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Methods For Incorporating Ecological Impacts With Climate Uncertainty To Support Robust Flood Management Decision-Making, Caitlin M. Spence 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Methods For Incorporating Ecological Impacts With Climate Uncertainty To Support Robust Flood Management Decision-Making, Caitlin M. Spence

Doctoral Dissertations

Modern and historic flood risk management involves accommodating multiple sources of sources of uncertainty and potential impacts across a broad range of interrelated sectors. Sources of uncertainty that affect planning include internal climate variability, anthropogenic changes such as land use and system performance expectations, and more recently changes in climatology that affect the resources supporting the system. Flood management systems potentially impact human settlements within and beyond the systems’ scope of planning, local weather patterns, and associated ecological systems. Federal guidelines across nations have called for greater consideration of uncertainty and impacts of water resources planning projects, but methods for ...


A New Data Set For Assessing The Cold Content Of The Rocky Mountain West Snowpack, Jeffrey Schmidt 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

A New Data Set For Assessing The Cold Content Of The Rocky Mountain West Snowpack, Jeffrey Schmidt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Snowpack cold content (CCsnow) is the energy required to bring a snowpack to an isothermal temperature of 0.0°C. CCsnow is a snow characteristic that integrates the response of a snowpack to components of the snow-cover energy balance. An improved understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of CCsnow may provide insight into dynamics and sensitivity of the snowpack to climate change. In this study, snowpit observations of snow water equivalent (SWE), snow temperature (Tsnow) and snow density (⍴snow) from the United States Geologic Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack Chemistry Program (USGS RMS) were used to evaluate ...


Segment-Based Reliability Assessment For Water Distribution Networks, Erika Hernandez Hernandez 2017 University of Kentucky

Segment-Based Reliability Assessment For Water Distribution Networks, Erika Hernandez Hernandez

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

In recent years, water utilities have placed a greater emphasis on the reliability and resilience of their water distribution networks. This focus has increased due to the continuing aging of such infrastructure and the potential threat of natural or man-made disruptions. As a result, water utilities continue to look for ways to evaluate the resiliency of their systems with a goal of identifying critical elements that need to be reinforced or replaced. The simulation of pipe breaks in water reliability studies is traditionally modeled as the loss of a single pipe element. This assumes that each pipe has an isolation ...


Estimating Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficients In Natural Channels, Yuqi Song 2017 Iowa State University

Estimating Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficients In Natural Channels, Yuqi Song

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A new empirical formula is developed for estimating the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. Velocity profiles are computed from the momentum equation as presented by Shiono and Knight (1991), and the dispersion coefficient is computed from the velocity profiles using the theory of shear dispersion (Taylor 1953, Fischer et al. 1979). To simplify the application, results of the numerical integration are expressed in terms of the aspect ratio of the channel, the friction factor, the dimensionless eddy viscosity, and the secondary flow coefficient using multiple regression. For laboratory data, 83.3% of the empirical estimates from the initial formula fall within 50 ...


Flow And Transport From A Stream To A Well In An Unconfined Aquifer, Cynthia Louise Maroney 2017 Iowa State University

Flow And Transport From A Stream To A Well In An Unconfined Aquifer, Cynthia Louise Maroney

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Flow, stream depletion rate (SDR), and transport are evaluated with three analytical models for wells installed in a semi-infinite, homogeneous, anisotropic, unconfined aquifer near a fully penetrating stream with a streambed with reduced conductivity. The first model, presented in Maroney and Rehmann (2017), involves re-evaluating the calculations of Huang et al. (2012) for the SDR of a radial collector well. The present solution for SDR has a single integral that requires numerical evaluation, while the previous model has five. Analytical results show that at steady state the flow through the streambed equals the pumping rate of the well. That is ...


Improved Predictions Of Contaminant Transport In Rivers, Rusen Sinir 2017 Iowa State University

Improved Predictions Of Contaminant Transport In Rivers, Rusen Sinir

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To improve predictions of contaminant transport in rivers, two analytical models and one empirical model were evaluated. Analytical solutions of the model of Reichert and Wanner (1991), which represents mixing in the advective zone by dividing the channel into a flowing zone and a stagnant zone, were developed for two cases: a spill in the stagnant zone and a maintained injection in the flowing zone. Compared to the case of a flowing zone spill solved by Schmalle and Rehmann (2014), contaminant clouds for a stagnant zone spill travel more slowly, spread more, and shift from positive to negative skewness. These ...


Evaluating Filter Materials For E. Coli Removal From Stormwater, Ghaem Hooshyari 2017 South Dakota State University

Evaluating Filter Materials For E. Coli Removal From Stormwater, Ghaem Hooshyari

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stormwater runoff from agricultural and urban areas carries a wide range of pollutants and pathogens that can negatively affect surface water bodies and cause significant risks to the ecosystem and public health. Bacteria is one of the pollutants carried by stormwater, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is commonly used as a microbial pollution indicator of surface water. The aim of this research was to investigate the removal of E. coli from stormwater using low-cost filter materials. Two industrial byproducts (steel slag and steel chips) and two natural minerals (zeolite and limestone) with three different sizes (0.5-1 mm, 1-2 mm ...


A Demonstration Study Of Drainage Water Management In Eastern South Dakota, Ashik Sahani 2017 South Dakota State University

A Demonstration Study Of Drainage Water Management In Eastern South Dakota, Ashik Sahani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Subsurface drainage is a common water management practice for improving crop production in poorly drained soils; however, the practice is associated with several environmental concerns such as nutrient losses to downstream surface waters. These environmental concerns from subsurface drainage have prompted interest in drainage water management strategies such as controlled drainage. This study assessed the agronomic and environmental impacts of drainage water management in eastern South Dakota by using two demonstration plots for controlled and conventional drainage. Drain flow, nitrate and dissolved phosphorous concentration in drain water, shallow groundwater, crop yield, residual soil nitrate, soil moisture and temperature, soil penetration ...


A Validated Tropical-Extratropical Flood Hazard Assessment For New York Harbor, Philip M. Orton, T. M. Hall, Stefan A. Talke, Alan F. Blumberg, Nickitas Georgas, S. Vinogradov 2016 Stevens Institute of Technology

A Validated Tropical-Extratropical Flood Hazard Assessment For New York Harbor, Philip M. Orton, T. M. Hall, Stefan A. Talke, Alan F. Blumberg, Nickitas Georgas, S. Vinogradov

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Recent studies of flood risk at New York Harbor (NYH) have shown disparate results for the 100 year storm tide, providing an uncertain foundation for the flood mitigation response after Hurricane Sandy. Here we present a flood hazard assessment that improves confidence in our understanding of the region's present-day potential for flooding, by separately including the contribution of tropical cyclones (TCs) and extratropical cyclones (ETCs), and validating our modeling study at multiple stages against historical observations. The TC assessment is based on a climatology of 606 synthetic storms developed from a statistical-stochastic model of North Atlantic TCs. The ETC ...


Hydraulic And Hydrologic Properties Of The Sabine River, Annie L. Bryant 2016 University of Texas at Tyler

Hydraulic And Hydrologic Properties Of The Sabine River, Annie L. Bryant

Civil Engineering Theses

The Sabine River is located in Northeast Texas and is home to many threatened and endangered species as well as a growing human population. It is important to understand channel properties and flow characteristics of rivers in order better manage these important natural resources. The Sabine was monitored for hydraulic and hydrological properties as this is a poorly understood river at this point in time.

Hydraulic modeling was conducted to determine channel velocities and shear stresses during different storm frequencies. It was found that velocity and shear stress had a direct relationship at lower velocities. A comparison of existing Geographic ...


Lucidpipe™ Power System, Purdue ECT Team 2016 Construction Engineering & Management, Purdue University

Lucidpipe™ Power System, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

In most gravity fed water transmission pipelines, it is desired to reduce excess pressure head to prevent undue strain on a pipeline and lower the incidence of leaks. Normally this is done with pressure reducing valves that essentially burn off this excess pressure as heat. The LucidPipe™ system converts it to low cost electricity thereby removing unwanted pressure and generating energy at the same time - energy that can be put used behind the grid or put back on the grid. The LucidPipe™ system extracts a small percentage of pressure head providing nearly invisible operation allowing water operators to fulfill their ...


Exploring The Influence Of Urban Watershed Characteristics And Antecedent Climate On In-Stream Pollutant Dynamics, Laurel Elizabeth Christian 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring The Influence Of Urban Watershed Characteristics And Antecedent Climate On In-Stream Pollutant Dynamics, Laurel Elizabeth Christian

Masters Theses

Understanding pollutant fate and transport in urban watersheds is a challenging endeavor, as heterogeneity of land use, precipitation patterns, and pollutant loadings add complexity to the system. As a result, many currently utilized water quality models exhibit poor performance. One main challenge in urban system modeling is the lack of quality data sets for model development, calibration, and testing, resulting in the need for high quality data collection. Although recent studies have begun to investigate pollutant transport in urban watersheds to aid these models, these studies have focused primarily on the end-of-pipe as the point of interest (i.e. prior ...


Time Series Analyst: Interactive Online Visualization Of Standards Based Environmental Time Series Data, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Amber Spackman Jones, Maurier Ramírez, Juan Caraballo 2016 Utah State University

Time Series Analyst: Interactive Online Visualization Of Standards Based Environmental Time Series Data, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Amber Spackman Jones, Maurier Ramírez, Juan Caraballo

Amber Jones

Visualization is a common need of many researchers, organizations, and projects that collect and use environmental sensor data. Web-based tools can provide screening-level visualization and data analysis functionality for users with a range of technical expertise. However, it is difficult to integrate data from multiple sources due to syntactic and semantic differences in data formats and different data delivery mechanisms that are not always interoperable. We developed an open-source time series visualization tool called the Time Series Analyst (TSA) that integrates data from multiple sources using web service interfaces and a standardized data encoding format. The TSA provides multiple types ...


A Consideration Of Hydraulic Fracturing In The United States, Sarah Wagner 2016 Rappahannock Community College

A Consideration Of Hydraulic Fracturing In The United States, Sarah Wagner

Student Writing

No abstract provided.


Trend Analysis Of Water Quality In Northwest Arkansas Streams Reflects Changes In The Watershed, Zachary Paul Simpson 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Trend Analysis Of Water Quality In Northwest Arkansas Streams Reflects Changes In The Watershed, Zachary Paul Simpson

Theses and Dissertations

Watershed export of nutrients, sediments, and chemicals impacts receiving waters. Changes within the watershed (e.g., anthropogenic or climatic) can alter the transport of constituents in streams. Stream monitoring is crucial for understanding these effects. This study developed a potential improvement to flow-adjusting constituent concentrations in streams, an important step of analyzing monitoring data in lotic systems for trends. The method incorporates a K-fold cross-validation procedure to optimize a model explaining the relationship between the concentration and streamflow, thus providing a valuable tool to researchers in water quality. Additionally, two case studies were conducted on watersheds located in northwest Arkansas ...


Evaluating A Measure-Calculate Method For Determining Sediment Oxygen Demand In Lakes, Adrian Beirise 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluating A Measure-Calculate Method For Determining Sediment Oxygen Demand In Lakes, Adrian Beirise

Theses and Dissertations

A steady-state mass diffusion model used with simple measurable and calculable inputs for determining sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is compared to an intact core incubation (ICI) SOD method using samples from three lakes. The mass diffusion model coupled with inputs is known as the measure-calculate method (M-C) and is a potential alternative to existing methods for measuring SOD which are more complex, time-consuming, and costly. The M-C method requires inputs for volumetric sediment oxygen uptake (Ṅsed), sediment density and porosity, and water properties. Ṅsed was determined by suspending sediment in oxygen-saturated water with a DO probe and determining the steady ...


Electrodeionization Versus Electrodialysis: A Clean-Up Of Produced Water In Hydraulic Fracturing, Brigitte Marie Rodgers 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Electrodeionization Versus Electrodialysis: A Clean-Up Of Produced Water In Hydraulic Fracturing, Brigitte Marie Rodgers

Theses and Dissertations

Electrodeionization (EDI) is a widely studied process ranging from applications in wastewater clean-up in the food and beverage industry to purifying organic compounds. To date, there are no apparent studies on applying this technology to produced wastewater recovered from hydraulic fracking sites. Water consumption within hydraulic fracturing sites can reach in the upwards of millions of gallons per site, so a need for a water recycling process becomes necessary within areas where water requirements are scarce. Implementation of an EDI module that is capable of handling high salt solutions from produced wastewater in subsequent fracturing practices will decrease overall water ...


Asbestos Cement Pipe Condition Assessment And Remaining Service Life Prediction, Abiy Melles Ghirmay 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Asbestos Cement Pipe Condition Assessment And Remaining Service Life Prediction, Abiy Melles Ghirmay

Theses and Dissertations

This research details a condition assessment of asbestos cement (AC) pipe within in the Bella Vista Village Property Owners Association water distribution system. Bella Vista Village contains appropriately 300 miles of AC pipe with nominal diameters from 6-14 inch. The goal of the research is to determine the current condition of AC pipe within the system and predict future performance of the pipes. AC pipe samples were obtained from 23 locations disturbed across the distribution system with nominal pipe diameters of 6-8 inch. Estimates of current level of degradation were obtained using phenolphthalein staining and hardness measurements of each sample ...


Laboratory And Full Boom-Based Investigation Of Nozzle Setup And Restriction Effects On Flow, Pressure And Spray Pattern Distribution, Shane H. Forney 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Laboratory And Full Boom-Based Investigation Of Nozzle Setup And Restriction Effects On Flow, Pressure And Spray Pattern Distribution, Shane H. Forney

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Pesticide application is an integral part of crop production and ground-based agricultural boom sprayers are used extensively to apply pesticides to the crop canopy or soil surface across millions of acres in the United States. Efficient application is necessary to minimize costs and limit adverse environmental impacts. Errors in flow rate and system pressure measurements may cause as-applied maps to incorrectly indicate application rates and could negatively affect downstream data processing or analysis. The goals of this study were to provide quantified measurements on the effects of nozzle setup errors on spray pattern uniformity and evaluate how laboratory patternator data ...


Experimental Investigation Of Discharge Capacity Of Labyrinth Weirs With And Without Nappe Breakers, Omer Bilhan, Emin Emiroglu, Carol J. Miller 2016 Nevsehir HBV University

Experimental Investigation Of Discharge Capacity Of Labyrinth Weirs With And Without Nappe Breakers, Omer Bilhan, Emin Emiroglu, Carol J. Miller

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Labyrinth weirs provide higher discharge capacity than conventional weirs, with the ability to pass large flows at comparatively low heads. Labyrinth weirs are primarily used as spillways for dams where the spillway width is restricted. In recent years, many research investigations have considered the hydraulic performance of labyrinth weirs, particularly as dependent on the geometric features. The previous work has improved the design basis for such weirs. However, their design still requires experimentally derived and generalized performance curves. It is especially important to observe the behavior of the weir nappe to ensure the design provides hydraulic optimization and to account ...


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