Determination Of Kinetic Parameters From The Thermogravimetric Data Set Of Biomass Samples, 2012 Wroclaw University of Technology

#### Determination Of Kinetic Parameters From The Thermogravimetric Data Set Of Biomass Samples, Karol Postawa, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

*Wojciech Budzianowski*

This article describes methods of the determination of kinetic parameters from the thermogravimetric data set of biomass samples. It presents the methodology of the research, description of the needed equipment, and the method of analysis of thermogravimetric data. It describes both methodology of obtaining quantitative data such as kinetic parameters as well as of obtaining qualitative data like the composition of biomass. The study is focused mainly on plant biomass because it is easy in harvesting and preparation. Methodology is shown on the sample containing corn stover which is subsequently pyrolysed. The investigated sample show the kinetic of first order ...

Mechaniczny Rozdział Faz Proj., 2012 Wroclaw University of Technology

#### Mechaniczny Rozdział Faz Proj., Wojciech M. Budzianowski

*Wojciech Budzianowski*

No abstract provided.

Challenges And Prospects Of Processes Utilising Carbonic Anhydrase For Co2 Separation, 2012 Wroclaw University of Technology

#### Challenges And Prospects Of Processes Utilising Carbonic Anhydrase For Co2 Separation, Patrycja Szeligiewicz, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

*Wojciech Budzianowski*

This article provides an analysis of processes for separation CO2 by using carbonic anhydrase enzyme with particular emphasis on reactive-membrane solutions. Three available processes are characterised. Main challenges and prospects are given. It is found that in view of numerous challenges practical applications of these processes will be difficult in near future. Further research is therefore needed for improving existing processes through finding methods for eliminating their main drawbacks such as short lifetime of carbonic anhydrase or low resistance of reactive membrane systems to impurities contained in flue gases from power plants.

Mild Yet Phase-Selective Preparation Of Tio2 Nanoparticles From Ionic Liquids – A Critical Study, 2012 Iowa State University

#### Mild Yet Phase-Selective Preparation Of Tio2 Nanoparticles From Ionic Liquids – A Critical Study, Tarek Alammar, Heshmat Noei, Yuemin Wang, Anja V. Mudring

*Anja V. Mudring*

The phase selective synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2, titania, in ionic liquids (ILs) is explored. The influence not only of the IL but also of the Ti-precursor, pH, and temperature is investigated. Sonochemical synthesis, microwave synthesis and conventional heating are compared. In the case of Ti(OiPr)4 (OiPr ¼ isopropyl) as the Ti-source the ILs [C4mim][Tf2N] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide), [C3mimOH][Tf2N] (1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide), [C4Py]- [Tf2N] (butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide), [N1888][Tf2N] (methyltrioctylammonium bis- (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide), and [P66614][Tf2N] (tetradecyltrihexyl phosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide) led at ambient temperature to TiO2 in the form of anatase ...

Phase And Morphology Selective Interface-Assisted Synthesis Of Highly Luminescent Ln3+-Doped Nagdf4 Nanorods, 2012 Iowa State University

#### Phase And Morphology Selective Interface-Assisted Synthesis Of Highly Luminescent Ln3+-Doped Nagdf4 Nanorods, Anja V. Mudring, Qiang Ju

*Anja V. Mudring*

Making use of the multifunctional properties of ionic liquids by employing them as a fluoride resource and hydrophilic phase, we have grown small, monodisperse, highly luminescent Ln3+-doped NaGdF4 nanorods at the interface between octadecene and the reactive ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. The obtained nanocrystals could further be endowed with functional groups and rendered water dispersible, which allows them to be used for biodetection.

On The Mesophase Formation Of 1,3-Dialkylimidazolium Ionic Liquids, 2012 Iowa State University

#### On The Mesophase Formation Of 1,3-Dialkylimidazolium Ionic Liquids, Mei Yang, Bert Mallick, Anja V. Mudring

*Anja V. Mudring*

A series of seven different 1,3-dialkylimidazolium-based ion-pair salts with the same molecular weight and size but different symmetries was synthesized. For all salts, bromide was chosen as the counterion, giving the series ([CnIMCm][Br]), where IM = imidazolium and Cn and Cm are varying N-alkyl substituents with n + m = 13. Thus, the effect of symmetry on the physicochemical properties, such as thermal transitions, densities and viscosities and particularly mesophase formation, is investigated herein. All salts are fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and their physicochemical properties such as thermal transitions, densities, and viscosities are reported. Single crystal X-ray ...

Coarse-Graining Approach To Infer Mesoscale Interaction Potentials From Atomistic Interactions For Aggregating Systems, 2012 Iowa State University

#### Coarse-Graining Approach To Infer Mesoscale Interaction Potentials From Atomistic Interactions For Aggregating Systems, Sergiy Markutsya, Rodney O. Fox, Shankar Subramaniam

*Mechanical Engineering Publications*

A coarse-graining (CG) approach is developed to infer mesoscale interaction potentials in aggregating systems, resulting in an improved potential of mean force for Langevin dynamics (LD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. Starting from the evolution equation for the solute pair correlation function, this semi-analytical CG approach identifies accurate modeling of the relative acceleration between solute particles in a solvent bath as a reliable route to predicting the time-evolving structural properties of nonequilibrium aggregating systems. Noting that the solute–solvent pair correlation function attains a steady state rapidly as compared to characteristic aggregation time scales, this CG approach derives the effective ...

Modelling Three-Phase Flow In Metallurgical Processes, 2012 Aalto University - School of Chemical Technology

#### Modelling Three-Phase Flow In Metallurgical Processes, Christoph Goniva, Gijsbert Wierink, Kari Heiskanen, Stefan Pirker, Christoph Kloss

*Gijsbert Wierink*

The interaction between gasses, liquids, and solids plays a critical role in many processes, such as coating, granulation and the blast furnace process. In this paper we present a comprehensive numerical model for three phase flow including droplets, particles and gas. By means of a coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) - Discrete Element Method (DEM) approach the physical core phenomena are pictured at a detailed level. Sub-models for droplet deformation, breakup and coalescence as well as droplet-particle and wet particle-particle interaction are applied. The feasibility of this model approach is demonstrated by its application to a rotating drum coater. The described ...

A Microfluidic Reactor For Energy Applications, 2012 Iowa State University

#### A Microfluidic Reactor For Energy Applications, Luke T. Wagner, Jie Yang, Susan Ghobadian, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi

*Mechanical Engineering Publications*

Miniature microbial fuel cells have recently drawn lots of attention as portable power generation devices due to their short startup time and environmentally-friendly process which could be used for powering small integrated biosensors. We designed and fabricated a microbial fuel cell in a microfluidic platform. The device was made in polydimethylsiloxane with a volume of 4 μL and consisted of two carbon cloth electrodes and proton exchange membrane. Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 was chosen to be the electrogenic bacterial strain and inoculated into the anode chamber. Ferricyanide was used as the catholyte and pumped into the cathode chamber at a constant ...

An Exercise With The He’S Variation Iteration Method To A Fractional Bernoulli Equation Arising In A Transient Conduction With A Non-Linear Boundary Heat Flux, 2012 University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy

#### An Exercise With The He’S Variation Iteration Method To A Fractional Bernoulli Equation Arising In A Transient Conduction With A Non-Linear Boundary Heat Flux, Jordan Hristov

*Jordan Hristov*

Surface temperature evolution of a body subjected to a nonlinear heat flux involving counteracting convection heating and radiation cooling has been solved by the variations iteration method (VIM) of He. The surface temperature equations comes as a combination of the time-fractional (half-time) subdiffusion model of the heat conduction and the boundary condition relating the temperature field gradient at the surface through the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral. The result of this equation is a Bernoulli-type ordinary fractional equation with a nonlinear term of 4th order. Two approaches in the identification of the general Lagrange multiplier and a consequent application of VIM have ...

Asymptotic Boundary-Layer Solutions For Mixed Convection From A Vertical Surface In A Micropolar Fluid, 2012 Cleveland State University

#### Asymptotic Boundary-Layer Solutions For Mixed Convection From A Vertical Surface In A Micropolar Fluid, Rama Subba Reddy Gorla, Paul P. Lin, An-Jen J. Yang

*Rama S.R. Gorla*

Using the theory of micropolar fluids due to Eringen, asymptotic boundary layer solutions are presented to study the combined convection from a vertical semi-infinite plate to a micropolar fluid. Consideration is given to the region close to the leading edge as well as the region far away from the leading edge. Numerical results are obtained for the velocity, angular velocity and temperature distribution. The missing wall values of the velocity, angular velocity and thermal functions are tabulated. Micropolar fluids display drag reduction and reduced surface heat transfer rate when compared to Newtonian fluids.

A Numerical Solution For The Turbulent Flow Of Non-Newtonian Fluids In The Entrance Region Of A Heated Circular Tube, 2012 Cleveland State University

#### A Numerical Solution For The Turbulent Flow Of Non-Newtonian Fluids In The Entrance Region Of A Heated Circular Tube, Prapat Wangskarn, Bahman Ghorashi, Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

*Rama S.R. Gorla*

Numerical solutions of conservation equations are obtained for turbulent flow of non-Newtonian fluids in a circular tube. The forward marching procedure of Patankar and Spalding^1 was implemented in order to obtain the simultaneous development of the velocity and temperature fields by using the apparent viscosity of fluids. Prandtl's mixing length concept is used to determine the apparent turbulent shearing stress. Furthermore, local and average Nusselt numbers are obtained in the entrance region, as well as in the fully developed region. For the case of the fully developed region, values of the Nusselt numbers are compared both with the ...

Mixed Convection In Vertical Internal Flow Of A Micropolar Fluid, 2012 Cleveland State University

#### Mixed Convection In Vertical Internal Flow Of A Micropolar Fluid, Rama Subba Reddy Gorla, Bahman Ghorashi, Prapat Wangskarn

*Rama S.R. Gorla*

The theory of micropolar fluids due to Eringen is used to formulate a set of equations for the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the combined convection micropolar flow in vertical channels. It is found that the microstructure and substructure parameters have significant effects on the flow and thermal fields. By making the Newtonian solvent more and more micropolar, it is possible to obtain drag reduction as well as reduced heat transfer characteristics.

Asymptotic Boundary-Layer Solutions For Mixed Convection From A Vertical Surface In A Micropolar Fluid, 2012 Cleveland State University

#### Asymptotic Boundary-Layer Solutions For Mixed Convection From A Vertical Surface In A Micropolar Fluid, Rama Subba Reddy Gorla, Paul P. Lin, An-Jen J. Yang

*Paul P. Lin*

Using the theory of micropolar fluids due to Eringen, asymptotic boundary layer solutions are presented to study the combined convection from a vertical semi-infinite plate to a micropolar fluid. Consideration is given to the region close to the leading edge as well as the region far away from the leading edge. Numerical results are obtained for the velocity, angular velocity and temperature distribution. The missing wall values of the velocity, angular velocity and thermal functions are tabulated. Micropolar fluids display drag reduction and reduced surface heat transfer rate when compared to Newtonian fluids.

Heat And Momentum Transfer Analogies For The Transitional And Turbulent Flow Of A Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid In A Heated Pipe, 2012 Cleveland State University

#### Heat And Momentum Transfer Analogies For The Transitional And Turbulent Flow Of A Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid In A Heated Pipe, Prapat Wangskarn, Bahman Ghorashi

*Bahman Ghorashi*

A model is proposed for the transfer of heat to non-Newtonian power-law fluids flowing in heated horizontal pipes. Comparisons with the existing models, based on the absolute-percent-arithmetic-average-deviation and the percent-standard-deviation, show that under the transitional and turbulent flow regimes the proposed correlation fits the experimental data more accurately over a wide range of flow behavior index and there are no restrictions for its use when applied to pseudoplastic fluids.

Characterization And Quantification Of Monomers, Oligomers, And By-Products From Xylan During Biomass Pretreatment, 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Characterization And Quantification Of Monomers, Oligomers, And By-Products From Xylan During Biomass Pretreatment, Ching-Shuan Lau

*Theses and Dissertations*

Biomass pretreatment generates inhibitory products, which reduce the overall yield of xylose for ethanol production. Understanding of hemicellulose depolymerization into xylose is essential to identify the pretreatment conditions that maximize xylose formation, but minimize the generation of these inhibitory products, such as formic acid and furfural. Thus, the goal of this project is to understand how dilute acid pretreatment parameters affect hemicellulose depolymerization, maximize xylose concentrations, and minimize by-products formation.

To progress towards this goal, rates and mechanisms of hemicellulose release must be determined. Birchwood xylan was used as the starting material to produce xylose oligomers. The hydrolyzed birchwood xylan ...

Plasmonic Pervaporation Via Gold Nanoparticle-Functionalized Nanocomposite Membranes, 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Plasmonic Pervaporation Via Gold Nanoparticle-Functionalized Nanocomposite Membranes, Aaron Russell

*Theses and Dissertations*

Butanol derived from biological feedstocks has significant potential as a liquid fuel source, but the separation methods used in its production can be prohibitively expensive and are therefore currently the subject of extensive research. Pervaporation is a promising membrane process that is effective in butanol separations, but involves a large energy demand. This study examines the possibility of increasing flux and energy efficiency in pervaporation via plasmonic heating of gold nanoparticle-functionalized, polymer nanocomposite membranes (AuNCMs) in lieu of conventional feed heating. An economic analysis demonstrated that plasmonic pervaporation could achieve significant reductions in energy usage and utility cost in butanol ...

Integral-Balance Solution To The Stokes’ First Problem Of A Viscoelastic Generalized Second Grade Fluid, 2012 University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy

#### Integral-Balance Solution To The Stokes’ First Problem Of A Viscoelastic Generalized Second Grade Fluid, Jordan Hristov

*Jordan Hristov*

Integral balance solution employing entire domain approximation and the penetration dept concept to the Stokes’ first problem of a viscoelastic generalized second grade fluid has been developed. The solution has been performed by a parabolic profile with an unspecified exponent allowing optimization through minimization of the norm over the domain of the penetration depth. The closed form solution explicitly defines two dimensionless similarity variables and , responsible for the viscous and the elastic responses of the fluid to the step jump at the boundary. The solution was developed with three forms of the governing equation through its two dimensional forms (the ...

Thermal Impedance At The Interface Of Contacting Bodies: 1-D Example Solved By Semi-Derivatives, 2012 University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy

#### Thermal Impedance At The Interface Of Contacting Bodies: 1-D Example Solved By Semi-Derivatives, Jordan Hristov

*Jordan Hristov*

Simple 1-D semi-infinite heat conduction problems enable to demonstrate the potential of the fractional calculus in determination of transient thermal impedances of two bodies with different initial temperatures contacting at the interface ( ) at . The approach is purely analytic and uses only semi-derivatives (half-time) and semi-integrals in the Riemann-Liouville sense. The example solved clearly reveals that the fractional calculus is more effective in calculation the thermal resistances than the entire domain solutions

Molecular Dynamic Simulations Of The Effect On The Hydration Of Nafion In The Presence Of A Platinum Nanoparticle, 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

#### Molecular Dynamic Simulations Of The Effect On The Hydration Of Nafion In The Presence Of A Platinum Nanoparticle, Myvizhi Esai Selvan, Qianping He, Elisa Calvo-Muñoz, David Keffer

*David Keffer*

Platinum catalysts play a critical role in fuel cell technology. Current optimization efforts focus on reducing the amount of Pt in the system and optimizing the utilization of that which remains. The effect of the presence of Pt nanoparticles on the local structure and morphology of the polymer electrolyte membrane, water, and hydronium ions has been studied at molecular level in this work. Classical molecular dynamics simulation has been used to examine a system containing a 4 nm fcc cubic ({100} face) platinum nanoparticle at the center surrounded by Nafion polymer, water molecules, and hydronium ions at λ = 3, 6 ...