennec, Georgia Destouni, Aldo Fiori, James W. Kirchner, Jeffrey J. Mcdonnell, Hubert H.G. Savenije, Murugesu Sivapalan, Christine Stumpp, Elena Toth, Elena Volpi, Gemma Carr, David G. Tarboton, Et. Al

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused ...


Sodium-Ion Concentration Flow Cell Stacks For Salinity Gradient Energy Recovery: Power Generation Of Series And Parallel Configurations, Elizabeth Whiddon 2019 Louisiana State University

Sodium-Ion Concentration Flow Cell Stacks For Salinity Gradient Energy Recovery: Power Generation Of Series And Parallel Configurations, Elizabeth Whiddon

LSU Master's Theses

Salinity gradient (SG) energy is a renewable and clean energy resource that exists worldwide from the change in Gibbs free energy when two solutions with different salinities are mixed. More recently, concentration flow cells (CFCs) have been introduced as a new technology for SG energy recovery with the highest reported power density output to date, as a result of the utilization of both the electrode potential and Donnan potential. In this study, multiple CFCs were connected to form a consecutive number of stacks, and systematic analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of both parallel and series electrical wire connections ...


Reliability Of Corroding Reinforced Concrete Structures, Travis Honore 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Reliability Of Corroding Reinforced Concrete Structures, Travis Honore

LSU Master's Theses

The enhanced performance due to the addition of steel within concrete elements has thrust reinforced concrete structures to be one of the most commonly used construction materials in the world. Reinforced concrete structures are exposed to a variety of deterioration mechanisms during their operational existence, each of which contributes to reducing their service life, durability, and load bearing capacity. The longevity of these reinforced concrete structures is strongly connected to degradation processes, whose origin is environmental and/or functional. Among these processes is the initiation and evolution of corrosion on the steel reinforcement. Steel reinforcement has direct effects on the ...


Enhancing The Efficiency Of Electrokinetic Remediation Through The Use Of Complexing Agents, Timothy Driscoll 2019 Montana Tech

Enhancing The Efficiency Of Electrokinetic Remediation Through The Use Of Complexing Agents, Timothy Driscoll

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Electrokinetic remediation was accessed as a viable remediation technology for heavy metal contamination modeled after contamination present in Butte, MT caused by over a century of hard rock mining. The remediation technology was assessed at a laboratory scale using copper sulfate (CuSO4) as a model compound of mine tailing contamination, and an artificial soil to control for variables outside the scope of work. This thesis designed a laboratory scale experiment that produced consistent results and could be easily repeated. The system design also included a method for managing the waste material produced during experiments. Following the experimental design, this ...


Application Of Photothermal Floats For Mine Water Disposal, Ross Monasmith 2019 Montana Tech

Application Of Photothermal Floats For Mine Water Disposal, Ross Monasmith

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Photothermal materials can efficiently translate incoming solar radiation into water evaporation. The application of photothermal materials to enhance evaporative water disposal may be limited by material durability, scale formation, and interactions between the photothermal materials and variable water chemistries. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was chosen as a photothermal material based on previous results (Monasmith et al. 2019, pending review). Using a custom-built bench-scale evaporation platform, evaporation trials were performed to determine the effect of water quality, GAC grain sizes, and float adhesives on water evaporation rates. Adhesives to attach the GAC to HDPE floats were tested for bond strength and ...


Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach For Lagrangian Control: Improving Freeway Bottleneck Throughput Via Variable Speed Limit, Reza Vatani Nezafat 2019 Old Dominion University

Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach For Lagrangian Control: Improving Freeway Bottleneck Throughput Via Variable Speed Limit, Reza Vatani Nezafat

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Connected vehicles (CVs) will enable new applications to improve traffic flow. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate how reinforcement learning (RL) control for the variable speed limit (VSL) through CVs can be generalized to improve traffic flow at different freeway bottlenecks. Three different bottlenecks are investigated: A sag curve, where the gradient changes from negative to positive values causes a reduction in the roadway capacity and congestion; a lane reduction, where three lanes merge to two lanes and cause congestion, and finally, an on-ramp, where increase in demand on a multilane freeway causes capacity drop. An RL algorithm ...


Rapid Repair Of Bridge Decks In Cold Weather, Abheetha Peiris, Issam E. Harik 2019 University of Kentucky

Rapid Repair Of Bridge Decks In Cold Weather, Abheetha Peiris, Issam E. Harik

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Using regular concrete or mortar to repair potholes in concrete bridge decks is typically infeasible in cold weather due to extended set and curing times. However, several commercially available rapid-set repair materials can be used at temperatures near or below freezing. This study evaluated five such materials to assess their properties and determine which are most suited to executing pothole repairs in cold weather. For each material, laboratory testing evaluated set times, compressive strength gains, and bond strength to existing concrete at three temperatures: 35°F, 15°F, and 0°F (1.7°C, -9.4°C, and -17.8 ...


Developing Algorithms To Detect Incidents On Freeways From Loop Detector And Vehicle Re-Identification Data, Biraj Adhikari 2019 Old Dominion University

Developing Algorithms To Detect Incidents On Freeways From Loop Detector And Vehicle Re-Identification Data, Biraj Adhikari

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

A new approach for testing incident detection algorithms has been developed and is presented in this thesis. Two new algorithms were developed and tested taking California #7, which is the most widely used algorithm to date, and SVM (Support Vector Machine), which is considered one of the best performing classifiers, as the baseline for comparisons. Algorithm #B in this study uses data from Vehicle Re-Identification whereas the other three algorithms (California #7, SVM and Algorithm #A) use data from a double loop detector for detection of an incident. A microscopic traffic simulator is used for modeling three types of incident ...


Sustainability Assessment Of U.S. Beef Processing And Its Antimicrobial Systems, Shaobin Li 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sustainability Assessment Of U.S. Beef Processing And Its Antimicrobial Systems, Shaobin Li

Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

With the increasing meat demand and awareness of sustainability, concerns have been raised regarding the sustainability of beef production and processing. However, scarce data and inadequate sustainability assessment frameworks for the U.S. beef processing industry limit the ability to develop new technologies and policies comprehensively without shifting sustainability burdens. To fill those gaps, various assessments of the U.S. beef processing industry were conducted from multiple perspectives regarding the environmental, economic, microbial effectiveness of its antimicrobial systems, and human health impacts from foodborne illness, occupational hazards, and environmental pollution.

First, process-level water and energy usage at a typical large-size ...


Truss Bridge Rehabilitation Prioritization, Abheetha Peiris, Issam E. Harik 2019 University of Kentucky

Truss Bridge Rehabilitation Prioritization, Abheetha Peiris, Issam E. Harik

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Kentucky’s inventory of historic steel truss bridges is declining rapidly. There are more than 150 historic truss bridges in the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet’s (KYTC) bridge inventory. Most of these bridges require maintenance to avoid replacement. However, prioritizing the rehabilitation of these bridges based on their historic importance is challenging. While AASHTO’s Guidelines for Historic Bridge Rehabilitation and Replacement contain guidance on selecting bridges for preservation, currently there is no guidance on how to prioritize those historic bridges selected for rehabilitation. Building on a previous study that identified historic truss bridges in Kentucky meriting preservation, the Kentucky Transportation ...


Microbial Transport As Affected By Residue Cover And Manure Application Rate, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, Dave B. Marx, Chance A. Thayer, Brian L. Woodbury 2019 USDA, ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Microbial Transport As Affected By Residue Cover And Manure Application Rate, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, Dave B. Marx, Chance A. Thayer, Brian L. Woodbury

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Manure is applied to cropland areas with varying surface cover to meet single- or multiple-year crop nutrient requirements. The objectives of this field study were to (1) examine microbial transport following land application of manure to sites with and without wheat residue, (2) compare microbial loads following land application to meet the 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8-year P-based requirements for corn, and (3) evaluate the effects of rainfall simulation run on microbial transport. Manure was added and incorporated by disking plots that were 0.75 m wide by 2.0 m long. Three 30 min simulated rainfall events, separated ...


Use Of Automated Machine Guidance Within The Transportation Industry, David J. White, Charles T. Jahren, Pavana Vennapusa, Caroline Westort, Ahmad A. Alhasan, Yelda Turkan, Fangyu Guo, John Hannon, Adam Dubree, Tulio Sulbaran 2019 Iowa State University

Use Of Automated Machine Guidance Within The Transportation Industry, David J. White, Charles T. Jahren, Pavana Vennapusa, Caroline Westort, Ahmad A. Alhasan, Yelda Turkan, Fangyu Guo, John Hannon, Adam Dubree, Tulio Sulbaran

Caroline Westort

Automated machine guidance (AMG) links sophisticated design software with construction equipment to direct the operations of construction machinery with a high level of precision, and improve the speed and accuracy of the construction process. AMG technology has the potential to improve the overall quality, safety, and efficiency of transportation project construction. This research project was undertaken to study AMG implementation barriers and develop strategies for effective implementation of AMG technology in construction operations. Early in the research effort, an expert contact group was established to obtain perspectives from agencies, contractors, designers, and equipment manufacturers. An AMG workshop was conducted to ...


Valuation Of Flexibility And Investment Timing In Airport Infrastructure Projects: Cases In Airport Expansions And Alternate Design Alternate Bid Bidding, Ilker Karaca 2019 Iowa State University

Valuation Of Flexibility And Investment Timing In Airport Infrastructure Projects: Cases In Airport Expansions And Alternate Design Alternate Bid Bidding, Ilker Karaca

Ilker Karaca

Many large infrastructure projects are subject to considerable uncertainty over their revenue streams which makes their valuations particularly challenging. When project scalability can be altered as new information is revealed over the course of a project’s lifecycle, the presence of uncertainty can, in fact, provide option values that are ignored with static Net Present Value (NPV) analyses. To achieve these benefits, however, a better understanding of volatility is of the essence. This dissertation seeks to demonstrate how a better understanding of the business risks could facilitate the valuation of flexibility options in investment timing and engineering design. It also ...


High‑Throughput Analysis Of Leaf Physiological And Chemical Traits With Vis–Nir–Swir Spectroscopy: A Case Study With A Maize Diversity Panel, Yufeng Ge, Abbas Atefi, Huichun Zhang, Chenyong Miao, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Brandi Sigmon, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

High‑Throughput Analysis Of Leaf Physiological And Chemical Traits With Vis–Nir–Swir Spectroscopy: A Case Study With A Maize Diversity Panel, Yufeng Ge, Abbas Atefi, Huichun Zhang, Chenyong Miao, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Brandi Sigmon, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Hyperspectral reflectance data in the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared range (VIS–NIR– SWIR, 400–2500 nm) are commonly used to nondestructively measure plant leaf properties. We investigated the usefulness of VIS–NIR–SWIR as a high-throughput tool to measure six leaf properties of maize plants including chlorophyll content (CHL), leaf water content (LWC), specific leaf area (SLA), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). This assessment was performed using the lines of the maize diversity panel. Data were collected from plants grown in greenhouse condition, as well as in the field under two nitrogen application regimes. Leaf-level hyperspectral ...


Housing Recovery Through Social Capital: Puerto Rico After Hurricane Maria, Jessica Talbot, Cristina Poleacovschi, Sara Hamideh, Carlos S. Rivera 2019 Iowa State University

Housing Recovery Through Social Capital: Puerto Rico After Hurricane Maria, Jessica Talbot, Cristina Poleacovschi, Sara Hamideh, Carlos S. Rivera

Community and Regional Planning Proceedings, Papers, and Posters

Puerto Rico was devastated by Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017. Due to a delayed and insufficient official response from the local and federal governments and other aid agencies, the effects are still crippling more than a year after the event. When official response networks failed, communities often engaged in informal reconstruction processes to facilitate their recovery. This research seeks to explain why certain communities were effective in reconstructing on their own and uses social capital theory as the theoretical framework. This study was conducted in four municipalities in Puerto Rico (Adjuntas, Barranquitas, Loíza, and Utuado). A mixed methods approach ...


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