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Facile One-Step Solid-State Synthesis Of Ni-Rich Layered Oxide Cathodes For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jing-Yue Wang, Rui Wang, Shi-Qi Wang, Li-Fan Wang, Chun Zhan 2022 Department of Energy Storage Science and Technology, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;

Facile One-Step Solid-State Synthesis Of Ni-Rich Layered Oxide Cathodes For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jing-Yue Wang, Rui Wang, Shi-Qi Wang, Li-Fan Wang, Chun Zhan

Journal of Electrochemistry

Nickel-rich layered oxide is one of the dominate cathode materials in the lithium ion batteries, due to its high specific energy density meeting the range requirement of the electric vehicles. Typically, the commercial Ni-rich layered oxides are synthesized from co-precipitated precursors, while precision control is required in the co-precipitation process to ensure the atomic level mixing of the cations such as Ni, Co and Mn, et.al. In this work, a one-step solid-state method was successfully applied to synthesize the Ni-rich layered oxide materials with ultra-high Ni content. By choosing the nickel hydroxides as the precursor with layered structure similar to …


Modeling Solvent Extraction Of Lignin From Hardwoods, Su Pan 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Modeling Solvent Extraction Of Lignin From Hardwoods, Su Pan

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This study interprets the observed behavior of solvent extraction of lignin from hardwoods by adapting the framework of the FLASHCHAIN theory (Niksa and Kerstein, 1991; Niksa, 2017). A constitution submodel specifies distributions of molecular weight and reactive sites for native lignin. The model simulates delignification as depolymerization of lignin macromolecules into fragments small enough to be soluble. This process competes with intrachain condensation that consumes labile bridges without forming new fragments, and with recombination that forms larger chains and inhibits further depolymerization. After the soluble fragments are transported from the particle into the bulk solvent, all chemistry continues as long …


Intersections Of Environmentalism, Chemistry, And Racism: An Experimental Study Of Halobenzene Hydrogenolysis And Critical Communication Studies Of Equitable Learning Practices Rooted In Black Feminism, Lauren O. Babb 2022 The University of Maine

Intersections Of Environmentalism, Chemistry, And Racism: An Experimental Study Of Halobenzene Hydrogenolysis And Critical Communication Studies Of Equitable Learning Practices Rooted In Black Feminism, Lauren O. Babb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increasing concentrations of fluorinated aromatic compounds in surface water, groundwater, and soil pose threats to the environment. Fundamental studies that elucidate mechanisms of dehalogenation for C-X compounds (where X represents a halide) are required to develop effective remediation strategies. For halogenated benzenes, previously published research has suggested that the strength of the C-X bond is not rate-determining in the overall rate of dehalogenation. Instead, the rate-determining step has been hypothesized to be adsorption of the C-X compound onto the surface of a catalyst. Building on this hypothesis, in this work, we examine the reaction kinetics of fluorobenzene conversion to benzene, …


Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Jack Rabbit Ii Mock Urban Environment Gas Concentration Measurements, Sami S. Fares 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Jack Rabbit Ii Mock Urban Environment Gas Concentration Measurements, Sami S. Fares

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The 2015 Jack Rabbit (JR) II field trials were conducted to improve understanding of the denser-than-air dispersion of chlorine in an urban environment. The field study involved five large-scale, outdoor release trials of chlorine in a mock urban environment (MUE) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). Various instrumentation was deployed, including JazTM Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) point sensors capable of measuring gas-phase chlorine concentration throughout the mock urban array.

The Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC) was tasked by the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) with the Mock Urban Wind Tunnel (MUWT) program to study the 2015 JR II Trials at wind tunnel scale. …


Performance And Fouling During Bioreactor Harvesting, Da Zhang 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Performance And Fouling During Bioreactor Harvesting, Da Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tangential flow filtration has many advantages for bioreactor harvesting as the permeate could be introduced directly to the subsequent capture step, the process is easy to scale up, and fouling of the filter is limited by the cross flow. However, membrane fouling has limited its widespread use. This is particularly problematic given the high cell densities encountered today. Here a reverse asymmetric commercial membrane, BioOptimal™ MF-SL (Asahi Kasei), where the more open surface faces the feed stream, and the tighter barrier layer faces the permeate stream, has been investigated for bioreactor harvesting. The open surface contains pores up to 40 …


Chromatographic Dynamic Chemisorption, Shreya Thakkar 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chromatographic Dynamic Chemisorption, Shreya Thakkar

Masters Theses

Reaction rates of catalytic cycles over supported metal catalysts are normalized by the exposed metal atoms on the catalyst surface, reported as site time yields which provide a rigorous standard to compare distinct metal surfaces. Defined as the fraction of exposed metal surface atoms to the total number of metal atoms, it is important to measure the dispersion of supported metal catalysts to report standardized rates for kinetic investigations. Multiple characterization techniques such as electron microscopy, spectroscopy and chemisorption are exploited for catalyst dispersion measurements. While effective, electron microscopy and spectroscopy are not readily accessible due to cost and maintenance …


Augmented Formic Acid Electro-Oxidation At A Co-Electrodeposited Pd/Au Nanoparticle Catalyst, Yaser M. Asal, Ahmad M. Mohammad, Sayed S. Abd El Rehim, Islam M. Al-Akraa 2022 The British University in Egypt

Augmented Formic Acid Electro-Oxidation At A Co-Electrodeposited Pd/Au Nanoparticle Catalyst, Yaser M. Asal, Ahmad M. Mohammad, Sayed S. Abd El Rehim, Islam M. Al-Akraa

Chemical Engineering

In this study, the formic acid electro-oxidation reaction (FAEOR) was catalyzed on a Pd-Au co-electrodeposited binary catalyst. The kinetics of FAEOR were intensively impacted by changing the Pd2+:Au3+ molar ratio in the deposition medium. The Pd1-Au1 catalyst (for which the Pd2+:Au3+ molar ratio was 1:1) acquired the highest activity with a peak current density for the direct FAEOR (Ip) of 4.14 mA cm−2 (ca. 13- times higher than that (ca. 0.33 mA cm−2) of the pristine Pd1-Au0 catalyst). It also retained the highest stability that was denoted in fulfilling ca. 0.292 mA cm−2 (ca. 19-times higher than 0.015 …


Designing The Electrode Geometry And Electrolyte To Enhance The Product Selectivity And Activity In Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction, Samaneh Sharifi Golru 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Designing The Electrode Geometry And Electrolyte To Enhance The Product Selectivity And Activity In Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction, Samaneh Sharifi Golru

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Excessive utilization of the fossil fuels due to the rapid growth of the global population has resulted in a dramatic increase in the carbon dioxide (CO2) level in the atmosphere which is the main reason for global warming and climate change. Therefore, green technologies are in high demand to develop carbon-neutral energy cycles. In this regard, CO2 electroreduction (CO2ER) has been proposed as a promising approach for CO2 utilization. CO2ER can mitigate the CO2 level in the atmosphere as well as produce value-added chemicals and fuels at ambient conditions. Despite the benefits of CO2 …


Electrocatalytic “Volcano-Type” Effect Of Nano-Tio2 (A)/(R) Phase Content In Pt/Tio2-CnX Catalyst, Ai-Lin Cui, Yang Bai, Hong-Ying Yu, Hui-Min Meng 2022 Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China;

Electrocatalytic “Volcano-Type” Effect Of Nano-Tio2 (A)/(R) Phase Content In Pt/Tio2-CnX Catalyst, Ai-Lin Cui, Yang Bai, Hong-Ying Yu, Hui-Min Meng

Journal of Electrochemistry

The relationship between the electrochemical activity of fuel cell catalysts and Pt particle size, as well as the catalyst support and co-catalyst is still unclear. In this work, FESEM, XRD, BET, TEM and CV techniques were adopted to investigate the effects of TiO2 anatase (A)/rutile (R) phases content on the electrochemical activity of Pt electrocatalyst. The results showed that the anatase-rutile phase transformation occurred during the heat treatment of TiO2 at 700 ~ 900 oC accompanied by the growth of two-phase crystalline size, and anatase was completely transformed into rutile at 900 oC. TEM results revealed that the …


Electrochemical Synthesis Of Acetylpyrazine, Lin Mao, Dong-Fang Niu, Shuo-Zhen Hu, Xin-Sheng Zhang 2022 State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China;

Electrochemical Synthesis Of Acetylpyrazine, Lin Mao, Dong-Fang Niu, Shuo-Zhen Hu, Xin-Sheng Zhang

Journal of Electrochemistry

Acetylpyrazine is naturally presented in hazelnuts, peanuts, and sesame seeds. As an important food additive, it is widely used in baked foods, meat, sesame and tobacco. At the same time, acetylpyrazine is also an important pharmaceutical intermediate, which is used in the syntheses of anti-tuberculosis drugs, anti-tumor, anti-malaria, anti-viral, antibacterial and treatments of epilepsy, pain and Parkinson’s drugs. At present, the synthesis methods of acetylpyrazine include oxidation method, multi-step method and Grignard reagent method, which have the disadvantages of low yield, cumbersome process, severe reaction conditions and high cost. In this study, acetylation of pyrazine was used to synthesize acetylpyrazine …


Study And Improvement On Expansion Property Of Silicon Oxide, Wei-Chuan Qiao, Fang-Ru Li, Jin-Lin Xiao, Li-Juan Qu, Xiao Zhao, Meng Zhang, Chun-Lei Pang, Zi-Kun Li, Jian-Guo Ren, Xue-Qin He 2022 BTR New Material Group Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518106, Guangdong, China;

Study And Improvement On Expansion Property Of Silicon Oxide, Wei-Chuan Qiao, Fang-Ru Li, Jin-Lin Xiao, Li-Juan Qu, Xiao Zhao, Meng Zhang, Chun-Lei Pang, Zi-Kun Li, Jian-Guo Ren, Xue-Qin He

Journal of Electrochemistry

The silicon-based anode materials have the potential to meet the ever-increasing demand for energy density in lithium-ion batteries market owing to their high theoretical specific capacity. Unfortunately, their commercialization was hindered by the continuous volume expansion. Herein, the expansion characteristics and corresponding mechanism of the silicon oxide and graphite-silicon oxide composites were investigated by in-situ displacement detection systematically. The results showed that the expansion property was improved by material process modifications. During the de/lithiation processes of graphite, the expansion ratio in 30% ~ 50% SOC changed little because of the small interlayer spacing variation of the intercalated graphite. …


Preparation And Properties Of Gcp-Supported Palladium Particles Composite Towards Electrochemical Ammonia Synthesis, Ying-Chao Wang, Zi-Zai Ma, Yi-Fan Wu, Xiao-Guang Wang 2022 1. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, China;

Preparation And Properties Of Gcp-Supported Palladium Particles Composite Towards Electrochemical Ammonia Synthesis, Ying-Chao Wang, Zi-Zai Ma, Yi-Fan Wu, Xiao-Guang Wang

Journal of Electrochemistry

Ammonia (NH3) plays an essential role in agriculture and modern industries. Electrochemical fixation of nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NRR) under ambient conditions with renewable electricity is a promising strategy to replace the industrial Haber-Bosch method. However, it usually suffers from extremely poor ammonia yield and low Faraday efficiency due to the poor electrocatalysts. Therefore, intensive studies have been devoted to developing efficient NRR catalysts till now. Among them, palladium (Pd) can capture protons in the aqueous phase to form stable α-PdH, which balances the competitive adsorption between nitrogen and protons as well as reduces the …


Surface Engineering Of Pt Surfaces With Au And Cobalt Oxide Nanostructures For Enhanced Formic Acid Electro-Oxidation, Yaser M. Asal, Islam M. Al-Akraa, Ahmad M. Mohammad 2022 The British University in Egypt

Surface Engineering Of Pt Surfaces With Au And Cobalt Oxide Nanostructures For Enhanced Formic Acid Electro-Oxidation, Yaser M. Asal, Islam M. Al-Akraa, Ahmad M. Mohammad

Chemical Engineering

This study aims to mitigate the CO poisoning of platinum (Pt) surfaces during formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO), the essential anodic reaction in the direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). For this purpose, a glassy carbon (GC) electrode was amended sequentially with Pt (n-Pt), gold (n-Au), and cobalt oxide (n-CoOx) nanostructures. Fascinatingly, the ternary modified n-CoOx/n-Au/n-Pt/GC catalyst (for which n-Pt, n-Au, and n-CoOx were sequentially and respectively assembled onto the GC surface) exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic enhancement toward FAEO, which surpassed ca. 53 times that of the Pt/GC catalyst. Additionally, it exhibited a much (ca. 18 times) higher stability after 3000 …


Development Of Photocatalytic Reactor System For Dye Degradation From Lab To Pilot Scale, Waleed Jadaa 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of Photocatalytic Reactor System For Dye Degradation From Lab To Pilot Scale, Waleed Jadaa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The overall goal of the research is to develop a novel photocatalytic reactor system, namely, a bubble column photoreactor for the degradation of resistant pollutants, with a particular emphasis on azo dyes. To achieve the objective, different sub-objectives were performed employing lab and pilot-scale reactors with the application of simulated wastewater. Direct Blue (DB15) was used as a model compound for the azo dyes class for this study. Firstly, the influence of various variables such as pH, dye concentration, and catalyst loading to determine optimal combinations of DB15 removal. The experiments were conducted in a swirl flow photoreactor under the …


Photocatalytic Degradation Of Organic Contaminants By Titania Particles Produced By Flame Spray Pyrolysis, Noah Babik 2022 Mississippi State University

Photocatalytic Degradation Of Organic Contaminants By Titania Particles Produced By Flame Spray Pyrolysis, Noah Babik

Theses and Dissertations

Advanced oxidation of organic pollutants with TiO2 photocatalysts is limited due to the wide bandgap of TiO2, 3.2 eV, which requires ultraviolet (UV) radiation. When nanosized TiO2 is modified by carbon doping, charge recombination is inhibited and the bandgap is narrowed, allowing for efficient photodegradation under visible light. Here, we propose a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) technique to create TiO2. The facile process of FSP has been successful in preparing highly crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles. Using the same procedure to deposit TiO2 onto biochar, the photocatalyst was doped by the carbonaceous material. The morphology, crystalline and electronic structure of the FSP …


Optimization Of Styrene From Ethylbenzene Case Study, Jabria Daria Thompson 2022 University of Mississippi

Optimization Of Styrene From Ethylbenzene Case Study, Jabria Daria Thompson

Honors Theses

The following pages detail the optimization process of styrene from ethylbenzene in the Styrene Production Plant, Unit 500. There were two parts of the assignment, each with slightly different end goals. The goal of the first part of the assignment, was to create a process that would effectively and efficiently increase the negative Net Present Value (NPV) of the production plant. Procedures taken in this process included developing a working kinetic process simulation model and optimizing this model through unit operations and heat integration, as well as developing an accurate economic model that will be used to evaluate the proposed …


Kinetics Of Carboxymethylation Reaction Of Cellulose Samples With Different Degree Of Crystallinity, Ilkhom GOYIBNAZAROV, Sherzod YULDOSHOV, Abdushukhur SARIMSOKOV 2022 Institute of Polymer Chemistry and Physics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Kinetics Of Carboxymethylation Reaction Of Cellulose Samples With Different Degree Of Crystallinity, Ilkhom Goyibnazarov, Sherzod Yuldoshov, Abdushukhur Sarimsokov

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of Synthesis 4´,4´´-Di-(1-Methyl-1-Hydroxy-2-Phenylethynyl)-Dibenzo-18-Crown-6, Lyubov KOZINSKAYA, Dilorom MIRKHAMITOVA 2022 National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Mathematical Modeling Of Synthesis 4´,4´´-Di-(1-Methyl-1-Hydroxy-2-Phenylethynyl)-Dibenzo-18-Crown-6, Lyubov Kozinskaya, Dilorom Mirkhamitova

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The main goal of this study is the mathematical modeling of the optimal conditions for the synthesis of 4´,4´´-di-(1-methyl-1-hydroxy-2-phenylethynyl)-dibenzo-18-crown-6 by the least squares method. In the STAT program, iconograms of mathematical modeling of the synthesis and the dependence of the rate of formation of 4´,4´´-di-(1-methyl-1-hydroxy-2-phenylethynyl)-dibenzo-18-crown-6 on temperature and reaction time were obtained, the corresponding analytical dependencies are determined. Mathematical processing of the results of the synthesis of 4´,4´´-di-(1-methyl-1-hydroxy-2-phenylethynyl)-dibenzo-18-crown-6 was carried out, a system of linear equations was compiled using the matrix method. The average reaction rate and the optimum of the mathematical model were determined, and the experimental and calculated …


Optimization Of A Fluidized Bed Reactor For The Production Of Styrene From Ethylbenzene, Gregory Espenan 2022 University of Mississippi

Optimization Of A Fluidized Bed Reactor For The Production Of Styrene From Ethylbenzene, Gregory Espenan

Honors Theses

In order to optimize Unit 500, a styrene production plant, the Net Present Value (NPV) was used as the objective function to ensure every optimization strategy had a positive economic effect. To optimize a chemical plant, it is important to note efficiency, economics, product specifications, and production requirements. The goal of this project was to make changes to the base case of Unit 500 to minimize the cost to produce styrene for an upstream unit. PRO/II was used to simulate various points in different unit operations throughout the process. The NPV was measured after each unit operation was simulated to …


Electrode Development Of Water Electrolyzer Cells For Low-Cost And High-Efficiency Hydrogen Production, Shule Yu 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Electrode Development Of Water Electrolyzer Cells For Low-Cost And High-Efficiency Hydrogen Production, Shule Yu

Doctoral Dissertations

A worldwide increase in energy demand and a latent crisis in the fossil fuel supply have spurred broad research in the renewable energy. Currently, most renewable energy resources (e.g., hydro, wind, solar, tide) face supply challenges as they are known to be intermittent, unstable, and locally shackled, which calls for urgent development in energy storage and conversion. Hydrogen is regarded as an ideal energy carrier with its advantages (e.g., high energy density, environmentally friendliness, and low weight). In practice, the proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cell (PEMEC) is considered to be one of the optimal hydrogen production and energy storage devices …


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