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Castor Oil Conversion To Biodiesel: A Process Simulation Study, Islam M. Al-Akraa 2022 The British University in Egypt

Castor Oil Conversion To Biodiesel: A Process Simulation Study, Islam M. Al-Akraa

Chemical Engineering

No abstract provided.


Hybrid Hydro-Pyrometallurgical Process For Zn Recovery From Electric Arc Furnace Dust, Rana Adel Bayoumi, Nabil Mahmoud Abdelmenem, Moustafa Aly Soliman, Ibrahim Mohamed Ismail, Ahmed Ahmed Refaat 2022 The British University in Egypt

Hybrid Hydro-Pyrometallurgical Process For Zn Recovery From Electric Arc Furnace Dust, Rana Adel Bayoumi, Nabil Mahmoud Abdelmenem, Moustafa Aly Soliman, Ibrahim Mohamed Ismail, Ahmed Ahmed Refaat

Chemical Engineering

Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) which is considered hazardous waste, contains significant amounts of Zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and some dangerous elements. Zn exists in the dust as Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Zinc Ferrite (ZnFe2O3) which is difficult to be leached with traditional methods. The main objective of the suggested process is to recover Zn from EAFD by using a hybrid pyro/hydrometallurgical method. This method includes mixing cement dust and EAFD and heating the mixture in a pyrometallurgical treatment step to convert ZnFe2O3 to ZnO. This step is followed by leaching the treated dust with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution using …


Catalytic Light Alkanes Selective Conversion Through Ammonia-Assisted Reforming, Siavash Fadaeerayeni 2021 Mississippi State University

Catalytic Light Alkanes Selective Conversion Through Ammonia-Assisted Reforming, Siavash Fadaeerayeni

Theses and Dissertations

The fact that hydrogen is a clean and versatile fuel offers an attractive carbon-free source of energy and leverages the U.S. economy toward long-term sustainable economic growth. At an industrial scale, hydrogen production is mostly relying on methane steam reforming producing stoichiometric amounts of carbon oxides (CO and CO2), which imposes economic and environmental concerns. To mitigate the issue, we propose NH3 assisted anaerobic reforming of natural gas liquids (ethane and propane) as an alternative approach to produce COx free hydrogen. Here, in the first chapter, through comprehensive performance evaluation, characterization, and transient kinetic studies, it is shown that the …


Techno-Economics And Life Cycle Analysis Of Upgrading Woody Biomass To Diesel Blendstock, Aysan Najd Mazhar 2021 University of Maine

Techno-Economics And Life Cycle Analysis Of Upgrading Woody Biomass To Diesel Blendstock, Aysan Najd Mazhar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Woody biomass conversion to transportation fuels have been developed as alternatives to fossil fuel production to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy security. Fast pyrolysis, a thermochemical technology, has the potential to offer high efficiencies to produce liquid transportation fuels from woody biomass. Fast pyrolysis involves rapid heating of biomass particles in the absence of air at approximately 500°C and results in non-condensable gases, bio-oil (pyrolysis oil), and char as products. The pyrolysis oil can be upgraded via integrated mild hydrogenation and etherification processes to a high energy density fuel that can be blended with diesel for transportation …


Solvent Engineering Of Molybdenum Disulfide Electrocatalyst For Hydrogen Evolution., Robert Carl Spalding 2021 University of Louisville

Solvent Engineering Of Molybdenum Disulfide Electrocatalyst For Hydrogen Evolution., Robert Carl Spalding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Energy is at an exponentially growing demand, and to keep up with these demands new technologies for renewable energy have received increased attention. Hydrogen plays a vital role in water electrolysis and fuel cells, as the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is the main step water splitting process. Most of the current electrocatalysts for HER are dominated by platinum and other precious metals due to their low over-potential and small Tafel slope, however, they are extremely costly. For this reason, cost-effective non-precious metal catalysts must be developed. Transition metal dichalcogenides, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), are abundant and have recently shown …


Effect Of Phase Composition Of Tungsten Carbide On Its Catalytic Activity For Toluene Hydrogenation, Aditya Rane 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Effect Of Phase Composition Of Tungsten Carbide On Its Catalytic Activity For Toluene Hydrogenation, Aditya Rane

Masters Theses

Commercially important hydrogenation reactions make use of precious noble metal catalysts which are becoming increasingly scarce, and the search for capable alternative catalysts prevails. Transition metal carbides of group IV-VI metals show similar catalytic behavior to platinum and are $103/kg lower in price than the precious metal catalysts. Tungsten carbide, studied in this work, can form in different stoichiometries and phase compositions depending upon synthesis methods. Synthesis of high surface area tungsten carbide with control over its phase composition remains a challenge currently. In this work, the novel isothermal synthesis method of tungsten carbide (WC, W2C) in a CH4/H2 carburization …


Synthesis And Research Of Silicon-Containing Phthalocyanine, Dilmurod SHUKUROV, Hayit TURAYEV, Abdulakhat DJALILOV, Masud KARIMOV 2021 Termez State University, Termez, Uzbekictan

Synthesis And Research Of Silicon-Containing Phthalocyanine, Dilmurod Shukurov, Hayit Turayev, Abdulakhat Djalilov, Masud Karimov

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The aim of this study is to synthesize, and study a new form of dye based on phthalocyanine, a silicon-containing phthalocyanine pigment used as a dye for dye-sensitive solar cells, which are currently third generation solar cells as one of the energy source alternatives. To achieve this goal, a silicon-containing phthalocyanine pigment containing urea, phthalic anhydride and sodium fluorosilicate was synthesized and studied. Based on the results of IR spectroscopy, the reaction of pigment formation is proposed and the data of scanning electron microscopy is presented. Its differential thermal analysis, photodynamic analysis and its relationship with inorganic and organic solvents …


Study Level Recovery Processes Of Thorium And Several Rare Earth Elements From Monazite Ore, Makayla Hyde, Jaclyn Choate 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Study Level Recovery Processes Of Thorium And Several Rare Earth Elements From Monazite Ore, Makayla Hyde, Jaclyn Choate

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Monazite ore is composed of several minerals including several rare earth element (REE) and thorium phosphates. Many past research projects have looked at the extraction of REE from monazite ore but have discarded the thorium phosphate compound as waste. Since thorium could be a possible fuel for state-of-the-art future nuclear reactors, this research focuses on a way to recover thorium from the monazite ore. The overall purpose of this research is to develop a conceptual recovery process that recovers thorium dioxide from monazite ore. In some parts of the world where uranium sources are limited; then, thorium could be used …


Engineering The Surface Of Fe3o4 Nanoparticles For Catalytic And Magnetic Applications, Natalia da Silva Moura 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Engineering The Surface Of Fe3o4 Nanoparticles For Catalytic And Magnetic Applications, Natalia Da Silva Moura

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

With the rapid depletion of the U.S. energy resources coupled with population growth, heat management technologies must be improved to sustain our quality of life. Precisely, in catalysis, it is estimated that only ~50% of the energy supplied to the reactor is used for product conversion due to dissipation losses. Among the emerging technologies with a promising reduction in heat losses is induction heating, offering targeted heat delivery with magnetic nanoparticles. Under alternating magnetic fields (AMF), these nanoparticles can absorb the energy from Radio-Frequency (RF) fields and dissipate it as heat on the nanoparticle surface. This in situ heat generation …


Co2 Derived Carbon Capture Using Microalgae In A Photobiocrec Unit, Maureen D. Cordoba Perez 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Co2 Derived Carbon Capture Using Microalgae In A Photobiocrec Unit, Maureen D. Cordoba Perez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Microalgae has the potential to contribute to carbon dioxide capture, resulting in the production of alternative fuels and valuable chemical products. To accomplish this, high-efficiency photobioreactors must be conceptualized, designed, and established, in order to achieve high inorganic carbon conversion, superior light utilization, and unique fluid dynamics.

In this PhD Dissertation, experiments with Chlorella vulgaris were carried out, in a 0.175L especially designed PhotoBioCREC unit, under controlled radiation and high mixing conditions. This unique design involves 1 mm-2 mm alumina particles, which keep photoreactor walls always clean, without compromising photon transmittance. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was supplied as the …


Experimental Study And Characterization Of Bubble Behaviors In The Orifice-Induced Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Haoxuan Zheng 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Experimental Study And Characterization Of Bubble Behaviors In The Orifice-Induced Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Haoxuan Zheng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Experimental studies were performed to characterize the development process of orifice-induced cavitation and transitional bubble behaviors. The transition from non-cavitation to fully developed cavitation was carefully studied. Cavitation bubble clouds were observed at orifice, indicating the inception of cavitation. The number of bubbles produced were dramatically increased while the averaged sizes of bubble reduced when cavitation was initiated. Both orifice opening ratio and perimeter can affect the cavitation developing process. A long orifice perimeter promotes the production of fine bubbles. The orifice plates with the smallest opening ratio generated a desired gas-liquid interfacial area at the lowest required pressure. An …


Hydrogen Production Via Photocatalytic Water Splitting Under Near-Uv And Visible Light Using Doped Pd Tio2, Bianca Rusinque 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Hydrogen Production Via Photocatalytic Water Splitting Under Near-Uv And Visible Light Using Doped Pd Tio2, Bianca Rusinque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present PhD thesis reports the modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with palladium (Pd), to enhance hydrogen production via water splitting, using 2.0v/v% ethanol as a scavenger. Titanium dioxide was used as photocatalyst, given its ability to absorb photons, producing e-/h+ pairs. Mesoporous TiO2 was synthesized using a soft template, following the sol-gel method, to modify its morphological properties. Palladium was used as co-catalyst doping TiO2 agent, narrowing the band gaps down to 2.51 eV, and creating additional active metal sites.

Water splitting experiments under near-UV and visible light irradiation were carried out …


Direct Activation Of Light Alkanes To Value-Added Chemicals Using Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts, Md Ashraful Abedin 2021 Louisiana State Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Baton Rouge, LA

Direct Activation Of Light Alkanes To Value-Added Chemicals Using Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts, Md Ashraful Abedin

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

One of the most challenging aspects of modern-day catalysis is the conversion of methane. Direct conversion of methane via dehydroaromatization (MDHA) is a well-known process which can produce valuable hydrocarbons. Mo oxide supported on ZSM-5/MCM-22 has been studied extensively in recent years for MDHA. Mo carbides are responsible for activating methane by forming CHx species. These are dimerized into C2Hy and oligomerized on ZSM-5/MCM-22 Brønsted acid sites to form aromatics. Sulfated zirconia (SZ) supported Mo catalyst contains the acid sites necessary to produce benzene in MDHA. Here, sulfated hafnia (SH), a homologous oxide like SZ, has been proposed to provide …


Rational Design Of Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts Using Atomic Layer Deposition: From Nanoparticle To Single Atom, Junjie Li 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Rational Design Of Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts Using Atomic Layer Deposition: From Nanoparticle To Single Atom, Junjie Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been attracted significant attention due to their high energy efficiency. The electrocatalyst is one of the most important parts. However, state-of-the-art electrocatalysts suffer from several challenges, including 1) low stability under harsh working conditions; 2) low atomic utilization efficiency, especially for noble metals. This thesis, therefore, focuses on the design of highly efficient and stable electrocatalysts from nanoparticles down to single atoms using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and further understand the insight mechanisms.

Firstly, Pt nanoparticles are selectively deposited on the TiO2 modified N-doped carbon nanotubes. The strong metal-support interactions between Pt …


Development Of Density-Functional Tight-Binding Methods For Chemical Energy Science, Quan Vuong 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Development Of Density-Functional Tight-Binding Methods For Chemical Energy Science, Quan Vuong

Doctoral Dissertations

Density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) method is an approximation to the popular first-principles density functional theory (DFT) method. Recently, DFTB has gained considerable visibility due to its inexpensive computational requirements that confer it the capability of sustaining long-timescale reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations while providing an explicit description of electronic structure at all time steps. This capability allows the description of bond formation and breaking processes, as well as charge polarization and charge transfer phenomena, with accuracy and transferability beyond comparable classical reactive force fields. It has thus been employed successfully in the simulation of many complex chemical processes. However, its applications …


Modified Electrode Surfaces With Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Catalysts Derived From Electropolymerized Complexes With Redox Active Ligands., Amanda Mae Arts 2021 University of Louisville

Modified Electrode Surfaces With Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Catalysts Derived From Electropolymerized Complexes With Redox Active Ligands., Amanda Mae Arts

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The demand for energy is growing exponentially, and to keep up with these demands new technologies for renewable energy have received increased attention. Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources for the future and plays a vital role in water electrolysis and fuel cells, as the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is the main step in the water splitting process. To increase the reaction rate and improve efficiency for the water electrolysis, catalysts are used to minimize the overpotential.

Most of the current electrocatalysts for HER are heterogeneous in nature and are dominated by platinum and other precious metals …


Recent Advances In Glycerol Electrooxidation On Pt And Pd: From Reaction Mechanisms To Catalytic Materials, Wei-Yi Zhang, Xian-Yin Ma, Shou-Zhong Zou, Wen-Bin Cai 2021 1. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China

Recent Advances In Glycerol Electrooxidation On Pt And Pd: From Reaction Mechanisms To Catalytic Materials, Wei-Yi Zhang, Xian-Yin Ma, Shou-Zhong Zou, Wen-Bin Cai

Journal of Electrochemistry

The conversion of glycerol to value-added products has received considerable attention recently because the booming biodiesel industry produces a large amount of glycerol as a byproduct. Among various means, electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol is appealing owing to its environmental friendliness and high efficiency. However, electrooxidation of glycerol is very complex, involving multiple electron and proton transfer processes with many reaction pathways. How to rationally design catalysts with high selectivity toward targeted products is an overarching challenge, and of both fundamental and practical significance. In this minireview we aim to provide an overview of recent advancements in electrooxidation of glycerol focusing …


Electrochemical Deposition In Energy Storage Devices, Witness Atutala Martin 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Electrochemical Deposition In Energy Storage Devices, Witness Atutala Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metals, whether in a solid or soluble ion form, are a vital part of any electrochemical storage system. More so, Li metal is widely considered as the ideal anode because of its low density and low electrochemical potential (-3.04 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode – SHE). However, just like most metals, it does not plate or strip evenly during cycling which can lead to cycling performance issues, short cycling lifespans, and even safety concerns brought about by dendrites that can cause internal short-circuiting within cells. This research focused on investigating the electroplating of metals in both aqueous and non-aqueous …


Synthesis Of Aromatic Acetylene Alcohols Using Complex Catalytic Systems, Odiljon ZIYADULLAEV, Guzal OTAMUKHAMEDOVA, Abduvakhab IKRAMOV, Saida ABDURAKHMANOVA, Otabek BOYTEMIROV 2021 Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Chirchik, Uzbekistan

Synthesis Of Aromatic Acetylene Alcohols Using Complex Catalytic Systems, Odiljon Ziyadullaev, Guzal Otamukhamedova, Abduvakhab Ikramov, Saida Abdurakhmanova, Otabek Boytemirov

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Some cyclic ketones (cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 2-methylcyclohexanone, menthol, camphor and adamantanone) enantioselective alkynylation reactions with phenylacetylene have been studied in the presence of complex catalytic systems - Zn(OTf)2/NЕt3/MeCN, 3,3′-Ph2BINOL-2Li/TGF and BuLi/KOtBu/TGF. Synthesis were performed new aromatic acetylene alcohols – 1-(2-phenylathinyl) cyclopentanol (1), 1-(2-phenylethinyl)cyclohexanol (2), 2-methyl-1-(2-phenylethinyl)cyclohexanol (3), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1-(2-phenylethinyl)cyclohexanol (4), 1,7,7,-trimethyl-2-(2-phenylethinyl)bicyclo [2.2.1] heptanol-2 (5) and 2-phenylethinyltricyclo [3,3,1.03,7]nonanol-2 (6). Synthesis reactions of aromatic acetylene alcohols, activation energies were determined, kinetic of chemical changes and reaction mechanisms were proposed. The course of the reactions and the effect of the selected ketone molecule size, structure and …


Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversions Of Acetylene, Abduvakhab IKRAMOV, Sevara KHOLIKOVA, Noryigit MUSULMANOV 2021 Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversions Of Acetylene, Abduvakhab Ikramov, Sevara Kholikova, Noryigit Musulmanov

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The reactions of interaction of acetylene with water vapor, acetic acid and ammonia in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts have investigated. Depending on the nature of the starting components used, acetaldehyde and acetone, vinyl acetate, pyridine bases and pyrrole synthesized. Heterogeneous catalysts selected for each studied reaction based on some scientific prerequisites for the selection of catalysts. Active catalysts for the investigated reactions were determined, which contain compounds of cadmium, zinc, bismuth, chromium, iron and copper, in general, d-group metals. γ-Al2O3, bentonite and kaolin used as a catalyst carrier. Hydrofluoric acid, acetic acid, ammonium fluoride and …


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