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Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, JORGE ARTURO VAZQUEZ 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, Jorge Arturo Vazquez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral neuropathies are a set of common diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system, causing damage to vital connections between various parts of the body and the brain and spinal cord. Different clinical conditions are known to selectively impact various size nerve fibers, which often makes it difficult to diagnose which peripheral neuropathy a patient might have. The nerve conduction velocity diagnostic test provides clinically useful information in the diagnosis of some peripheral neuropathies. This method is advantageous because it tends to be minimally invasive yet it provides valuable diagnostic information. However, this test does not determine characteristics of peripheral ...


Joint Reaction Force And Contributions Of Surrounding Muscles To Knee Joint Load During Stair Ascent In Total Knee Replacement Patients And Healthy Individuals, Robert Jacob Rasnick 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Joint Reaction Force And Contributions Of Surrounding Muscles To Knee Joint Load During Stair Ascent In Total Knee Replacement Patients And Healthy Individuals, Robert Jacob Rasnick

Masters Theses

Total knee replacement (TKR) is commonly used to correct end stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint. Unfortunately, difficulty with stair climbing has been seen to exist, prolonging the challenges of TKR patents. Complete understanding of loading at the knee is of great interest in order to aid patient populations, implant manufacturers, rehabilitation, and future research. The outcome of a TKR is intended to reestablish normal motion and loading of the knee. Musculoskeletal modeling provides a means to accurately approximate joint loading and the corresponding muscle contributions during a movement.

The purpose of the present study was to examine ...


Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Development of an effective human metaphase chromosome analysis algorithm can optimize expert time usage by increasing the efficiency of many clinical diagnosis processes. Although many methods exist in the literature, they are only applicable for limited morphological variations and are specific to the staining method used during cell preparation. They are also highly influenced by irregular chromosome boundaries as well as the presence of artifacts such as premature sister chromatid separation.

Therefore an algorithm is proposed in this research which can operate with any morphological variation of the chromosome across images from multiple staining methods. The proposed algorithm is capable ...


Application Of Limited Mixing In The Hele-Shaw Geometry In Fabrication Of Janus Hydrogels, Md Mahmudur Rahman 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Application Of Limited Mixing In The Hele-Shaw Geometry In Fabrication Of Janus Hydrogels, Md Mahmudur Rahman

Md Mahmudur Rahman

It is widely accepted that cells behave differently responding to the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM). Such observations were made by culturing cells on hydrogel substrates of tunable stiffness. However, it was recently proposed that cells may sense how strongly they are tethered to ECM, not the local stiffness of ECM. To investigate both hypotheses, we developed a method to fabricate Janus polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels. We squeeze two drops of different concentrations in the Hele-Shaw geometry to generate radial Stokes flow. When the drops coalesce, limited mixing occurs at the interface due to the narrow confinement, and diffusion normal ...


Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Blast Wave Transmission Through A Surrogate Head, Yi Hua, Praveen Akula, Linxia Gu, Jeff Berg, Carl A. Nelson 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Blast Wave Transmission Through A Surrogate Head, Yi Hua, Praveen Akula, Linxia Gu, Jeff Berg, Carl A. Nelson

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

This work is to develop an experiment-validated numerical model to elucidate the wave transmission mechanisms through a surrogate head under blast loading. Repeated shock tube tests were conducted on a surrogate head, i.e., water-filled polycarbonate shell. Surface strain on the skull simulant and pressure inside the brain simulant were recorded at multiple locations. A numerical model was developed to capture the shock wave propagation within the shock tube and the fluid-structure interaction between the shock wave and the surrogate head. The obtained numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements. The experiment-validated numerical model was then used to further ...


Mathematically Modeling Fetal Electrocardiograms, Samuel Estes, Kiersten Utsey, Erick Kalobwe 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mathematically Modeling Fetal Electrocardiograms, Samuel Estes, Kiersten Utsey, Erick Kalobwe

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Abstract

Some of the most common and fatal birth defects are those related to the heart. In adults, possible heart conditions are often identified through the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG). However, due to the presence of other signals and noise in the recording, fetal eletrocardiography has not yet proven effective in diagnosing these defects. This paper develops a mathematical model of three-dimensional heart vector trajectories, which was used to generate synthetic maternal and fetal ECG signals. The dipole model is a useful simplification in which the electrical activity of the heart is viewed as a single time-varying vector originating ...


Developing Defined And Scalable 3d Culture Systems For Culturing Human Pluripotent Stem Cells At High Densities, Yuguo Lei, Daeun Jeong, Jifang Xiao, David V. Schaffer 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Developing Defined And Scalable 3d Culture Systems For Culturing Human Pluripotent Stem Cells At High Densities, Yuguo Lei, Daeun Jeong, Jifang Xiao, David V. Schaffer

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)—including embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)—are very promising candidates for cell therapies, tissue engineering, high throughput pharmacology screens, and toxicity testing. These applications require large numbers of high quality cells; however, scalable production of human pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives at a high density and under well-defined conditions has been a challenge. We recently reported a simple, efficient, fully defined, scalable, and good manufacturing practice (GMP) compatible 3D culture system based on a thermoreversible hydrogel for hPSC expansion and differentiation. Here, we describe additional design rationale and characterization ...


Team Omnimouse, Derek J. Halman, Josh B. Porter, Steven A. Silver, Ian S. Stemper 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Team Omnimouse, Derek J. Halman, Josh B. Porter, Steven A. Silver, Ian S. Stemper

Computer Engineering

INFORMATION, DATA, FIGURES AND DRAWINGS EMBODIED IN THIS DOCUMENT ARE STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ARE SUPPLIED ON THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THEY WILL NOT BE DISCLOSED TO THIRD PARTIES WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE PLUS.


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes 2014 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Mr To Ultrasound Registration For Image-Guided Prostate Biopsy, Yue Sun 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Mr To Ultrasound Registration For Image-Guided Prostate Biopsy, Yue Sun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is the standard approach for diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, due to the lack of image contrast of prostate tumors, it often results in false negatives. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been considered to be a promising imaging modality for noninvasive identification of PCa, since it can provide a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of early stage PCa. Our main objective is to develop a registration method of 3D MR-TRUS images, allowing generation of volumetric 3D maps of targets identified in 3D MR images to be biopsied using 3D TRUS images ...


A Study Of Ciliary Beating In Chlamydomonas, Xin Li 2014 Syracuse University

A Study Of Ciliary Beating In Chlamydomonas, Xin Li

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The goal of this research is to understand how a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas-reinhardtii, responds to red light (670nm) and sound waves, by monitoring the beating frequency of its two cilia, which control cell motility. Ciliary beating frequency (BF) is proportional to the production of ATP, mainly generated by photosynthesis. A photosynthesis inhibitor, 3-(3-, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU) decreases ATP production by photosynthesis. I used DCMU as a tool to analyze the red light effect on BF.

In the process of studying the effect of red light, I unexpectedly discovered experimental conditions for unstable ciliary beating (as shown in ...


Investigating The Shelf Life Of Benzoyl Peroxide Coated Nozzles For Bone Cement Application, Alysen Leigh Demzik 2014 Syracuse University

Investigating The Shelf Life Of Benzoyl Peroxide Coated Nozzles For Bone Cement Application, Alysen Leigh Demzik

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Two-solution bone cements (TSBC) were developed to address the limitations of current powder-liquid bone cements, however are characterized by a limited shelf life due to spontaneous free radical polymerization. As a solution to pre-polymerization concerns, the initiator benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was removed from the cement solution and incorporated into a thin film coating within the static mixing nozzle, allowing the BPO to integrate with the TSBC as it is mixed for use. Only short-term storage of BPO-coated nozzles and the subsequent effects on bone cement properties is known. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time ...


Preterm Birth: Prediction, Prevention, Care, Brandon Wesley Alleman 2014 University of Iowa

Preterm Birth: Prediction, Prevention, Care, Brandon Wesley Alleman

Theses and Dissertations

Preterm birth (PTB) is defined as birth before 37 weeks gestational age. PTB is a common outcome and one that may be increasing in prevalence with serious individual and public health implications both immediately and long term. While PTB is a pregnancy specific outcome it is more appropriately viewed as the culmination of risk factors present both before pregnancy and possibly in past generations. This thesis attempts to review the implications, risk factors and current prevention strategies directed at PTB while placing it in an intergenerational and life cycle context. Three novel investigations are presented and their consequences are discussed ...


Application Of Limited Mixing In The Hele-Shaw Geometry In Fabrication Of Janus Hydrogels, Md Mahmudur Rahman 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Application Of Limited Mixing In The Hele-Shaw Geometry In Fabrication Of Janus Hydrogels, Md Mahmudur Rahman

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

It is widely accepted that cells behave differently responding to the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM). Such observations were made by culturing cells on hydrogel substrates of tunable stiffness. However, it was recently proposed that cells may sense how strongly they are tethered to ECM, not the local stiffness of ECM. To investigate both hypotheses, we developed a method to fabricate Janus polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels. We squeeze two drops of different concentrations in the Hele-Shaw geometry to generate radial Stokes flow. When the drops coalesce, limited mixing occurs at the interface due to the narrow confinement, and diffusion normal ...


Material Differences In Equine Cortical And Trabecular Bone, Ryan B. Allen 2014 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Material Differences In Equine Cortical And Trabecular Bone, Ryan B. Allen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A greater understanding of bone materials would be beneficial in creating more accurate computer models and in the making of biomedical products involving bone. This study set out to determine whether cortical and trabecular bone are two separate materials, or whether they are the same material with a variance in porosity. To answer this question, samples were taken from different sections of the equine metacarpus, underwent densitometry analysis and were statistically analyzed. The majority of results suggest that the material is the same between varying densities of bone and thus the same between cortical and trabecular bone. These particular results ...


Investigating The Role Of A Less Uranium Tolerant Strain, Isolated From The Hanford Site Soil, On Uranium Interaction In Polyphosphate Remediation Technology, Paola Sepulveda Medina 2014 Florida International University

Investigating The Role Of A Less Uranium Tolerant Strain, Isolated From The Hanford Site Soil, On Uranium Interaction In Polyphosphate Remediation Technology, Paola Sepulveda Medina

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. Previous assessment showed that the Arthrobacter oxydans (A.oxydans) G968 strain has a lower ability to tolerate U(VI) toxicity in bicarbonate-free media compared to other isolate A.oxydans G975. The study experimentally investigated several parameters such as the potential of bicarbonate to accelerate U(VI) release from autunite mineral in the presence of a less U(VI) tolerant bacterial strain, in the conditions mimicking Hanford Site subsurface environments. Results showed that despite morphological differences between the two bacterial strains, A.oxydans G968 and G975, they ...


Human Cardiovascular Responses To Artificial Gravity Variables: Ground-Based Experimentation For Spaceflight Implementation, Mark Howarth 2014 University of Kentucky

Human Cardiovascular Responses To Artificial Gravity Variables: Ground-Based Experimentation For Spaceflight Implementation, Mark Howarth

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

One countermeasure to cardiovascular spaceflight deconditioning being tested is the application of intermittent artificial gravity provided by centripetal acceleration of a human via centrifuge. However, artificial gravity protocols have not been optimized for the cardiovascular system, or any other physiological system for that matter. Before artificial gravity protocols can be optimized for the cardiovascular system, cardiovascular responses to the variables of artificial gravity need to be quantified.

The research presented in this document is intended to determine how the artificial gravity variables, radius (gravity gradient) and lower limb exercise, affect cardiovascular responses during centrifugation. Net fluid (blood) shifts between body ...


Novel Technologies For The Detection And Mitigation Of Drowsy Driving, Samuel Lawoyin 2014 Virginia Commonwealth University

Novel Technologies For The Detection And Mitigation Of Drowsy Driving, Samuel Lawoyin

Theses and Dissertations

In the human control of motor vehicles, there are situations regularly encountered wherein the vehicle operator becomes drowsy and fatigued due to the influence of long work days, long driving hours, or low amounts of sleep. Although various methods are currently proposed to detect drowsiness in the operator, they are either obtrusive, expensive, or otherwise impractical. The method of drowsy driving detection through the collection of Steering Wheel Movement (SWM) signals has become an important measure as it lends itself to accurate, effective, and cost-effective drowsiness detection. In this dissertation, novel technologies for drowsiness detection using Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs ...


Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid komariza 2014 Virginia Commonwealth University

Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza

Theses and Dissertations

Muscle mechanical behavior potentially plays an important role in some of the most common bladder disorders. These include overactive bladder, which can involve involuntary contractions during bladder filling, and impaired contractility or underactive bladder, which may involve weak or incomplete contractions during voiding. Actin-myosin cross-bridges in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) are responsible for contracting and emptying the bladder. The total tension produced by muscle is the sum of its preload and active tensions. Studies suggest that actin-myosin cross-links are involved in adjustable preload stiffness (APS), which is characterized by a preload tension curve that can be shifted along the length ...


From Cardiac Optical Imaging Data To Body Surface Ecg: A Three Dimensional Ventricle Model, Yihua Zhao 2014 University of Kentucky

From Cardiac Optical Imaging Data To Body Surface Ecg: A Three Dimensional Ventricle Model, Yihua Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Understanding the mechanisms behind unexplained abnormal heart rhythms is important for diagnosis and prevention of arrhythmias. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. There is considerable information available from tissue level experiments that investigate local action potential properties and from optical imaging to observe activity propagation properties at an organ level. By combining those electrophysiological properties together, in the present study we developed a simulation model that can help in estimation of the resulting body surface potentials from a specific electrical activity pattern within the myocardium. Some of the potential uses of our model ...


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