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Use Of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (Sers) Probes To Detect Fatty Acid Receptor Activity In A Microfluidic Device, Han Zhang, Wei Zhang, Lifu Xiao, Yan Liu, Timothy A. Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou 2019 Utah State University

Use Of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (Sers) Probes To Detect Fatty Acid Receptor Activity In A Microfluidic Device, Han Zhang, Wei Zhang, Lifu Xiao, Yan Liu, Timothy A. Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

In this study, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA)-Au nanorods conjugated with a GPR120 antibody were developed as a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, and were applied to detect the interaction of fatty acids (FA) and their cognate receptor, GPR120, on the surface of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293-GPRR120) cultured in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device. Importantly, the two dominant characteristic SERS peaks of the Raman reporter molecule MBA, 1078 cm−1 and 1581 cm−1, do not overlap with the main Raman peaks from the PDMS substrate when the appropriate spectral scanning range is selected, which effectively avoided the ...


Automated Atrial Fibrillation Detection From Electrocardiogram, Senbao Lu 2019 Santa Clara University

Automated Atrial Fibrillation Detection From Electrocardiogram, Senbao Lu

Bioengineering Master's Theses

In this study, a novel Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) detection algorithm is presented based on Electrocardiography (ECG) signals. In particular, the spectrogram of ECG signal is used as an input to a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to classify normal and AFib ECG signals. This model is shown to perform well with an accuracy of 92.91% and a value of 0.9789 for the area under the ROC curve (AUC). This study demonstrated the potential of using image classification methods and CNN model to detect abnormal biosignals with noise.


Assessment Of Hand Gestures Using Wearable Sensors And Fuzzy Logic, Angel Cardenas, Ryan Messersmith, Will Newcomb 2019 Santa Clara University

Assessment Of Hand Gestures Using Wearable Sensors And Fuzzy Logic, Angel Cardenas, Ryan Messersmith, Will Newcomb

Bioengineering Senior Theses

Hand dexterity and motor control are critical in our everyday lives because a significant portion of the daily motions we perform are with our hands and require some degree of repetition and skill. Therefore, development of technologies for hand and extremity rehabilitation is a significant area of research that will directly help patients recovering from hand debilities sustained from causes ranging from stroke and Parkinson’s disease to trauma and common injuries. Cyclic activity recognition and assessment is appropriate for hand and extremity rehabilitation because a majority of our essential motions are cyclic in their nature. For a patient on ...


High-Throughput, Portable Microfluidic Aptamer Assay, Atticus McCoy, Matthew Curtin 2019 Santa Clara University

High-Throughput, Portable Microfluidic Aptamer Assay, Atticus Mccoy, Matthew Curtin

Bioengineering Senior Theses

Aptamer-based assays are a powerful platform for sensing a wide variety of biochemical targets, including drugs, disease biomarker, and biomolecules. However, aptamer assays often lack rapid identification and high-throughput screening. Performing an aptamer-based assay on a microfluidic device is a promising solution to increase throughput, portability, and sensitivity. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device capable of running aptamer-based assays. Our device utilizes normally-closed valves and a central micropump to move fluids throughout the chip. One chip could theoretically be scaled up to run multiple assays, and multiple of these microfluidic devices could be run in parallel to increase ...


Human-Centered Electric Prosthetic (Help) Hand, Jamie Ferris, Shiyin Lim, Michael Mehta, Evan Misuraca 2019 Santa Clara University

Human-Centered Electric Prosthetic (Help) Hand, Jamie Ferris, Shiyin Lim, Michael Mehta, Evan Misuraca

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

Through a partnership with Indian non-profit Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti, we designed a functional, robust, and and low cost electrically powered prosthetic hand that communicates with unilateral, transradial, urban Indian amputees through a biointerface. The device uses compliant tendon actuation, a small linear servo, and a wearable garment outfitted with flex sensors to produce a device that, once placed inside a prosthetic glove, is anthropomorphic in both look and feel. The prosthesis was developed such that future groups can design for manufacturing and distribution in India.


Machine Learning Solution To Organ-At-Risk Segmentation For Radiation Treatment Planning, Brie Goo, Katrina May, Haobo Zhang, James Olivas 2019 Santa Clara University

Machine Learning Solution To Organ-At-Risk Segmentation For Radiation Treatment Planning, Brie Goo, Katrina May, Haobo Zhang, James Olivas

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

In the treatment of cancer using ionizing radiation, it is important to design a treatment plan such that dose to normal, healthy organs is sufficiently low. Today, segmentation requires a trained human to carefully outline, or segment, organs on each slice of a treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scan but it is laborious, time-consuming, and contains intra- and inter-rater variability. Currently, existing clinical automation technology relies on atlas-based automation, which has limited segmentation accuracy. Thus the auto-segmentations require post process editing by an expert. In this paper, we propose a machine learning solution that shortens the segmentation time of organs-at-risk ...


Computational Characterization Of The Cellular Origins Of Electroencephalography, Shane Hesprich 2019 Marquette University

Computational Characterization Of The Cellular Origins Of Electroencephalography, Shane Hesprich

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive technique used to measure brain activity. Despite its near ubiquitous presence in neuroscience, very little research has gone into connecting the electrical potentials it measures on the scalp to the underlying network activity which generates those signals. This results in most EEG analyses being more macroscopically focused (e.g. coherence and correlation analyses). Despite the many uses of macroscopically focuses analyses, limiting research to only these analyses neglects the insights which can be gained from studying network and microcircuit architecture. The ability to study these things through non-invasive techniques like EEG depends upon the ability ...


Generation Of Silver Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetic Profiles In A Lung Model, Rachel Galaska 2019 University of Dayton

Generation Of Silver Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetic Profiles In A Lung Model, Rachel Galaska

Honors Theses

Nanomaterial technologies are becoming increasingly prevalent in consumer and industrial applications, including drug delivery, energy harvesting, environmental applications, and medicine due to their unique physiochemical properties. As nanomaterial use increases, so too does human exposure. This has made it progressively more important to understand the toxicological effects of nanomaterials and their interactions with the human body. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials due to their antibacterial properties. As inhalation is one of the most common exposure routes, understanding the toxicity of these AgNPs on lung tissue was studied. Using A549 cells for a lung tissue ...


Effect Of Activated Carbon On The Performance Of A Solar Thermal Adsorptive Refrigerator (Star) Using Activated Carbon-Ethanol, Joshua Romo 2019 University of Dayton

Effect Of Activated Carbon On The Performance Of A Solar Thermal Adsorptive Refrigerator (Star) Using Activated Carbon-Ethanol, Joshua Romo

Honors Theses

The Solar Thermal Adsorptive Refrigerator (STAR) project at the University of Dayton seeks to bridge sustainability and the need for reliable refrigeration in developing communities. Cost-effective construction, operation, and maintenance as well as the use of a sustainable adsorption pair, activated carbon-ethanol, give STAR great potential in the realm of humanitarian engineering. This project explores the effect of using two activated carbon brands, 8x16 and CocoPlus, on the cyclic performance of the STAR system. Although both brands have similar specifications given by the manufacturer, one (8x16) inhibited successful performance while the other (CocoPlus) enabled it. This project highlights both the ...


Arsenic Remediation Of Maine Drinking Water, Austin Steward 2019 University of Maine

Arsenic Remediation Of Maine Drinking Water, Austin Steward

Honors College

Arsenic, a metalloid, is one of the most prominent toxins in Maine drinking water. There are approximately 86,500 Maine citizens exposed to water containing arsenic over the maximum contamination level causing adverse effects including nausea, multiple cancers, and a reduction of full scale IQ and executive function. In drinking water, arsenic arises both by the natural leaching from bedrock and from the use of chemicals such as pesticides, embalming fluids, and wood preservatives. Although there are many known arsenic water remediation techniques, finding a method compatible for multiple arsenic isotopes is challenging. In this work, we test the low-energy ...


Kinematics During Knee Extension, Lunge, And Chair Rise, Center for Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Kevin Shelburne, PhD, Michael D. Harris, PhD, Vasiliki Kefala, Donald R. Hume, Bradley S. Davidson, A. J. Cyr, R. H. Kim, A. A. Ali, E. M. Mannen 2019 University of Denver

Kinematics During Knee Extension, Lunge, And Chair Rise, Center For Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Kevin Shelburne, Phd, Michael D. Harris, Phd, Vasiliki Kefala, Donald R. Hume, Bradley S. Davidson, A. J. Cyr, R. H. Kim, A. A. Ali, E. M. Mannen

Living Kinematics of the Knee

No abstract provided.


Estimating Cognitive Workload In An Interactive Virtual Reality Environment Using Electrophysiological And Kinematic Activity, Christoph Tremmel 2019 Old Dominion University

Estimating Cognitive Workload In An Interactive Virtual Reality Environment Using Electrophysiological And Kinematic Activity, Christoph Tremmel

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

As virtual reality (VR) technology continues to gain prominence in commercial, educational, recreational and research applications, there is increasing interest in incorporating physiological sensors in VR devices for passive user-state monitoring to eventually increase the sense of immersion. By recording physiological signals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyography (EMG) or kinematic parameters during the use of a VR device, the user’s interactions in the virtual environment could be adapted in real time based on the user’s cognitive state. This dissertation evaluates the feasibility of passively monitoring cognitive workload via electrophysiological and kinematic activity while performing a classical n-back ...


Experimental Study Of Free-Solution Separation Under Pulsed Electrophoresis In Microchip, Xin Liu 2019 University of South Carolina

Experimental Study Of Free-Solution Separation Under Pulsed Electrophoresis In Microchip, Xin Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is a promising analytical tool started more than two decades. With the characteristics of short analysis time, trace level sample, high- throughput and easily integration, lots of efforts have been done with the transportation of the applications from capillary to microfabricated devices. However, with the complex designs on microchip rather than a single straight capillary channel, the strategies and approaches have to be figured out under the challenges of sample introduction, the improvement of separation conditions and the detection, for instance.

In miniaturized microchip, the separation channel is reduced to several centimeters or less, fast and quality ...


Role Of P-Glycoprotein In Alzheimer’S Disease For Enhanced Brain Elimination Of Amyloid-Β, Hope Holt 2019 University of South Carolina

Role Of P-Glycoprotein In Alzheimer’S Disease For Enhanced Brain Elimination Of Amyloid-Β, Hope Holt

Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in the brain. Aβ monomer undergoes nucleation to form oligomers, then soluble aggregates, then fibrils which make up the plaques. Aβ oligomer species are believed to be the most neurotoxic aggregate species. Currently under investigation is a mechanism for Aβ removal from the brain, across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux protein located on the apical, or blood, side of the BBB, which transports a wide variety of substrates. Further complicating this potential clearance mechanism is the ...


Rage Expression And Inflammation In Alzheimer’S Disease: In Vitro Model Development And Investigation Of A Potential Peptoid Inhibitor, Lauren Michell Wolf 2019 University of South Carolina

Rage Expression And Inflammation In Alzheimer’S Disease: In Vitro Model Development And Investigation Of A Potential Peptoid Inhibitor, Lauren Michell Wolf

Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), efforts to establish a definitive treatment or cure have met with little success. Many previous therapeutic strategies for AD have focused on the aggregation and accumulation of amyloid-b (Ab) in the brain, concentrating on its small intermediate aggregates as the primary targets to ameliorate neurotoxicity and damage. This approach has yielded little progress, and more recent discussions have shifted to strategies geared toward a multifaceted pathology, with chronic neuroinflammation emerging as an important factor in the disease etiology and progression.

The receptor for advanced glycation end-products, or RAGE, is ...


The Effect Of Defects And Surface Modification On Biomolecular Assembly And Transport, Haneen Martinez 2019 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

The Effect Of Defects And Surface Modification On Biomolecular Assembly And Transport, Haneen Martinez

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Nanoscale transport using the kinesin-microtubule (MT) biomolecular system has been successfully used in a wide range of nanotechnological applications including self-assembly, nanofluidic transport, and biosensing. Most of these applications use the ‘gliding motility geometry’, in which surface-adhered kinesin motors attach and propel MT filaments across the surface, a process driven by ATP hydrolysis. It has been demonstrated that active assembly facilitated by these biomolecular motors results in complex, non-equilibrium nanostructures currently unattainable through conventional self-assembly methods. In particular, MTs functionalized with biotin assemble into rings and spools upon introduction of streptavidin and/or streptavidin-coated nanoparticles. Upon closer examination of these ...


Develop A 3d Neurological Disease Model Of Human Cortical Glutamatergic Neurons Using Micropillar-Based Scaffolds, Cheng Chen, Xin Dong, Kai-Heng Fang, Fang Yuan, Yao Hu, Min Xu, Yu Huang, Xixiang Zhang, Danjun Fang, Yan Liu 2019 Utah State University

Develop A 3d Neurological Disease Model Of Human Cortical Glutamatergic Neurons Using Micropillar-Based Scaffolds, Cheng Chen, Xin Dong, Kai-Heng Fang, Fang Yuan, Yao Hu, Min Xu, Yu Huang, Xixiang Zhang, Danjun Fang, Yan Liu

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Establishing an effective three-dimensional (3D) in vitro culture system to better model human neurological diseases is desirable, since the human brain is a 3D structure. Here, we demonstrated the development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pillar-based 3D scaffold that mimicked the 3D microenvironment of the brain. We utilized this scaffold for the growth of human cortical glutamatergic neurons that were differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. In comparison with the 2D culture, we demonstrated that the developed 3D culture promoted the maturation of human cortical glutamatergic neurons by showing significantly more MAP2 and less Ki67 expression. Based on this 3D culture ...


(Poster) Design And Fabrication Of A Custom Wrist Orthosis For Enhanced Patient Comfort, Marko Tasic, Matthew Hansen, Mang Lian, Demetre Mitchell, Rashedul Sarker, Renny Fernandez, Erin Peterson, Joseph Herzog, David Olawale, Najmus Saqib 2019 University of Indianapolis

(Poster) Design And Fabrication Of A Custom Wrist Orthosis For Enhanced Patient Comfort, Marko Tasic, Matthew Hansen, Mang Lian, Demetre Mitchell, Rashedul Sarker, Renny Fernandez, Erin Peterson, Joseph Herzog, David Olawale, Najmus Saqib

ASEE IL-IN Section Conference

This custom wrist orthosis project is the continuation of efforts made by students in the R.B Annis School of Engineering during the 2017-2018 academic year. Throughout this project, we have implemented the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology to guide the design process. Within the R.B. Annis School of Engineering, this methodology has been adapted into guide the DesignSpine process. We have designed a new orthosis that is custom fabricated for enhanced patient comfort. In the occupational therapy field, patients have reportedly not been wearing their prescribed orthoses/braces, which are designed to stabilize injured areas so that ...


Identification Of New Glutamate Decarboxylases From Streptomyces For Efficient Production Of Γ-Aminobutyric Acid In Engineered Escherichia Coli, Haina Yuan, Hongbo Wang, Ozkan Fidan, Yong Qin, Gongnian Xiao, Jixun Zhan 2019 Utah State University

Identification Of New Glutamate Decarboxylases From Streptomyces For Efficient Production Of Γ-Aminobutyric Acid In Engineered Escherichia Coli, Haina Yuan, Hongbo Wang, Ozkan Fidan, Yong Qin, Gongnian Xiao, Jixun Zhan

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Background

Gamma (γ)-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound is used extensively in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and agro-industry. It can be biosynthesized via decarboxylation of monosodium glutamate (MSG) or L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC4.1.1.15). GADs have been identified from a variety of microbial sources, such as Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacteria. However, no GADs from Streptomyces have been characterized. The present study is aimed to identify new GADs from Streptomyces strains and establish an efficient bioproduction platform for GABA in E. coli using these enzymes.

Results

By sequencing and analyzing the genomes ...


Analysis Of The Effect Of Corrosion On The Surface Chemistry Of Mild Steel Exposed To Biofuel, Timothy D. Plourde 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Analysis Of The Effect Of Corrosion On The Surface Chemistry Of Mild Steel Exposed To Biofuel, Timothy D. Plourde

Theses and Dissertations

The use of biofuels in society is steadily becoming more prevalent. Through this proliferation a concern regarding the role of the fungus Byssochlamys nivea in microbially induced corrosion has surfaced. Through the use of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technology, this thesis focused on attempting to determine what effect, if any, Byssochlamys nivea has on the corrosion of mild steel. For this analysis, samples were placed in environments that simulated the conditions of fuel tanks containing the biofuel B20, water, and spores of Byssochlamys nivea for varying lengths of time. However, due to a variety of ...


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