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Probing The Structure Of Water On Surfaces: From Water Absorption To Ice Nucleation, Jiarun Zhou 2023 Clemson University

Probing The Structure Of Water On Surfaces: From Water Absorption To Ice Nucleation, Jiarun Zhou

All Dissertations

Water, essential for all life forms, is the most abundant, simple, yet mysterious molecule in the world. This molecule, consisting of only three atoms, behaves in unexpectedly different ways with the change of environment. In the past, studies of water under different conditions (temperature, pressure, on the surfaces, with confinement) have been conducted using experimental and computational methods. However, the influence of a given environment on water properties is yet to be fully understood. This dissertation studies water at complex interfaces (surfaces with various chemistry and physics properties) in both the liquid and crystalline states. Various heterogeneous systems used to …


Polymer Based Energy Storage And Thermal Management On Textile Devices, Wesley A. Viola 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Polymer Based Energy Storage And Thermal Management On Textile Devices, Wesley A. Viola

Doctoral Dissertations

Humans developed textiles to manage thermal energy transfer with the environment and support homeostasis in a wide range of climates. With the anticipation of wearable technologies to transform healthcare via early, pre-symptomatic detection of illness, there is now a demand for electrical energy storage to support such on-body devices. Finding energy materials to merge seamlessly with textiles is basic requirement to ensure widespread adoption of wearable health monitors. Here we use a vapor deposition process to conformally coat ordinary fabrics with the doped conjugated polymer poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-Cl), a soft material which possesses electronic and redox capabilities. We demonstrate PEDOT-Cl …


Adsorptive Properties And On-Demand Magnetic Response Of Lignin@Fe3o4 Nanoparticles At Castor Oil–Water Interfaces, Mohammad J. Hasan, Emily Westphal, Peng Chen, Abishek Saini, I-Wei Chu, Sarah J. Watzman, Esteban E. Ureña-Benavides, Erick S. Vasquez 2023 University of Texas at San Antonio

Adsorptive Properties And On-Demand Magnetic Response Of Lignin@Fe3o4 Nanoparticles At Castor Oil–Water Interfaces, Mohammad J. Hasan, Emily Westphal, Peng Chen, Abishek Saini, I-Wei Chu, Sarah J. Watzman, Esteban E. Ureña-Benavides, Erick S. Vasquez

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Lignin@Fe3O4 nanoparticles adsorb at oil–water interfaces, form Pickering emulsions, induce on-demand magnetic responses to break emulsions, and can sequester oil from water. Lignin@Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared using a pH-induced precipitation method and were fully characterized. These were used to prepare Pickering emulsions with castor oil/Sudan red G dye and water at various oil/water volume ratios and nanoparticle concentrations. The stability and demulsification of the emulsions under different magnetic fields generated with permanent magnets (0–540 mT) were investigated using microscopy images and by visual inspection over time. The results showed that the Pickering emulsions were more stable at the castor oil/water …


Preparation, Cure, And Characterization Of Cyanate Ester-Epoxy Blends Containing Reactive Flame Retardants, Mustafa Mukhtar, Donald A. Klosterman 2023 University of Dayton

Preparation, Cure, And Characterization Of Cyanate Ester-Epoxy Blends Containing Reactive Flame Retardants, Mustafa Mukhtar, Donald A. Klosterman

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Cyanate ester resins are sometimes mixed with lower cost epoxy monomers to modify cost, toughness, and processing capabilities. Despite the high performance of these thermosetting polymers, flame retardancy remains an issue. This study examined blends of three different commercial cyanate ester monomers (LVT-100, LECy, and XU-71787.02) and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) at 50/50 wt% of each type. The blends were successfully reacted with two reactive flame retardants (FR): 9,10-dihydro-9-ox-9-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and poly(m-phenylene methylphosphonate) (PMP) at phosphorus contents ranging from 0 to 3 wt%. The curing behavior of EP/CE blends was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was …


Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (Htdma) Design And Testing For Aerosol Hygroscopic Behavior Studies, Ziheng Zeng 2023 Bucknell University

Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (Htdma) Design And Testing For Aerosol Hygroscopic Behavior Studies, Ziheng Zeng

Honors Theses

Most particles in the atmosphere take up water when exposed to increasing relative humidity (RH), and this behavior is described and quantized by a hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analysis (HTDMA) can be used to measure the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles and study phenomena that lead to size changes in submicron aerosol particles. Specifically, HTDMA measures how aerosol particles of different initial dry sizes grow or shrink when exposed to changing RH. HTDMA uses two differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) and a humidification system to make these measurements. One DMA selects a narrow size range of dry aerosol …


Model Based Systems Engineering Approaches To Chemicals And Materials Manufacturing, Quang Le 2023 Virginia Commonwealth University

Model Based Systems Engineering Approaches To Chemicals And Materials Manufacturing, Quang Le

Theses and Dissertations

Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is part of a long-term trend toward model-centric approaches adopted by many engineering disciplines. This work establishes the need for an MBSE approach by reviewing the importance, complexity, and vulnerability of the U.S. chemical supply chains. The origins, work processes, modeling approaches, and supporting tools of the systems engineering discipline (SE) are discussed, along with the limitations of the current Process Systems Engineering (PSE) framework. The case is made for MBSE as a more generalizable and robust approach. Systems modeling strategies for MBSE are introduced, as well as a novel MBSE method that supports the automation …


Mechanisms Of Emulsion Destabilization: An Investigation Of Surfactant, Stabilizer, And Detergent Based Formulations Using Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy, JORDAN N. NOWACZYK 2023 Virginia Commonwealth University

Mechanisms Of Emulsion Destabilization: An Investigation Of Surfactant, Stabilizer, And Detergent Based Formulations Using Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy, Jordan N. Nowaczyk

Theses and Dissertations

Conventional approaches for studying emulsions, such as microscopy and macroscopic phase tracking, present challenges when it comes to establishing detailed mechanistic descriptions of the impact of emulsifier and stabilizer additives. Additionally, while a combination of sizing methods and macroscopic phase tracking can provide insights into droplet size changes and concentration, the use of multiple measurements can be cumbersome and error-prone. It is the focus of this work, to present a new method for studying water in oil (W/O) emulsions that involves using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) to examine the impact of three different surface stabilizing additives at varying concentrations. By …


Hydro Cyclonic Separation Of Polyester Microfibers From Washing Machine Wastewater, Joe Kulkarni 2023 Michigan Technological University

Hydro Cyclonic Separation Of Polyester Microfibers From Washing Machine Wastewater, Joe Kulkarni

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Clothing made from synthetic materials shed fibers in washing machines, and these fibers find their way into the effluent water. These fibers can absorb toxic materials in wastewater treatment plants and can then carry these toxins into other aquatic environments.

It’s believed that a hydro cyclone could be scaled down enough to fit into a washing machine and could be used to filter out up to 80% of the microparticles from the effluent water. It’s proposed to investigate if a hydro cyclone can be used for this application. The overall goal was for the hydro cyclone to concentrate the micro …


Utilizing Computer-Aided Molecular Design With Azido-Ester Plasticizers, Justin Ebert 2023 The University of Akron

Utilizing Computer-Aided Molecular Design With Azido-Ester Plasticizers, Justin Ebert

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal of this project was to utilize Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) using the Signature molecular descriptor to inversely design optimized azido-ester plasticizers. Azido-ester plasticizers are used to modify the mechanical properties of propellant and explosive formulations. With the assistance of quantitative structure-property relationships, QSPRs, and two types of constraint equations, these new, novel plasticizers have the potential to possess optimal physical and chemical properties. Properties investigated in this work were decomposition temperature, heat of formation, glass transition temperature, and molecular weight. These properties were chosen for their importance when formulating propellants or explosives. After the filters were applied to …


Distillery, Clare Nicholas, Patrick Hanlon 2023 The University of Akron

Distillery, Clare Nicholas, Patrick Hanlon

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal for this project is to make a cost effective still. We will be implementing cost saving parts to create a cheap but effective still. From initial research conducted, we will try to combine a stainless steel still and copper still together so that the cheaper material (stainless steel) and the component that removes sulfur compounds (copper) are both implemented. The ME side of the project will focus on the actual design and construction of the parts that will be implemented into the still. Included in the design process will be calculations of heat transfer for the current and …


Synthesis Of Quasi-Freestanding Graphene Films Using Radical Species Formed In Cold Plasmas, Michael A. Mathews Jr. 2023 West Virginia University

Synthesis Of Quasi-Freestanding Graphene Films Using Radical Species Formed In Cold Plasmas, Michael A. Mathews Jr.

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

For over a decade, the Stinespring laboratory has investigated scalable, plasma assisted synthesis (PAS) methods for the growth of graphene films on silicon carbide (SiC). These typically utilized CF4-based inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with reactive ion etching (RIE) to selectively etch silicon from the SiC lattice. This yielded a halogenated carbon-rich surface layer which was then annealed to produce the graphene layers. The thickness of the films was controlled by the plasma parameters, and overall, the process was readily scalable to the diameter of the SiC wafer.

The PAS process reproducibly yielded two- to three-layer thick graphene films …


Microwave-Assisted Ammonia Synthesis Over Cs-Ru/Ceo2 Catalyst, Alazar Kesete Araia 2023 West Virginia University

Microwave-Assisted Ammonia Synthesis Over Cs-Ru/Ceo2 Catalyst, Alazar Kesete Araia

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Ammonia synthesis is one of the greatest innovations of the 20th century with extensive applications from fertilizers to intermediates for nitrogen-containing chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Annually, more than 242 million tons of ammonia is produced globally, supporting approximately 27% of the world’s population. One of the fast-growing applications for ammonia is as H2 energy carrier due to its high energy storage capacity, considered to be a decarbonized energy source. The low volumetric energy density and incompressibility makes Hydrogen a non-preferable energy carrier; an alternative carrier becomes a requirement. Ammonia possesses unique property as an energy-dense carrier to store and …


Utilization Of Biopertalite For Fuel Efficiency And Reduction In Co And Co2 Gas Emissions In Four-Wheel Motor Vehicles, Ridwan Iskandar, Hadiyanto Hadiyanto, Suherman Suherman, Zainul Akmar Zakaria 2022 Master of Environmental Science Study Program, Graduate School, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang 50241, Indonesia

Utilization Of Biopertalite For Fuel Efficiency And Reduction In Co And Co2 Gas Emissions In Four-Wheel Motor Vehicles, Ridwan Iskandar, Hadiyanto Hadiyanto, Suherman Suherman, Zainul Akmar Zakaria

Makara Journal of Technology

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases are the main problem that must be rectified as they are harmful and contribute to global warming through the greenhouse gas effect. In Indonesia, motor vehicles, especially four wheelers, are one of the biggest contributors with up to 71 million tons of CO2 emissions and energy consumption of 179 million barrel of oil equivalent. Bioethanol has octane rating >100, which is higher than that of gasoline; and emission contribution of only 0.02 kg/L, which is lower than that from gasoline (2.23 kg/L). Accordingly, a mixture of gasoline and bioethanol is …


Anion Alloying Of Iii-V Semiconductors For Water Splitting., Sonia Calero-Barney 2022 University of Louisville

Anion Alloying Of Iii-V Semiconductors For Water Splitting., Sonia Calero-Barney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The challenge of solar energy conversion and storage translates into the discovery and development of semiconductor materials that can transform sunlight energy into electricity and/or high-energy-density fuels in a cost-effective way. From the solar energy conversion perspective, cation-alloyed III-V solar cells hold record-breaking energy conversion efficiencies, while anion-alloyed III-V’s are particularly interesting for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The major challenge for the adoption of III-V-based technologies lies in the high manufacturing costs of established synthesis techniques and the difficulty to control the composition of ternary alloys. One of the materials investigated in this work is GaSbzP1-z. Thermodynamic …


Multi-Criteria Decision Matrix Method In The Risk Analysis Of Biodiesel Production Processes, Kaylee Alles 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Multi-Criteria Decision Matrix Method In The Risk Analysis Of Biodiesel Production Processes, Kaylee Alles

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering: Theses and Student Research

Renewable fuel technologies aim to mitigate the non-renewability of fossil fuels, challenges with increased energy demand, and the climate impact of fossil fuel emissions. However, before investing in renewable technologies, there need to be decision strategies that assess and identify the best alternatives according to stakeholder priorities. There is also a concern about whether the technologies that are the “most sustainable” effectively meet the acceptable risk requirements of stakeholders. In response to this question, a risk-adapted multi-criteria decision model was developed and compared to a sustainability study that evaluated five renewable diesel technologies, including Green Diesel I, II, and III; …


Production Of Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Polymers For Soil Water Retention, Rosa Maria Arredondo Ramirez 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Production Of Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Polymers For Soil Water Retention, Rosa Maria Arredondo Ramirez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) have attracted tremendous attention, with researchers noting that their high water absorption capacity (AC) is valuable for various applications, especially in agricultural contexts. Two types of materials can be used to produce SAPs: fossil-based (which are harmful to the environment) and bio-based (which are significantly more environmentally friendly, given their biodegradability and minimal toxic side effects). Although bio-based SAPs (Bio-SAPs) are preferable due to their environmental merits, their preparation tends to be time consuming and labour intensive, and their AC is still far below expectations. To address these problems, a novel, eco-friendly, cellulose-based superabsorbent polymer (Cellulo-SAP) was …


Synthesis Of A Phosphorus-Based Epoxy Reactive Flame Retardant Analog To Diglycidyl Ether Of Bisphenol A (Dgeba) And Its Behavior As A Matrix In A Carbon Fiber Composite, Mustafa Mukhtar 2022 University of Dayton

Synthesis Of A Phosphorus-Based Epoxy Reactive Flame Retardant Analog To Diglycidyl Ether Of Bisphenol A (Dgeba) And Its Behavior As A Matrix In A Carbon Fiber Composite, Mustafa Mukhtar

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper describes the synthesis of a phosphorus-based flame retardant that is a chemical analog of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), as well as its incorporation as a matrix into carbon fiber laminates. Carbon fiber composites, if used for structural applications in mass transport vehicles (aircraft, trains), will require some aspects of improved fire performance to be used safely in those applications. The first phase of work involved the development of two separate synthesis routes to produce the flame retardant monomer, referred to as Phosphorus-DGEBA or simply P-DGEBA. The second step was to determine the viability of the compound's …


Identification Of Lithocholic Acid As A Molecular Glass Host For Room-Temperature Phosphorescent Materials, John J. Flynn, Zachary M. Marsh, Douglas M. Krein, Steven M. Wolf, Joy E. Haley, Erick S. Vasquez, Thomas M. Cooper, Nicholas P. Godman, Tod A. Grusenmeyer 2022 Air Force Research Laboratory

Identification Of Lithocholic Acid As A Molecular Glass Host For Room-Temperature Phosphorescent Materials, John J. Flynn, Zachary M. Marsh, Douglas M. Krein, Steven M. Wolf, Joy E. Haley, Erick S. Vasquez, Thomas M. Cooper, Nicholas P. Godman, Tod A. Grusenmeyer

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Lithocholic acid was identified as a molecular glass host material for room temperature phosphorescent (RTP) chromophores. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed on a series of structurally similar, biologically sourced molecules, including lithocholic acid, β-estradiol, cholesterol, and β-sitosterol, in an effort to identify new amorphous molecular glasses independent of plasticizing additives. DSC analysis revealed lithocholic acid and β-estradiol form stable molecular glasses post thermal processing unlike neat cholesterol and β-sitosterol. The ability of lithocholic acid and β-estradiol to stabilize high wt. % loadings of d10-pyrene and a mixture of d10-pyrene and an iridium chromophore, bis(2,4-difluorophenylpyridinato)-tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate iridium(III) (FIr6), was also investigated. …


Identification And Distribution Analysis Of The Mid-Phase In A Low-Velocity Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed, Zhenan Zhang 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Identification And Distribution Analysis Of The Mid-Phase In A Low-Velocity Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed, Zhenan Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The intermediate phase in low-velocity gas-solid fluidized beds generally presents excellent gas-solid contact in the systems. However, no comprehensive understanding of this vital phase is available in the literature. Therefore, this study proposed a statistical method to identify this intermediate phase, named ‘mid-phase’ in this thesis, to interpret the system performance based on the analysis of solids holdup in a low-velocity gas-solid fluidized bed.

The distributions of the mid-phase are investigated along both radial and axial directions in consideration of different flow regimes. The result shows that the turbulent regime contains a higher amount of mid-phase and the spatial mid-phase …


Electric Field Driven Co-Assembly And Transport Of Colloids Using Active-Passive Interaction, Brishty Deb Choudhury 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Electric Field Driven Co-Assembly And Transport Of Colloids Using Active-Passive Interaction, Brishty Deb Choudhury

LSU Master's Theses

Over the past few decades, the out-of-equilibrium transport and assembly of colloidal particles have been drawing significant interest due to their myriad applications in biology, engineering, and physics. In the absence of any external force, micro and nanoparticles perform Brownian motion in dispersion and are termed as passive colloids. In contrast, active colloids are a class of particles where a net imbalance of fluid flow around their surface drives their net migration in space when subjected to an external electric field. While several studies have shown the ability to program the dynamics of active colloids using an external electric field, …


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