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1,452 full-text articles. Page 6 of 58.

The Economics Of Agricultural Water Productivity In The Blue Nile, Imeshi Weerasinghe, James Booker, Wim Bastiaanssen, Lisa-Marie Rebelo, Ann van Griensven 2016 Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)

The Economics Of Agricultural Water Productivity In The Blue Nile, Imeshi Weerasinghe, James Booker, Wim Bastiaanssen, Lisa-Marie Rebelo, Ann Van Griensven

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

Agricultural Water Productivity (AWP) is often simplified as the ‘crop per drop’, described as the output in terms of yield or biomass per unit of water input. This purely physical measure of Water Productivity (WP) using only a single factor input (water) does not consider: (1) the level of other inputs used in conjunction with water, (2) the opportunity cost of water as an input, (3) the value of the output and (4) the costs of production for different crops. This study presents a justification and methodology for incorporating these factors into WP indicators. The application of these extensions to ...


E3.Pt – An E3 Portabledyme Model For Portugal, Anett Großmann, Frank Hohmann 2016 Institute of Economic Structure Research (GWS)

E3.Pt – An E3 Portabledyme Model For Portugal, Anett Großmann, Frank Hohmann

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

E3 models are environmentally extended economic models. They are extensively used for impact assessment of energy, climate and resource policies at national and international level. E3 models have proven to be suitable tools for quantifying effects on the economy, environment and energy system. Usually, the structure and documentation of such models are only accessible by the model builders. They are facing the allegation to be a "black box" meaning that only their creators are able to operate and fully understand the model system. Decision makers are often only engaged at the end of the model building process to discuss the ...


Sectorization Of Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based On Graph Theory And Clustering Techniques, Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza, David Ayala-Cabrera, Joaquín Izquierdo, Enrique Campbell, Rafael Pérez-García 2016 FluIng-IMM Universitat Politècnica de València

Sectorization Of Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based On Graph Theory And Clustering Techniques, Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza, David Ayala-Cabrera, Joaquín Izquierdo, Enrique Campbell, Rafael Pérez-García

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

Intermittent water supply is the form of access to water in many countries around the world. It is very common that design, operation, maintenance and, in general, decision-making in these systems are performed using tools originally developed for systems with continuous supply, which are not adequate. However, these tools can be reasonably applied to network sectorization of intermittent supply networks. We propose a sectorization methodology for networks that do not have the possibility of working with continuous supply. In addition, to ensure sufficient pressure, sector design must guarantee equity in the supply. Furthermore, it is not enough to establish sector ...


A Framework For Decision-Making In Cases Of Invasive Species, Peter A. Khaiter, Marina G. Erechtchoukova, Sina Roushan 2016 York University

A Framework For Decision-Making In Cases Of Invasive Species, Peter A. Khaiter, Marina G. Erechtchoukova, Sina Roushan

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

Invasion of nonindigenous species is one of the most pressing global challenges, causing substantial environmental, economic and social harm. Invasion of alien species alters the composition, structure and functioning of invaded ecosystems as well as the services they generated before the invasion. Decisions about the management of invasive cases are inherently difficult because of the multifactorial and multiattribute scope of the problem. In particular, the resilience limits of invaded ecosystems to fully recover original, pre-invaded states remain unclear. To facilitate management efforts, decision-makers and environmental practitioners require a framework integrating relevant knowledge and acting as a supporting expert system. The ...


A Markov Decision Process Model To Compare Ecosystem Services Provided By Agricultural Landscapes, Sabrina Gaba, Nathalie Peyrard, Régis Sabbadin, Julia Radoszyckic 2016 INRA-UMR Agroécologie

A Markov Decision Process Model To Compare Ecosystem Services Provided By Agricultural Landscapes, Sabrina Gaba, Nathalie Peyrard, Régis Sabbadin, Julia Radoszyckic

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

One current challenge in managing agricultural landscapes, is to reach a trade-off between provision of food and biodiversity conservation. Two extreme land-use strategies, land sharing and land sparing, are often discussed. The design of decision rules for allocating crops and lands for biodiversity conservation (e.g. grasslands) can be formalized as an optimization problem. However the target to optimize, representing the trade-off between ecosystem services (ES) can be complex to model since ES are usually not defined on comparable scales and may rely on different sides of biodiversity. Here, we will investigate how landscape composition and structure affect the magnitude ...


A Mathematical Model For Ghg From Sb-Mbr: Calibration By An Innovative Protocol, Giorgio Mannina, Alida Cosenza 2016 Universita di Palermo

A Mathematical Model For Ghg From Sb-Mbr: Calibration By An Innovative Protocol, Giorgio Mannina, Alida Cosenza

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

A mathematical model to quantify greenhouse gases (GHG) (carbon dioxide, CO2 and nitrous oxide, N2O) for a membrane bioreactor (MBR) is presented. The model has been applied to a pilot plant with a pre-denitrification MBR scheme. The pilot plant was cyclically filled with real saline wastewater according to the fill-draw-batch operation. The model was calibrated by adopting a specific protocol based on extensive field dataset. Standardised Regression Coefficient (SRC) method was adopted to select the most influential model factors to be calibrated. Results related to SRC method show that among the important model factors a key role ...


Cool Farm Tool (Cft) Water: Novel Tool For Water Resource Assessment On Field Scale, Benjamin Kayatz, Gabriele Baroni, Benjamin Kuster, Stefan Lüdtke, Daniella Malin, Richard Heathcote, Carl von Tonder, Martin Wattenbach 2016 German Research Centre for Geosciences

Cool Farm Tool (Cft) Water: Novel Tool For Water Resource Assessment On Field Scale, Benjamin Kayatz, Gabriele Baroni, Benjamin Kuster, Stefan Lüdtke, Daniella Malin, Richard Heathcote, Carl Von Tonder, Martin Wattenbach

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

At the global scale over 70 % of all fresh water used is consumed by the agricultural sector. For this reason a sustainable water management at the basin level often requires the assessment of water that is used for crop production. In this context, the characterization of green and blue water footprint showed to be a useful and efficient approach to support analysis and decisions.

However determining the water footprint is cumbersome and often linked to additional data acquisition efforts. Furthermore the water footprint is often not revealing the basin impact of crop production. To overcome these limitations we developed CFTwater ...


Metadata For Describing Water Models, Mohamed M. Morsy, Jonathan L. Goodall, Christina Bandaragoda, Anthony M. Castronova, Jane Greenberg 2016 University of Virginia

Metadata For Describing Water Models, Mohamed M. Morsy, Jonathan L. Goodall, Christina Bandaragoda, Anthony M. Castronova, Jane Greenberg

Anthony Castronova

Computer models are widely used in hydrology and water resources management. A large variety of models exist, each tailored to address specific challenges related to hydrologic science and water resources management. When scientists and engineers apply one of these models to address a specific question, they must devote significant effort to set up, calibrate, and evaluate that model instance built for some place and time. In many cases, there is a benefit to sharing these computer models and associated datasets with the broader scientific community. Core to model reuse in any context is metadata describing the model. A standardized metadata ...


Metadata For Describing Water Models, Mohamed M. Morsy, Jonathan L. Goodall, Christina Bandaragoda, Anthony M. Castronova, Jane Greenberg 2016 University of Virginia

Metadata For Describing Water Models, Mohamed M. Morsy, Jonathan L. Goodall, Christina Bandaragoda, Anthony M. Castronova, Jane Greenberg

Anthony Castronova

Computer models are widely used in hydrology and water resources management. A large variety of models exist, each tailored to address specific challenges related to hydrologic science and water resources management. When scientists and engineers apply one of these models to address a specific question, they must devote significant effort to set up, calibrate, and evaluate that model instance built for some place and time. In many cases, there is a benefit to sharing these computer models and associated datasets with the broader scientific community. Core to model reuse in any context is metadata describing the model. A standardized metadata ...


Metadata For Describing Water Models, Mohamed M. Morsy, Jonathan L. Goodall, Christina Bandaragoda, Anthony M. Castronova, Jane Greenberg 2016 University of Virginia

Metadata For Describing Water Models, Mohamed M. Morsy, Jonathan L. Goodall, Christina Bandaragoda, Anthony M. Castronova, Jane Greenberg

Anthony Castronova

Computer models are widely used in hydrology and water resources management. A large variety of models exist, each tailored to address specific challenges related to hydrologic science and water resources management. When scientists and engineers apply one of these models to address a specific question, they must devote significant effort to set up, calibrate, and evaluate that model instance built for some place and time. In many cases, there is a benefit to sharing these computer models and associated datasets with the broader scientific community. Core to model reuse in any context is metadata describing the model. A standardized metadata ...


A Simulation Platform To Assess Forest Landscape Resilience, Werner Rammer, Rupert Seidl 2016 Institute of Silviculture, Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU)

A Simulation Platform To Assess Forest Landscape Resilience, Werner Rammer, Rupert Seidl

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

Forest ecosystems suffer increasingly from pressures such as anthropogenic climatic change, while at the same time being subject to an increasing societal demand for ecosystem services. In addition to direct climate effects on tree growth and regeneration recent research suggests that climate-induced changes in disturbance regimes will likely increase the volatility of future forest trajectories. Addressing these challenges requires a coupled human and natural systems perspective, as most of Europe’s forests are heavily influenced by management, and forests are a crucial component in the emerging bioeconomy. Methodologically, assessments of the long-term socio-ecological resilience of forest ecosystems require approaches that ...


Fuzzy Vs Neural Network Models For Environmental Decision Support System Implementation Aiming To Standardise The Multiparametric Decision In A Drinking Water Plant With Electrodialysis Reversal, Montse Dalmau, Hèctor Monclús, Joan Espasa, Natasa Atanasova, Manel Poch, Pere Emiliano, Oriol Capdevila, Santiago González, Fernando Valero 2016 Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Institute of the Environment, University of Girona

Fuzzy Vs Neural Network Models For Environmental Decision Support System Implementation Aiming To Standardise The Multiparametric Decision In A Drinking Water Plant With Electrodialysis Reversal, Montse Dalmau, Hèctor Monclús, Joan Espasa, Natasa Atanasova, Manel Poch, Pere Emiliano, Oriol Capdevila, Santiago González, Fernando Valero

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

The development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) by means of two different aims to support the operators’ decisions in the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), equipped with the biggest electrodialysis reversal (EDR) in the world has been tested. A fuzzy artificial neural network model (fuzzy) and an artificial neural network (ANN) have been compared for optimizing the decision: how to manage water blending ratios from EDR and conventional treatment of the drinking water plant, evaluating Llobregat River characteristics (inlet DWTP), current operating conditions of DWTP, weather conditions and distribution requirements on-line. This tool has been tested among 4 ...


Bayesian Estimation Of Source Term Of Atmospheric Radiation Release With Interval Prior, O. Tichý, V. Šmídl, R. Hofman 2016 Institute of Information Theory and Automation, Czech Academy of Sciences

Bayesian Estimation Of Source Term Of Atmospheric Radiation Release With Interval Prior, O. Tichý, V. Šmídl, R. Hofman

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

Detection of release of an atmospheric pollutant is a problem of interest in environmental sciences. We are concerned with estimation of unknown source term of the release. Formally, the problem is formulated as a linear model where measurements are explained using source-receptor- sensitivity matrix obtained from atmospheric transport model and source term vector which has to be estimated. Specifically, we estimate the release of radioactivity from measurements of gamma dose rate (GDR). The problem of isolation of activity of individual nuclides is poorly conditioned. We propose a probabilistic model with the prior information on intervals of nuclide ratios. The model ...


Advanced Clustering To Integrate Spatial Socio-Ecological Components In Decision-Making: A Case Study On Sustainable Agriculture, Stéphane Bourrelly, Antonino Marvuglia, Ian Vázquez-Rowe 2016 University of Lyon III, UMR 5600 (EVS) CNRS

Advanced Clustering To Integrate Spatial Socio-Ecological Components In Decision-Making: A Case Study On Sustainable Agriculture, Stéphane Bourrelly, Antonino Marvuglia, Ian Vázquez-Rowe

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

Accounting for the direct and indirect role of ecosystem services (ES) in supporting human activities is a priority among governmental targets to develop strategies of impact mitigation with the mutual effect of increasing human well-being. Although a great deal of research is currently being done on ES assessment, the volume of available data and the complexity of mechanisms make the decision-making process difficult. We highlight the strengths of unsupervised clustering for handling geographic multidimensional datasets. We explain why the outputs, both in qualitative and quantitative form, can help stakeholders to conceive sustainable policies. At the same time, we point out ...


Small Farms Dams Modelling In Highly Anthropized Basins: Case Of The Garonne Catchment In The South-West Of France, François Moussu, Pierre Le Moigne, Pierre Le Cointe, Camille Truche, Olivier Therond, Eric Martin, Florence Habets 2016 CNRM, UMR 3589, Météo-France/CNRS

Small Farms Dams Modelling In Highly Anthropized Basins: Case Of The Garonne Catchment In The South-West Of France, François Moussu, Pierre Le Moigne, Pierre Le Cointe, Camille Truche, Olivier Therond, Eric Martin, Florence Habets

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

One of the aims of the REGARD project is to evaluate the influence of human activities in the modelling of water resources in the South-West of France, at the scale of the Garonne Watershed (~55 000 km2). Since 2009 the French government introduced a new regulation of agricultural water withdrawals, to avoid regular crisis due to water resources issues.Our approach consists in accounting for small farm dams in the Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) model and to evaluate their impact on river discharges. Several scenarios with different volume capacities, filling catchment sizes and filling periods were tested to assess how the ...


Comparison Of The Offline And The Online Bias Correction Of The Wrf-Eurad In Porto, Portugal, K. I. Hoi, K. V. Yuen, K. M. Mok, A. I. Miranda, I. Ribeiro 2016 University of Macau

Comparison Of The Offline And The Online Bias Correction Of The Wrf-Eurad In Porto, Portugal, K. I. Hoi, K. V. Yuen, K. M. Mok, A. I. Miranda, I. Ribeiro

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

This study compared two types of (offline vs. online) bias correction models applied to correct the mismatch between the predicted daily averaged PM10 concentration by the deterministic air quality forecasting system WRF-EURAD and the measured concentration at the air quality monitoring station in Porto, Portugal. The WRF-EURAD is a Eulerian system consisting of a Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model and a European Air Pollution Dispersion (EURAD) model. Both bias correction models were linear statistical models developed with the same set of input variables. The major difference between the online or the offline models is the adaptiveness. While the coefficients ...


Modelling Small Agricultural Dams Dynamics Into The Maelia Multi-Agent Platform, Romain Lardy, Camille Truche, Olivier Therond 2016 ARVALIS - Institut du végétal, UMR 1248 AGIR, INRA-INPT

Modelling Small Agricultural Dams Dynamics Into The Maelia Multi-Agent Platform, Romain Lardy, Camille Truche, Olivier Therond

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

In France, during the three last decades farmers built numerous small dams to have alternative resources for irrigation. In water deficit situations, one major question of the debate is the cumulative effect at watershed and river basin levels of small water dams on stream flows during the low flow period. This paper presents a new modelling framework to simulate hydrology and cumulative effect of small agricultural dams at river basin level that was implemented in the multi-agent modelling and simulation MAELIA platform. This modelling framework is based on the distinction of four types of small dams: connected to groundwater; disconnected ...


The Framework And Application Of Vulnerability Assessment Of Reclaimed Land To Typhoon Storm Surge Inundation, Shuyun Dong, Wayne J. Stephenson, Sarah Wakes, Zhongyuan Chen, Jianzhong Ge 2016 University of Otago

The Framework And Application Of Vulnerability Assessment Of Reclaimed Land To Typhoon Storm Surge Inundation, Shuyun Dong, Wayne J. Stephenson, Sarah Wakes, Zhongyuan Chen, Jianzhong Ge

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

The coastal area has naturally attractive to population and industry due to its convenient geographical location and abundant resources. While the coastal area provides geographical advantages and resources for urban development, it also experiencing a dramatically growing vulnerability to natural hazards. For coastal mega-cities like Shanghai, typhoon storm surge presents a significant threat to both infrastructure and populations with relatively high vulnerability. Another fact about Shanghai coastal area is that the reclamation land has grown substantially due to the huge demand of land for further urban development. On the one hand, the reclamation land can alleviate the continuous growth of ...


A Multi-Disciplinary Procedure To Ascertain Biofilm Formation In Drinking Water Pipes, Eva Ramos-Martinez, Manuel Herrera, Joaquín Izquierdo, Rafael Pérez-García 2016 FluIng-IMM Universitat Politècnica de València

A Multi-Disciplinary Procedure To Ascertain Biofilm Formation In Drinking Water Pipes, Eva Ramos-Martinez, Manuel Herrera, Joaquín Izquierdo, Rafael Pérez-García

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

Biofilm development in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) is a real problem negatively affecting service and water quality, and, thus, the satisfaction of the final consumers. It is the direct and indirect responsible for many of the DWDSs’ problems, and a lot of resources are invested to mitigate its effects. Addressing this problem has been a concern of researchers and DWDS managers for years. However, it is only recently that both technology and data have been available to support the new approach presented in this work. Our proposal is based on the combination of various existing data sets from similar ...


Simulating Spatial Changes In Vegetation-Livestock Interactions Under Different Landscape Structures: A Multi-Agent System Applied To Agro-Pastoral Territories, Mamadou Sané, Jonathan Vayssières, Myriam Grillot, Alassane Bah, Alexandre Ickowicz 2016 CIRAD - UMR Selmet, Mediterranean and Tropical Livestock Systems, Dp PPZS, Pastoral Systems and Dry Lands, Campus ISRA de Hann, UCAD - Ummisco, Unit for Mathematical and Computer Modeling of Complex Systems, ESP

Simulating Spatial Changes In Vegetation-Livestock Interactions Under Different Landscape Structures: A Multi-Agent System Applied To Agro-Pastoral Territories, Mamadou Sané, Jonathan Vayssières, Myriam Grillot, Alassane Bah, Alexandre Ickowicz

International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software

Free-range and common-grazing ruminants play a major role in the functioning and the provision of ecosystem services by agro- and silvo-pastoral ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess how landscape structure affects the nature of environment-herd-services interactions, this paper describes a Multi-Agent System (MAS) that simulates daily herd movements in a dynamic environment. The model is used to study how the overall productivity of an agricultural territory is affected by the spatial organization of its different landscape units. The originality of this model lies in fine representation, in hourly time steps, of a herd’s movements and activities over the seasons ...


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