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Ablation Of Chronic Total Occlusions Using Kilohertz-Frequency Mechanical Vibrations In Minimally Invasive Angioplasty Procedures., Garrett McGuinness, Mark Wylie, Graham Gavin 2010 Dublin City University

Ablation Of Chronic Total Occlusions Using Kilohertz-Frequency Mechanical Vibrations In Minimally Invasive Angioplasty Procedures., Garrett Mcguinness, Mark Wylie, Graham Gavin

Articles

Certain minimally invasive cardiology procedures, such as balloon angioplasty and stent implantation, critically require that the site of an arterial blockage be crossed by an intraluminal guidewire. Plaques resulting in near or totally occluded arteries are known as chronic total occlusions (CTOs), and crossing them with conventional guidewires is a significant challenge. Among the most promising proposed solutions is the delivery of high power, low frequency ultrasonic vibrations to the occlusion site via an intraluminal wire waveguide. The vibrating distal-tip of the ultrasound wire waveguide is used to transmit energy to the surrounding plaques, tissues and fluids in order to ...


Combined Electrochemical Surface Plasmon Resonance For Angle Spread Imaging Of Multielement Electrode Arrays, Andrew C. Hillier, Chang Hoon Choi 2010 Iowa State University

Combined Electrochemical Surface Plasmon Resonance For Angle Spread Imaging Of Multielement Electrode Arrays, Andrew C. Hillier, Chang Hoon Choi

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A surface plasmon resonance imaging system combined with a multielement electrode array is described. An optical system with shaping optics is used to direct a wedge of light onto a gold-coated sample. The reflected light is detected in the form of an angle-spread image of the surface, with one direction denoting a variable incident angle and the other showing a span of locations along one lateral direction of the sample surface. At the proper incident angle, the angle-spread image shows the complete surface plasmon resonance curve over a span of locations on the surface. This imaging system is combined with ...


Theory Of ‘Selectivity’ Of Label-Free Nanobiosensors – A Geometro-Physical Perspective, Pradeep R. Nair, Muhammad A. Alam 2010 Purdue University - Main Campus

Theory Of ‘Selectivity’ Of Label-Free Nanobiosensors – A Geometro-Physical Perspective, Pradeep R. Nair, Muhammad A. Alam

Birck and NCN Publications

Modern label-free biosensors are generally far more sensitive and require orders of magnitude less incubation time compared to their classical counterparts. However, a more important characteristic regarding the viability of this technology for applications in Genomics/Proteomics is defined by the ‘Selectivity’, i.e., the ability to concurrently and uniquely detect multiple target biomolecules in the presence of interfering species. Currently, there is no theory of Selectivity that allows optimization of competing factors and there are few experiments to probe this problem systematically. In this article, we use the elementary considerations of surface exclusion, diffusion limited transport, and void distribution ...


Development And Characterization Of Porous And Patterned Hydrogel Scaffolds For Cardiac Muscle Tissue Engineering, Stephanie Marie LaNasa 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Development And Characterization Of Porous And Patterned Hydrogel Scaffolds For Cardiac Muscle Tissue Engineering, Stephanie Marie Lanasa

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Coronary heart disease has become increasingly prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and now affects over one million Americans annually. The damaged tissue that results from cardiac injury lacks the ability to regenerate, but no therapies exist to regenerate heart tissue. Tissue engineering is one promising method through which cardiac tissue could be regenerated. This research focuses on developing a tissue engineered hydrogel scaffold using a design regimen that facilitates nutrient transport, tensile properties, and cardiomyocyte adhesion and alignment. A porous structure incorporated into the bulk of the scaffold was selected as a means to enhance nutrient transport. Variations ...


Synthetic Peptide Design For Functionalized Hydrogels: Development Of Cellularly Responsive Drug Delivery Platforms And Cyclic, Multivalent Peptide Derivatives Using Radical-Mediated Thiol-Ene/Thiol-Yne Chemistries, Alex Arthur Aimetti 2010 University of Colorado, Boulder

Synthetic Peptide Design For Functionalized Hydrogels: Development Of Cellularly Responsive Drug Delivery Platforms And Cyclic, Multivalent Peptide Derivatives Using Radical-Mediated Thiol-Ene/Thiol-Yne Chemistries, Alex Arthur Aimetti

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels represent a class of biomaterials with a growing interest for their application in numerous fields, such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine. PEG is commonly used in these applications due to its hydrophilic and bioinert properties. Additionally, peptides have been successfully incorporated within PEG hydrogels to serve as biological functionalities within a synthetic polymer platform. Peptide-functionalized PEG hydrogels have been shown to act as extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimics capable of enhancing cell survival, function, and differentiation. Alternatively, peptides can be designed to degrade in recognition of highly specific, cell-secreted proteases. This phenomenon has been ...


Biaxial Mechanical Characterization And Microstructure-Driven Modeling Of Elastic Pulmonary Artery Walls Of Large Mammals Under Hypertensive Conditions, Philip Hsien-Lan Kao 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Biaxial Mechanical Characterization And Microstructure-Driven Modeling Of Elastic Pulmonary Artery Walls Of Large Mammals Under Hypertensive Conditions, Philip Hsien-Lan Kao

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is a disease of the pulmonary vasculature which causes right heart failure. It is known that PH causes significant remodeling of the pulmonary arterial vasculature, but the effects of this remodeling are not well-understood. In addition, there is a dearth of research in large mammals for PH. Modeling of the arteries is also important in the simulation of deformation due to blood flow. Current models either do not reflect the microstructure, or are too complex for clinical use. This work presents mechanical characterization and analysis of the artery wall, in addition to a constitutive model driven by ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Magnetic Hydrogel Nanocomposites For Cancer Therapy Applications, Samantha Ann Meenach 2010 University of Kentucky

Synthesis And Characterization Of Magnetic Hydrogel Nanocomposites For Cancer Therapy Applications, Samantha Ann Meenach

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Currently, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Conventional cancer treatment includes chemotherapy, radiation, and surgical resection, but unfortunately, all of these methods have significant drawbacks. Hyperthermia, the heating of cancerous tissues to between 41 and 45°C, has been shown to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy when used in conjunction with irradiation and/or chemotherapy. In this work, a novel method for remotely administering heat is presented. This method involves heating of tumor tissue using hydrogel nanocomposites containing magnetic nanoparticles which can be remotely heated upon exposure to an external alternating magnetic field ...


Implementation Of Risk Management In The Medical Device Industry, Rachelo Dumbrique 2010 San Jose State University

Implementation Of Risk Management In The Medical Device Industry, Rachelo Dumbrique

Master's Theses

This study looks at the implementation and effectiveness of risk management (RM) activities in the medical device industry. An online survey was distributed to medical device professionals who were asked to identify RM-related activities performed during the device life cycle. RM activities and techniques included Establishing Risk Acceptance Criteria, Hazard Identification, Human Factors/Usability, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA), Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA), Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP), Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), Risk Benefit Analysis, and Risk Assessment of Customer Complaint. Devices were identified by type (therapeutic, surgical ...


Use Of A 3d Perfusion Bioreactor With Osteoblasts And Osteoblast/Endothelial Cell Co-Cultures To Improve Tissue-Engineered Bone, Matthew J. Barron 2010 Michigan Technological University

Use Of A 3d Perfusion Bioreactor With Osteoblasts And Osteoblast/Endothelial Cell Co-Cultures To Improve Tissue-Engineered Bone, Matthew J. Barron

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

The delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and the removal of waste are essential for cellular survival. Culture systems for 3D bone tissue engineering have addressed this issue by utilizing perfusion flow bioreactors that stimulate osteogenic activity through the delivery of oxygen and nutrients by low-shear fluid flow. It is also well established that bone responds to mechanical stimulation, but may desensitize under continuous loading. While perfusion flow and mechanical stimulation are used to increase cellular survival in vitro, 3D tissue-engineered constructs face additional limitations upon in vivo implantation. As it requires significant amounts of time for vascular infiltration by the host ...


Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller 2010 Old Dominion University

Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy is an attractive method for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, using current strategies, induction of gene expression at therapeutic levels is often inefficient. In this study, we show a novel electroporation (EP) method to enhance the delivery of a plasmid expressing an angiogenic growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), which is a molecule previously documented to stimulate revascularization in coronary artery disease. DNA expression plasmids were delivered in vivo to the porcine heart with or without coadministered EP to determine the potential effect of electrically mediated delivery. The results showed that plasmid delivery through EP significantly ...


Experimental Studies On The Plasma Bullet Propagation And Its Inhibition, Erdinc Karakas, Mounir Laroussi 2010 Old Dominion University

Experimental Studies On The Plasma Bullet Propagation And Its Inhibition, Erdinc Karakas, Mounir Laroussi

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Plasma bullets generated by atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets have recently been an active research topic due to their unique properties and their enhanced plasma chemistry. In this paper, experimental insights into the plasma bullet lifetime and its velocity are reported. Data obtained from intensified charge-coupled device camera and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) elucidated the existence of a weakly ionized channel between the plasma bullet and its source (such as the plasma pencil). Factors responsible for the inhibition of the propagation of the bullet, such as low helium mole fraction, the magnitude of the applied voltage, and the ...


Bioelectric Applications For Treatment Of Melanoma, Stephen J. Beebe, Karl H. Schoenbach, Richard Heller 2010 Old Dominion University

Bioelectric Applications For Treatment Of Melanoma, Stephen J. Beebe, Karl H. Schoenbach, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in ...


Testing Fuel Efficiency Of A Tractor With A Continuously Variable Transmission, Bart A. Coffman, Michael F. Kocher, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Roger M. Hoy, Erin E. Blankenship 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Testing Fuel Efficiency Of A Tractor With A Continuously Variable Transmission, Bart A. Coffman, Michael F. Kocher, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Roger M. Hoy, Erin E. Blankenship

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

A John Deere 8530 IVT tractor (Waterloo, Iowa) with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) that could be operated in automatic (CVT) or manual (fixed gear ratio) mode was tested for fuel consumption at a setpoint travel speed of 9 km·h‐1 with 17 different drawbar loads. Linear regression analysis results showed that with the throttle set to maximum in both transmission modes, operating the tractor with the transmission in the automatic mode was more fuel efficient than operating with the transmission in the manual mode when the drawbar power was approximately 78%, or less, of maximum power. When load ...


Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration Of Strawberries: Effect Of Pretreatment Time And Ultrasonic Frequency, Juan Garcia-Noguera, Francisca I. P. Oliveira, Maria Izabel Gallão, Curtis L. Weller, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration Of Strawberries: Effect Of Pretreatment Time And Ultrasonic Frequency, Juan Garcia-Noguera, Francisca I. P. Oliveira, Maria Izabel Gallão, Curtis L. Weller, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Pretreatment of fruits prior to drying has shown success in reducing drying time and costs. In this work, ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration has been implemented as a method to increase water diffusivity and reduce drying time in strawberries. Strawberry halves were immersed in distilled water and in two different concentrations of sucrose solutions while pretreatment time and ultrasonic frequency levels were varied to determine their effect on drying time, water loss, and soluble solids gain. A microscopic analysis was carried out to evaluate the formation of microchannels and other changes to the fruit tissue structure. Greater sucrose concentration used in ultrasound- ...


Dual-Stage Sugar Substitution In Strawberries With A Stevia-Based Sweetener, Juan Garcia-Noguera, Curtis L. Weller, Francisca I. P. Oliveira, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dual-Stage Sugar Substitution In Strawberries With A Stevia-Based Sweetener, Juan Garcia-Noguera, Curtis L. Weller, Francisca I. P. Oliveira, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The present study introduces and analyzes a new process denominated dual-stage sugar substitution (D3S). This process aims to induce sugar substitution in strawberries. In a first stage, high-calorie sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) are partially removed from the fruit samples and in a second stage, low-calorie sugar (stevioside and rebaudioside) is incorporated to the fruit to maintain its sweetness. The process was evaluated by studying the use of ultrasound application in one or both stages of the D3S process. Best performance of the process was obtained by subjecting the fruit samples to ultrasound in the sugar removal stage followed by ...


Microwave-Based Alkali Pretreatment Of Switchgrass And Coastal Bermudagrass For Bioethanol Production, Deepak R. Keshwani, Jay J. Cheng 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Microwave-Based Alkali Pretreatment Of Switchgrass And Coastal Bermudagrass For Bioethanol Production, Deepak R. Keshwani, Jay J. Cheng

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass are promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocelluloses is required to improve production of fermentable sugars from enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave- based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass was investigated in this study. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute alkali reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 W for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Simons’ stain method was used to quantify changes in biomass porosity as a result of the pretreatment. Pretreatments were evaluated based on yields of total reducing sugars, glucose, and ...


Robust Dynamic Balance Of Ap-1 Transcription Factors In A Neuronal Gene Regulatory Network., Gregory M Miller, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, James S Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli 2010 Thomas Jefferson University

Robust Dynamic Balance Of Ap-1 Transcription Factors In A Neuronal Gene Regulatory Network., Gregory M Miller, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, James S Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The octapeptide Angiotensin II is a key hormone that acts via its receptor AT1R in the brainstem to modulate the blood pressure control circuits and thus plays a central role in the cardiac and respiratory homeostasis. This modulation occurs via activation of a complex network of signaling proteins and transcription factors, leading to changes in levels of key genes and proteins. AT1R initiated activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which regulates blood pressure, has been the subject of extensive molecular analysis. But the adaptive network interactions in the NTS response to AT1R, plausibly related to the development of ...


Protein And Oil Recoveries From Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybeans And Sunflower Seed, Kerry Alan Campbell 2010 Iowa State University

Protein And Oil Recoveries From Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybeans And Sunflower Seed, Kerry Alan Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aqueous extraction processing (AEP) of soybeans has the potential to achieve oil extraction yields comparable to hexane extraction without the environmental or safety concerns associated with hexane. The economic viability of this novel process depends upon maximizing the yield of free oil as well the development of a cost effective, high yielding method of recovering protein values in the aqueous by-product.

In order to direct strategies for yield improvement, mechanisms of AEP were studied by microscopic observation of extracted residual solids coupled with yield measurements and mathematical modeling. The nature of the oil-confining matrix varied depending on physical treatment of ...


Development Of A Sorbent For Carbon Dioxide, Dursun Can Ozcan 2010 Iowa State University

Development Of A Sorbent For Carbon Dioxide, Dursun Can Ozcan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The reversible absorption of CO2 by CaO at high temperature is a promising method for capturing and removing CO2 from a hot gas stream. The main challenge facing the use of this method is the deterioration of CO2 absorption capacity when the method is applied over a large number of CO2 absorption/desorption cycles. Although various techniques have been proposed for improving the cyclic stability and performance of calcium based sorbents, a cost effective method is still needed for industrial applications. Therefore, two promising methods for improving the cyclic stability were selected for further investigation. One method is to optimize ...


Imaging The Vasculature With Susceptibility Weighted Imaging: Applications And Analysis, Samuel Barnes 2010 Wayne State University

Imaging The Vasculature With Susceptibility Weighted Imaging: Applications And Analysis, Samuel Barnes

Wayne State University Dissertations

Modern magnetic resonance imaging sequences allow detailed non-invasive imaging of both the arteries and veins. This work is divided into four sections that examine different applications and analysis of these sequences.

Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) typically generates excellent negative venous contrast. Techniques to generate positive arterial contrast in SWI images without degrading the venous contrast with a single echo are examined. By using high isotropic resolution and high readout bandwidth flow losses can be minimized (generating good arterial contrast) even at the long echo times required for good venous contrast. A downsampling filter is then used to restore lost venous ...


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