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Ambient Ammonia Synthesis Via Microwave-Catalytic Materials And Plasma Chemistry, Siobhan Brown 2023 West Virginia University

Ambient Ammonia Synthesis Via Microwave-Catalytic Materials And Plasma Chemistry, Siobhan Brown

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Ammonia is critical to supporting human life on earth because of its use as fertilizer. The Haber-Bosch process to produce ammonia has been practiced for over 100 years. This process operates at high pressure and temperature to overcome the thermodynamic and kinetic limitations of the ammonia synthesis reaction thus researchers have tried to overcome it for decades. At present this process represents 1% of global energy usage and 2.5% of global CO2 emissions. The proposed chemical looping ammonia synthesis approach seeks to reduce the environmental impact of this critical process and to elucidate microwave-catalytic principles.

This research aims to …


Running Shoe Pedometer, Benjamin Kasper 2023 The University of Akron

Running Shoe Pedometer, Benjamin Kasper

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Running shoe pedometer aims to solve the issue of worn out running shoes. It can be difficult to know just how many miles you have run in your shoes and when a new pair is needed. Running in old shoes and worn out shoes is heavily linked to injury. My proposed project is a device that is powered by the compressive forces on the shoes soles that counts the number of steps the wearer takes using a microcontroller. Then, when the shoe reaches milestone that indicate it has been used 75% 90% and 100% of its expected life, it will …


Level And Temperature Controlled Vessel, Cameron Macesich 2023 The University of Akron

Level And Temperature Controlled Vessel, Cameron Macesich

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Using two Arduino microcontrollers, level and temperature Proportional-Integral control systems for a continuously stirred tank reactor were designed and configured. Open-loop step tests were performed and fitted with First Order Plus Time Delay responses so that controller tuning parameters could be analytically derived. The effectiveness of the designed systems was evaluated by monitoring the response of closed-loop setpoint changes.


A Process Intensification Approach To Improve Volatile Fatty Acids Production, Extraction, And Valorization, Can Liu 2023 University of Kentucky

A Process Intensification Approach To Improve Volatile Fatty Acids Production, Extraction, And Valorization, Can Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used biowaste conversion method. Recent studies have explored arrested methanogenesis as an alternative approach to leverage existing AD facilities and produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) instead of biogas. VFAs have been recognized as precursors for a range of value-added chemicals and bioproducts. Arrested methanogenesis involves inducing acidic fermentation by halting the AD process before methanogenesis. It has been found that higher organic loading and thermophilic conditions enhance VFA accumulation and stabilize the acidic fermentation (AF) system.

Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a significant by-product of the brewing industry, was employed as the feedstock for VFA …


Synthesis And Characterization Of Hybrid Catalysts For Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Production, Jack M. Steinagel 2022 Georgia Southern University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Hybrid Catalysts For Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Production, Jack M. Steinagel

Honors College Theses

Climate change is a major issue that our world is facing today. Finding renewable options for current infrastructure is paramount to solving this issue. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas from gasified biomass can produce renewable fuels that can be used in current conventional combustion engines. In order to make this process more industrially viable, a higher selectivity towards the desired range of liquid hydrocarbon products must be achieved. A novel way to do this is to introduce a catalyst to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The catalyst’s physical and chemical properties can promote chain growth of specific hydrocarbons. For the purpose of this …


Synthesis Of Novel Chiral Phosphorothioic Acid Organocatalysts And Application To Synthetic Methodology, Parsa Azaei 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Synthesis Of Novel Chiral Phosphorothioic Acid Organocatalysts And Application To Synthetic Methodology, Parsa Azaei

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Much research efforts have been centered towards the synthesis of novel Bronsted acid catalysts. These organocatalyst enable synthesis of natural products, pharmaceuticals, and bioactive small molecules under toxic-metal-free conditions by donating their protons, while not being consumed in the reaction. Chiral phosphorothioic acid have significant potential as novel organocatalysts due to their high modifiability of chirality and acidity under environmentally friendly conditions; however, synthesis of these organocatalysts are far and in between. Therefore, our research aimed to i) synthesize novel phosphorothioic acid organocatalysts and ii) to apply these novel catalysts toward new methodology development.


Elucidation Of Active Site And Mechanism Of Metal Catalysts Supported In Nu-1000, Hafeera Shabbir 2022 Clemson University

Elucidation Of Active Site And Mechanism Of Metal Catalysts Supported In Nu-1000, Hafeera Shabbir

All Dissertations

Advances in extraction of shale oil and gas has increased the production of geographically stranded natural gas (primarily consisting of methane (C1) and ethane (C2)) that is burned on site. A potential utilization strategy for shale gas is to convert it into fuel range hydrocarbons by catalytic dehydrogenation followed by oligomerization by direct efficient catalysts. This work focuses on understanding metal cation catalysts supported on metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 that will actively and selectively do this transformation under mild reaction conditions, while remaining stable to deactivation (via metal agglomeration or sintering). I built computational models validated by experimental methods to …


Insight Into The Effects Of Cation Disorder And Surface Chemical Residues On The Initial Coulombic Efficiency Of Layered Oxide Cathode, Jin-Li Liu, Han-Feng Wu, Zhi-Bei Liu, Ying-Qiang Wu, Li Wang, Feng-Li Bei, Xiang-Ming He 2022 1. Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China;2. China National Quality Supervision Testing Center for Industrial Explosive Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu P.R. China;

Insight Into The Effects Of Cation Disorder And Surface Chemical Residues On The Initial Coulombic Efficiency Of Layered Oxide Cathode, Jin-Li Liu, Han-Feng Wu, Zhi-Bei Liu, Ying-Qiang Wu, Li Wang, Feng-Li Bei, Xiang-Ming He

Journal of Electrochemistry

Lithium layered oxide LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NCM622) is one of the most promising cathode materials in high-energy lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. However, one drawback for NCM622 is that its initial coulombic efficiency (ICE) is only about 87%, which is at least 6% lower than that of LiCoO2 or LiFePO4. In this work, we investigated the effects of surface chemical residues (e.g., LiOH and Li2CO3) and Li/Ni cation disorder resulted during the sintering on the ICE. We found that the ICE of the as-prepared samples could be boosted …


Electrochemical Syntheses Of Nanomaterials And Small Molecules For Electrolytic Hydrogen Production, Jia-Qi Wei, Xiao-Dong Chen, Shu-Zhou Li 2022 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University,50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798, Singapore;

Electrochemical Syntheses Of Nanomaterials And Small Molecules For Electrolytic Hydrogen Production, Jia-Qi Wei, Xiao-Dong Chen, Shu-Zhou Li

Journal of Electrochemistry

Hydrogen is a clean, efficient, renewable energy resource and the most promising alternative to fossil fuels for future carbon-neutral energy supply. Therefore, sustainable hydrogen production is highly attractive and urgently demanded, especially via water electrolysis that has clean, abundant precursors and zero emission. However, current water electrolysis is hindered by the sluggish kinetics and low cost/energy efficiency of both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this regard, electrochemical synthesis offers prospects to raise the efficiency and benefit of water electrolysis by fabricating advanced electrocatalysts and providing more efficient/value-adding co-electrolysis alternatives. It is an eco-friendly and facile …


Catalytic Effect Of Disordered Ru-O Configurations For Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution, Xue Sun, Ya-Jie Song, Ren-Long Li, Jia-Jun Wang 2022 1. MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China;2. Chongqing Research Institute of HIT, Chongqing 401135, P. R. China;

Catalytic Effect Of Disordered Ru-O Configurations For Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution, Xue Sun, Ya-Jie Song, Ren-Long Li, Jia-Jun Wang

Journal of Electrochemistry

Phase engineering is considered as an effective method for modulating the electronic structure and catalytic activity of catalysts. The disordered conformation of amorphous materials allows flexible reforming of the surface electronic structure, showing their attractiveness as catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we designed and developed an amorphous ruthenium dioxide (a-RuO2) catalyst with a disordered Ru-O configuration. The conformational relationship between Ru-O ordering and HER performance is established by combining advanced electron microscopic techniques with detailed electrochemical tests. Specifically, the disordered Ru-O coordination significantly enhanced the HER catalytic activity in both acidic and alkaline media, ultimately leading …


Alkaline Water Electrolysis For Efficient Hydrogen Production, Wen-Fu Xie, Ming-Fei Shao 2022 State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Chemistry,Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China;

Alkaline Water Electrolysis For Efficient Hydrogen Production, Wen-Fu Xie, Ming-Fei Shao

Journal of Electrochemistry

Hydrogen production from water electrolysis is a sustainable and environmentally benign strategy in comparison with fossil fuel-based hydrogen. However, this promising technique suffers from the high energy consumption and unsatisfactory cost due to the sluggish kinetics of both half reaction and inferior stability of electrocatalysts. To address this challenge, herein, we present a timely and comprehensive review on advances in alkaline water electrolysis that is already commercialized for large scale hydrogen production. The design principles and strategies with aiming to promote the performance of hydrogen generation are discussed from the view of electrocatalyst, electrode, reaction and system. The challenges and …


Alkaline Seawater Electrolysis At Industrial Level:Recent Progress And Perspective, Tao Zhang, Yi-Pu Liu, Qi-Tong Ye, Hong-Jin Fan 2022 1. School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link,Singapore 637371, Singapore;

Alkaline Seawater Electrolysis At Industrial Level:Recent Progress And Perspective, Tao Zhang, Yi-Pu Liu, Qi-Tong Ye, Hong-Jin Fan

Journal of Electrochemistry

Industrial hydrogen generation through water splitting, powered by renewable energy such as solar, wind and marine, paves a potential way for energy and environment sustainability. However, state-of-the-art electrolysis using high purity water as hydrogen source at an industrial level would bring about crisis of freshwater resource. Seawater splitting provides a practical path to solve potable water shortage, but still faces great challenges for large-scale industrial operation. Here we summarize recent developments in seawater splitting, covering general mechanisms, design criteria for electrodes, and industrial electrolyzer for direct seawater splitting. Multi-objective optimization methods to address the key challenges of active sites, reaction …


A Self-Supported Ru-Cu3P Catalyst Toward Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution, Zi-Xuan Wan, Chao-Hui Wang, Xiong-Wu Kang 2022 New Energy Research Institute, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China;

A Self-Supported Ru-Cu3P Catalyst Toward Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution, Zi-Xuan Wan, Chao-Hui Wang, Xiong-Wu Kang

Journal of Electrochemistry

Transition metal phosphide (TMP) is a kind of effective catalysts toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolytes. However, the performance of TMP catalysts is strongly limited by water splitting. In this work, we developed a method to prepare a copper foam (CF) supported Ru-doped Cu3P catalyst (Ru-Cu3P/CF) by a consecutive growth of Cu(OH)2 nanoarrays, soaking in RuCl3 solution and phosphorization. A large surface area was obtained by the self-supported catalysts with the appropriative Ru doping. As an excellent HER catalyst, it exhibited a low overpotential of 95.6 mV at a current density of …


Preface To Special Issue On Water Electrolysis For Hydrogen Production, Li Li, Jin-Song Hu, Zi-Dong Wei 2022 1. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044;

Preface To Special Issue On Water Electrolysis For Hydrogen Production, Li Li, Jin-Song Hu, Zi-Dong Wei

Journal of Electrochemistry

No abstract provided.


Perovskite-Type Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts, Xiao Liang, Ke-Xin Zhang, Yu-Cheng Shen, Ke Sun, Lei Shi, Hui Chen, Ke-Yan Zheng, Xiao-Xin Zou 2022 State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry,Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China;

Perovskite-Type Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts, Xiao Liang, Ke-Xin Zhang, Yu-Cheng Shen, Ke Sun, Lei Shi, Hui Chen, Ke-Yan Zheng, Xiao-Xin Zou

Journal of Electrochemistry

The development of energy conversion/storage technologies can achieve the reliable and stable renewable energy supply, and bring us a sustainable future. As the core half-reaction of many energy-related systems, water oxidation is the bottleneck due to its sluggish kinetics of the four-concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) process. This necessitates the exploitation of low cost, highly active and stable water oxidation electrocatalysts. Perovskite-type oxides possess diverse crystal structures, flexible compositions and unique electronic properties, enabling them ideal material platform for the optimization of catalytic performance. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary for the crystal structures, electronic structures and synthetic methods …


Recent Development Of Low Iridium Electrocatalysts Toward Efficient Water Oxidation, Jing Ni, Zhao-Ping Shi, Xian Wang, Yi-Bo Wang, Hong-Xiang Wu, Chang-Peng Liu, Jun-Jie Ge, Wei Xing 2022 State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry,Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China;

Recent Development Of Low Iridium Electrocatalysts Toward Efficient Water Oxidation, Jing Ni, Zhao-Ping Shi, Xian Wang, Yi-Bo Wang, Hong-Xiang Wu, Chang-Peng Liu, Jun-Jie Ge, Wei Xing

Journal of Electrochemistry

Developing high-performance and low-cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key to implementing polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer (PEMWE) for hydrogen production. To date, iridium (Ir) is the state-of-the-art OER catalyst, but still suffers from the insufficient activity and scarce earth abundance, which results in high cost both in stack and electricity. Design low-Ir catalysts with enhanced activity and stability that can match the requirements of high current and long-term operation in PEMWE is thus highly desired, which necessitate a deep understanding of acidic OER mechanisms, unique insights of material design strategies, and reliable performance evaluation norm, especially …


The Rapid Preparation Of Efficient Mofeco-Based Bifunctional Electrocatalysts Via Joule Heating For Overall Water Splitting, Ao Zhou, Wei-Jian Guo, Yue-Qing Wang, Jin-Tao Zhang 2022 1. Fuel Cell System and Engineering Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Fuel Cells & Hybrid Power Sources, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China;2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China;

The Rapid Preparation Of Efficient Mofeco-Based Bifunctional Electrocatalysts Via Joule Heating For Overall Water Splitting, Ao Zhou, Wei-Jian Guo, Yue-Qing Wang, Jin-Tao Zhang

Journal of Electrochemistry

Water electrolysis is an available way to obtain green hydrogen. The development of highly efficient electrocatalysts is a current research hotspot for water splitting, but it remains challenging. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of a robust bifunctional multi-metal electrocatalysts toward water splitting via the rapid Joule-heating conversion of metal precursors. The composition and morphology were well regulated via altering the ratio of metal precursors. In particular, the trimetal MoC/FeO/CoO/carbon cloth (CC) electrode revealed the outstanding bifunctional electrocatalytic performance due to the unique composition and large electrochemical active surface area. Typically, the MoC/FeO/CoO/CC catalyst needed low overpotentials of 121 and 268 …


A Co Porphyrin With Electron-Withdrawing And Hydrophilic Substituents For Improved Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction, Hong-Bo Guo, Ya-Ni Wang, Kai Guo, Hai-Tao Lei, Zuo-Zhong Liang, Xue-Peng Zhang, Rui Cao 2022 Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong, China;

A Co Porphyrin With Electron-Withdrawing And Hydrophilic Substituents For Improved Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction, Hong-Bo Guo, Ya-Ni Wang, Kai Guo, Hai-Tao Lei, Zuo-Zhong Liang, Xue-Peng Zhang, Rui Cao

Journal of Electrochemistry

Understanding factors that influence the catalyst activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is essential for the rational design of efficient ORR catalysts. Regulating catalyst electronic structure is commonly used to fine-tune electrocatalytic ORR activity. However, modifying the hydrophilicity of catalysts has been rarely reported to improve ORR, which happens at the liquid/gas/solid interface. Herein, we report on two Co porphyrins, namely, NO2-CoP (Co complex of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-nitrophenyl)porphyrin) and 5F-CoP (Co complex of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin), and their electrocatalytic ORR features. By simultaneously controlling the electronic structure and hydrophilic property of the meso-substituents, the NO2-CoP showed higher electrocatalytic activity than …


Surface Structure Engineering Of Feni-Based Pre-Catalyst For Oxygen Evolution Reaction: A Mini Review, Jia-Xin Li, Li-Gang Feng 2022 1. State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytic Chemistry, Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Chemistry Power, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Changchun 130022, China;2. School of Applied Chemistry and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China;

Surface Structure Engineering Of Feni-Based Pre-Catalyst For Oxygen Evolution Reaction: A Mini Review, Jia-Xin Li, Li-Gang Feng

Journal of Electrochemistry

Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a significant half-reaction for water splitting reaction, and attention is directed to the high-performance non-precious catalysts. Iron nickel (FeNi)-based material is considered as the most promising pre-catalyst, that will be transferred to the real active phase in the form of high valence state metal species. Even so, the catalytic performance is largely influenced by the structure and morphology of the FeNi pre-catalysts, and lots of work has been done to optimize and tune the structure and chemical environment of the FeNi- based pre-catalysts so as to increase the catalytic performance. Herein, based on our work, …


Low-Crystallinity And Heterostructured Aupt-Ru@Cnts As Highly Efficient Multifunctional Electrocatalyst, Tuan-Jie Gan, Jian-Ping Wu, Shi Liu, Wen-Jun Ou, Bin-Ling Bin-Ling, Xiong-Wu Kang 2022 Jiangmen Power Supply Bureau of Guangdong Power Grid Co., Ltd, 152, Jianshe Second Road, Jiangmen 529030, Guangdong, China;

Low-Crystallinity And Heterostructured Aupt-Ru@Cnts As Highly Efficient Multifunctional Electrocatalyst, Tuan-Jie Gan, Jian-Ping Wu, Shi Liu, Wen-Jun Ou, Bin-Ling Bin-Ling, Xiong-Wu Kang

Journal of Electrochemistry

The catalytic activity of the catalysts is strongly dependent on the structure of the catalysts, and the exploration of their correlation and structure-controlled synthesis of the high-performance catalysts are always at the central. Currently, platinum (Pt) is the optimum catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and alcohol oxidation reaction, while ruthenium (Ru) behaves as the champion catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) during water splitting. Preparing alloy catalysts with these precious metals can modulate the catalytic activity of these catalysts from the perspective of strain effect, ensemble effect and ligand effect. Here, we developed a strategy …


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