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Waste Management By Waste: Removal Of Acid Dyes From Wastewaters Of Textile Coloration Using Fish Scales, S M Fijul Kabir 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Waste Management By Waste: Removal Of Acid Dyes From Wastewaters Of Textile Coloration Using Fish Scales, S M Fijul Kabir

LSU Master's Theses

Removal of hazardous acid dyes by economical process using low-cost bio-sorbents from wool industry wastewaters is of a pressing need, since it causes skin and respiratory diseases and disrupts other environmental components. Fish scales (FS), a by-product of fish industry, a type of solid waste, are usually discarded carelessly resulting in pungent odor and environmental burden. In this research, the FS of black drum (Pogonias cromis) were used for the removal of acid dyes (acid red 1 (AR1), acid blue 45 (AB45) and acid yellow 127 (AY126)) from wool industry wastewaters by absorption process with a view to valorizing fish ...


Recent Approaches In Designing Bioadhesive Materials Inspired By Mussel Adhesive Protein, Pegah Kord Forooshani, Bruce P. Lee 2018 Michigan Technological University

Recent Approaches In Designing Bioadhesive Materials Inspired By Mussel Adhesive Protein, Pegah Kord Forooshani, Bruce P. Lee

Bruce Lee

Marine mussels secret protein-based adhesives, which enable them to anchor to various surfaces in a saline, intertidal zone. Mussel foot proteins (Mfps) contain a large abundance of a unique, catecholic amino acid, Dopa, in their protein sequences. Catechol offers robust and durable adhe-sion to various substrate surfaces and contributes to the curing of the adhesive plaques. In this article, we review the unique features and the key functionalities of Mfps, catechol chemistry, and strategies for preparing catechol-functionalized poly- mers. Specifically, we reviewed recent findings on the contributions of various features of Mfps on interfacial binding, which include coacervate formation, surface ...


Definite Indefiniteness Of "Molecular Weight" As A Claim Term For Polymer-Related Patents, Ping-Hsun Chen 2018 Pepperdine University

Definite Indefiniteness Of "Molecular Weight" As A Claim Term For Polymer-Related Patents, Ping-Hsun Chen

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

The molecular weight of a polymer is not just a number for a single molecule. In fact, molecular weight measurement is based on a large volume of molecules of the same polymer. Due to the non-uniformity of molecular weights, there are several methods to measure an “average molecular weight” of a polymer. Unfortunately, the Federal Circuit in Teva Pharms. USA, Inc. v. Sandoz, Inc., 789 F.3d 1335 (Fed. Cir. 2015), held that the term “molecular weight” in several polymer claims was indefinite, because the term could mean either peak average molecular weight, number average molecular weight, or weight average ...


Effect Of Corn And Soybean Oil Derived Additives On Polymer-Modified Hma And Wma Master Curve Construction And Dynamic Modulus Performance, Joseph H. Podolsky, R. Christopher Williams, Eric W. Cochran 2018 Iowa State University

Effect Of Corn And Soybean Oil Derived Additives On Polymer-Modified Hma And Wma Master Curve Construction And Dynamic Modulus Performance, Joseph H. Podolsky, R. Christopher Williams, Eric W. Cochran

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In previous work, Isosorbide Distillation Bottoms (IDB), and other isosorbide and soybean based materials with similar properties were shown to act as antistrips in a polymer modified warm mix asphalt (WMA) at a 0.75% dosage level both through visual observations and statistical analysis of Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device (HWTD) test results. Because of this evidence, there is an interest in how specimens produced with isosorbide and soybean bio-derived chemical additives would perform in the dynamic modulus test, as this is the main input used in AASHTOWare Pavement ME in the prediction of rutting performance. The main objective of this ...


Comparison Of Eosin And Fluorescein Conjugates For The Photoinitiation Of Cell-Compatible Polymer Coatings, Jacob L. Lilly, Anuhya Gottipati, Calvin F. Cahall, Mohamed Agoub, Brad J. Berron 2018 Battelle

Comparison Of Eosin And Fluorescein Conjugates For The Photoinitiation Of Cell-Compatible Polymer Coatings, Jacob L. Lilly, Anuhya Gottipati, Calvin F. Cahall, Mohamed Agoub, Brad J. Berron

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Targeted photopolymerization is the basis for multiple diagnostic and cell encapsulation technologies. While eosin is used in conjunction with tertiary amines as a water-soluble photoinitiation system, eosin is not widely sold as a conjugate with antibodies and other targeting biomolecules. Here we evaluate the utility of fluorescein-labeled bioconjugates to photopolymerize targeted coatings on live cells. We show that although fluorescein conjugates absorb approximately 50% less light energy than eosin in matched photopolymerization experiments using a 530 nm LED lamp, appreciable polymer thicknesses can still be formed in cell compatible environments with fluorescein photosensitization. At low photoinitiator density, eosin allows more ...


Surface Functionalization Via Photoinitiated Radical Polymerization For Rare Cell Isolation And Mechanical Protection, Calvin Frank Cahall 2018 University of Kentucky

Surface Functionalization Via Photoinitiated Radical Polymerization For Rare Cell Isolation And Mechanical Protection, Calvin Frank Cahall

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Surface functionalization of living cells for cell therapeutics has gained substantial momentum in the last two decades. From encapsulating islets of Langerhans, to cell laden gels for tissue scaffolds, to individual cell encapsulation in thin hydrogels, to surface adhesives and inert surface camouflage, modification of living cell surfaces has a wide array of important applications. Here we use hydrogel encapsulation of individual cells as a mode of protection from mechanical forces for high throughput cell printing, and chemical stimuli for the isolation of rare cells in blood.

In the first study, we review methods of surface functionalization and establish a ...


Triazole-Based Polymers Via Photo-Initiated Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition, Han Byul Song 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Triazole-Based Polymers Via Photo-Initiated Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition, Han Byul Song

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Conventional thermosetting photopolymers are ubiquitous in a wide array of industrial applications such as UV coatings and adhesives, 3D printed objects, and dental composites, and these reactions are largely based on acrylate or methacrylate chain-growth free radical photopolymerizations. Despite the significant demand for (meth-) acrylate-based thermosets, problematic characteristics that are inherent in the nature of this polymerization still persist especially in bioapplications. For instance, incomplete conversion of monomers upon early gelation and vitrification in heterogenous networks containing hydrolytically labile ester functionalities, considerable shrinkage stress developed during polymerization, and brittleness of these highly crosslinked (meth-) acrylate-based polymers hinder both the biological ...


The Role Of Microenvironment Reagent Solubility On Reaction Kinetics Of 4-Nitrophenol Reduction, Michael P. Zeevi, Andrew Harrison, Christina Tang 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of Microenvironment Reagent Solubility On Reaction Kinetics Of 4-Nitrophenol Reduction, Michael P. Zeevi, Andrew Harrison, Christina Tang

Undergraduate Research Posters

The Role of Microenvironment Reagent Solubility on Reaction Kinetics of 4-Nitrophenol Reduction

Michael Zeevi1 with Andrew Harrison1 and Christina Tang, PhD1

1Department of Chemical and Life Science Engineering, VCU School of Engineering

Introduction: Nanoparticles are of increasing interest due to their high surface area to volume ratio, as well as that they enable fine-tuning of the reaction microenvironment. Through flash nanoprecipitation, core-shell polymer nanoreactors were formed by directed self-assembly. Using the reduction of 4-nitrophenol as a model reduction reaction, we investigated the effect of reagent solubility in the nanoreactor microenvironment’s on nanoreactor kinetics.

Methods: The ...


Sequence Effects On The Glass Transition Temperature, William Drayer 2018 The University of Akron

Sequence Effects On The Glass Transition Temperature, William Drayer

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Lithium ion batteries are widely used for the energy needs of portable electronic devices. Unfortunately, current liquid organic solvents used as the electrolytic portion of the battery have low thermal stability, resulting in batteries that may combust upon failure. This flammability can be attributed to the configurational strain in cyclic organic electrolytes. Due to the lack of configurational strain in a flexible polymer chain, designing polymer electrolytes for use in lithium ion batteries may result in a safer battery due to their lower flammability in comparison to traditional liquid organic electrolytes. From the perspective of an electrolytic polymer, lowering the ...


Correlation Of Electrospun Polyvinylpyrrolidone Fiber Mat Thickness With Basis Weight, Fiber Diameter, Pore Size Distribution, And Air Permeability, Leah McPherson 2018 University of Akron Main Campus

Correlation Of Electrospun Polyvinylpyrrolidone Fiber Mat Thickness With Basis Weight, Fiber Diameter, Pore Size Distribution, And Air Permeability, Leah Mcpherson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project developed correlations between electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone fiber mat thickness, basis weight, fiber diameter, pore size, and air permeability. The hypotheses were thinner fibers produce thicker mats, pore size decreases with fiber diameter, pore size and permeability decrease as basis weight increases. Project results could be used for modeling or quality control purposes.

Fiber diameter distributions were analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscope and FibraQuant 1.3 software. Four conditions were chosen for further study: 0.284 ± 0.104 µm, 0.379 ± 0.128 µm, 0.520 ± 0.138 µm, and 0.733 ± 0.177 µm. Lower PVP concentrations produced ...


Modeling The Effect Thickener Structure Has On The Oil Release Of Grease, Dana Cressman 2018 The University of Akron

Modeling The Effect Thickener Structure Has On The Oil Release Of Grease, Dana Cressman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Our hypothesis was that the thickener type and micelle concentration of grease affected its viscoelastic properties. Measurements were made using a TA AR G2 rheometer and calculations were made using TA rheometer analysis software to characterize the viscoelastic response of grease under oscillatory shear and frequency tests. The oscillatory frequency tests determined the critical micelle concentration. The oscillatory stress tests were taken at temperatures from 5 to 65 degrees Celsius to create a master curve based on time temperature superposition of the measurements. The crossover points of G’ and G” on the oscillatory stress tests demonstrated where the grease transitions ...


Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Gelation Of Gelatin And Pluronic Hydrogels, Eric Britton 2018 The University of Akron

Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Gelation Of Gelatin And Pluronic Hydrogels, Eric Britton

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of the project was to observe the effects of the Hofmeister series of ions on the gelation of gelatin and Pluronic-127 hydrogels. Hydrogels are semi-solid materials that contain a network of joined molecules through intermolecular interactions which are capable of holding water. Gelatin and Pluronic-127 (PF-127) are thermoreversible, physical crosslinked gels. Gelation occurs when temperature, or other driving forces, reduce the polymer chain solubility until a distinct 2-phase system forms. When aqueous ions are present in solution, they exhibit specific ion effects that have either a stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the solubility of proteins and other polymers ...


Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Ms/Ms) For Determination Of Architecture Of Synthetic Polymers, Shoumik Saha 2018 The University of Akron

Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Ms/Ms) For Determination Of Architecture Of Synthetic Polymers, Shoumik Saha

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to determine the architecture of synthetic polymers and they are difluorene-N3, 3-difluorene-N3 and VPOSS-3-difluorene. VPOSS materials usually exhibit electrochemical properties and the research was performed to determine their accurate structure and to provide evidence of their proper synthesis. The compounds were mixed with a matrix solution, DCTB, and a silver salt to enable proper protonation. The solvent mixture was on a MALDI plate and then put into the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrum generated was analyzed and each fragment was identified to structures with the synthetic polymers via ChemDraw. Thus, trial ...


Electrospinning Aqueous Solutions Of Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Using A Corona-Type Apparatus, Nicholas Neill 2018 The University of Akron

Electrospinning Aqueous Solutions Of Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Using A Corona-Type Apparatus, Nicholas Neill

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project was to evaluate working parameters for the corona spinneret to create electrospun fibers/ fiber mat. This project was set-up using a Box-Behnken design of experiment. The working parameters were investigated by performing the electrospinning process, altering the working conditions, collecting the electrospun fibers. The scope of this project includes three primary operational conditions: distance between the spinneret and the collection plate, the viscosity (weight percent) of PEO in the spinning solution and the weight percent of NaCl in the spinning solution. The distance between the spinneret and the collection plate were varied to 18 cm ...


Investigation Of Mechanical, Electrical, And Thermal Properties Of Particulate/Fiber/Polymer Composites, Julie Tomasi 2018 Michigan Technological University

Investigation Of Mechanical, Electrical, And Thermal Properties Of Particulate/Fiber/Polymer Composites, Julie Tomasi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Composites have many applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, chemical resistance, and the ability to tune properties like electrical resistivity (ER). In this work, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and cycloaliphatic epoxy (CE) composites with different fillers were studied. PEEK composites contained up to 10 wt% Akzo Nobel Ketjenblack carbon black (CB), up to 15 wt% Asbury Carbons TC307 graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), up to 30 wt% Solvay carbon fiber (CF), and combinations of the three carbons. Formulations were developed for electrostatic dissipative and electrically conductive applications. The most conductive formulation was 7.5 wt% CB/30 wt% CF/PEEK, which ...


Connecting The Dots: A New Method To Determine Radiation Yield During Electron Beam (Eb) Polymerization Reactions Via Raman Spectroscopy, Renae Kurpius 2018 University of Iowa

Connecting The Dots: A New Method To Determine Radiation Yield During Electron Beam (Eb) Polymerization Reactions Via Raman Spectroscopy, Renae Kurpius

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Electron-beam (EB) polymerization is a fast, solvent-free, low-energy means of polymerizing inks, thin films, and coatings such as those used in food packaging. During EB polymerization, accelerated electrons interact with liquid monomer molecules to form radicals, which continue to react with other monomer molecules and form long chain, solid polymers. The final polymer properties are dependent on the monomer chemistry, as well as processing conditions such as dose (i.e., the amount of energy absorbed by the sample), belt speed (i.e., the rate at which the sample travels through the electron-beam unit), and dose rate (i.e., the rate ...


Surface Engineering And Monomer Design For Light-Mediated Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization, Ishan A. Fursule 2018 University of Kentucky

Surface Engineering And Monomer Design For Light-Mediated Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization, Ishan A. Fursule

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Stimuli-responsive materials are changing the landscape of actuated materials, optoelectronics, molecular machines, solar cells, temporary memory storage, and biomedical materials. Specifically, photo-responsive polymers have gained acceleration in research and application since the last two decades in the form of a surface coating and micro-patterns. Light as a stimulus can be coherent, mono or polychromatic, tunable for power (intensity) and energy (wavelength), and has precise spatiotemporal control. Conventional surface coating techniques such as spin coating are unable to impart properties to the coatings in terms of sturdiness, homogeneity, uniformity over the complex surface, post deposition modification, and process efficiency. Also, in ...


Rheological Properties Of A Model Soft Solid Nanocomposite, Vijesh Tanna 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Rheological Properties Of A Model Soft Solid Nanocomposite, Vijesh Tanna

Doctoral Dissertations

ABSTRACT

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF A MODEL SOFT SOLID NANOCOMPOSITE

SEPTEMBER 2018

VIJESH A. TANNA

B.S. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

M.S. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Ph.D. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Directed by: Prof. H. Henning Winter

The fabrication and physical properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites has received a great deal of interest in both academic and industrial settings. Clay is a natural 2D mineral comprised of stacks of platelets with high aspect ratios held together through electrostatic interactions. Typically, polymer/clay composite are found to have the best physical properties when these clay sheets are randomly dispersed, exfoliated ...


Surface Functionalization Of Fabrics And Threads For Smart Textiles, Morgan Baima 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Surface Functionalization Of Fabrics And Threads For Smart Textiles, Morgan Baima

Doctoral Dissertations

The future of electronics is moving toward wearable devices and therefore requires a shift away from hard, inflexible materials towards fibers, threads, and fabrics that conform to the shape of the body. Therefore new methods for incorporating textiles as electronic components are needed to replace conventional processing techniques used with smooth, flat substrates like glass, silicon, and many polymers. Toward this end, this work investigates different methods that can be used to tune textile surfaces for electronic functionality, including weaving, solution grafting, and initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). While all of these methods were used to make triboelectrically-active textiles, iCVD ...


Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibril-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites For Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing, Lu Wang 2017 The University of Maine

Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibril-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites For Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing, Lu Wang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Compared to conventional manufacturing process, additive manufacturing (AM) offers free-form design, lighter and more ergonomic products, short lead time and less waste. Extrusion-based AM can be used to print thermoplastics. However, extrusion-based AM has processing challenges in printing semi-crystalline thermoplastics, for instance, polypropylene (PP). Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are one type of cellulose nanofibers that are produced from pulp fibers. CNF has extraordinary properties which make it an ideal candidate to reinforce polymers. Spray-dried CNF (SDCNF) is able to be incorporated into thermoplastic matrices without modifying conventional processing procedures.

The mechanical properties of 3D printed plastic parts have been considered significantly ...


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