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Other Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Movement Effects On The Flow Physics And Nutrient Delivery In Engineered Valvular Tissues, Manuel Salinas 2014 Florida International University

Movement Effects On The Flow Physics And Nutrient Delivery In Engineered Valvular Tissues, Manuel Salinas

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mechanical conditioning has been shown to promote tissue formation in a wide variety of tissue engineering efforts. However the underlying mechanisms by which external mechanical stimuli regulate cells and tissues are not known. This is particularly relevant in the area of heart valve tissue engineering (HVTE) owing to the intense hemodynamic environments that surround native valves. Some studies suggest that oscillatory shear stress (OSS) caused by steady flow and scaffold flexure play a critical role in engineered tissue formation derived from bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs). In addition, scaffold flexure may enhance nutrient (e.g. oxygen, glucose) transport. In ...


Neuromuscular Changes In Older Adults During The Lateral Step Task, Tatiana Bejarano 2014 Florida International University

Neuromuscular Changes In Older Adults During The Lateral Step Task, Tatiana Bejarano

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Older adults may have trouble when performing activities of daily living due to decrease in physical strength and degradation of neuromotor and musculoskeletal function. Motor activation patterns during Lateral Step Down and Step Up from 4-inch and 8-inch step heights was assessed in younger (n=8, 24.4 years) and older adults (n=8, 58.9 years) using joint angle kinematics and electromyography of lower extremity muscles. Ground reaction forces were used to ascertain the loading, stabilization and unloading phases of the tasks. Older adults had an altered muscle activation sequence and significantly longer muscle bursts during loading for the ...


Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is the third most common joint replacement. While robot-assisted hip and knee replacement technologies have enjoyed extensive development, this has been limited in the upper limb. This work focused on quantifying the localization accuracy of a robotic system, and evaluating its efficacy in the context of TSA.

A collaborative robot was fitted with a stylus tip to perform manual surface digitizations using the robot’s encoder output. In the first experiment, two precision-machined master cubes, representing the working volume around a glenoid structure, were used for system validation. Next, cadaveric glenoids were digitized and compared to ...


Finite Element Modeling Of The Proximal Humerus To Compare Stemless, Short And Standard Stem Humeral Components Of Varying Material Stiffness For Shoulder Arthroplasty, Najmeh Razfar 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Finite Element Modeling Of The Proximal Humerus To Compare Stemless, Short And Standard Stem Humeral Components Of Varying Material Stiffness For Shoulder Arthroplasty, Najmeh Razfar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In patients with debilitating pain due to osteoarthritis, total shoulder arthroplasty can restore function and provide effective pain relief. Newer implant designs vary in length and material stiffness. Unfortunately, literature on these newer implants is limited. This thesis investigates the effect of stem length and implant material stiffness on proximal humeral bone stresses. 3D bone models with implants of various stem lengths (stemless, short, and standard) and different material stiffness’s (CoCr, Ti and PEEK) were generated using MIMICS, Solidworks and ABAQUS for varying abduction angles (15°, 45° and 75°). Cortical and trabecular stresses were contrasted with the intact bone ...


Visual Perception And Cognition In Image-Guided Intervention, Kamyar Abhari 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Visual Perception And Cognition In Image-Guided Intervention, Kamyar Abhari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surgical image visualization and interaction systems can dramatically affect the efficacy and efficiency of surgical training, planning, and interventions. This is even more profound in the case of minimally-invasive surgery where restricted access to the operative field in conjunction with limited field of view necessitate a visualization medium to provide patient-specific information at any given moment. Unfortunately, little research has been devoted to studying human factors associated with medical image displays and the need for a robust, intuitive visualization and interaction interfaces has remained largely unfulfilled to this day. Failure to engineer efficient medical solutions and design intuitive visualization interfaces ...


Design, Characterization And Application Of A Multiple Input Stethoscope Apparatus, Spencer Geng Wong 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Design, Characterization And Application Of A Multiple Input Stethoscope Apparatus, Spencer Geng Wong

Master's Theses and Project Reports

For this project, the design, implementation, characterization, calibration and possible applications of a multiple transducer stethoscope apparatus were investigated. The multi-transducer sensor array design consists of five standard stethoscope diaphragms mounted to a rigid frame for a-priori knowledge of their relative spatial locations in the x-y plane, with compliant z-direction positioning to ensure good contact and pressure against the subject’s skin for reliable acoustic coupling. When this apparatus is properly placed on the body, it can digitally capture the same important body sounds investigated with standard acoustic stethoscopes; especially heart sounds. Acoustic signal inputs from each diaphragm are converted ...


Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, JORGE ARTURO VAZQUEZ 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, Jorge Arturo Vazquez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral neuropathies are a set of common diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system, causing damage to vital connections between various parts of the body and the brain and spinal cord. Different clinical conditions are known to selectively impact various size nerve fibers, which often makes it difficult to diagnose which peripheral neuropathy a patient might have. The nerve conduction velocity diagnostic test provides clinically useful information in the diagnosis of some peripheral neuropathies. This method is advantageous because it tends to be minimally invasive yet it provides valuable diagnostic information. However, this test does not determine characteristics of peripheral ...


Joint Reaction Force And Contributions Of Surrounding Muscles To Knee Joint Load During Stair Ascent In Total Knee Replacement Patients And Healthy Individuals, Robert Jacob Rasnick 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Joint Reaction Force And Contributions Of Surrounding Muscles To Knee Joint Load During Stair Ascent In Total Knee Replacement Patients And Healthy Individuals, Robert Jacob Rasnick

Masters Theses

Total knee replacement (TKR) is commonly used to correct end stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint. Unfortunately, difficulty with stair climbing has been seen to exist, prolonging the challenges of TKR patents. Complete understanding of loading at the knee is of great interest in order to aid patient populations, implant manufacturers, rehabilitation, and future research. The outcome of a TKR is intended to reestablish normal motion and loading of the knee. Musculoskeletal modeling provides a means to accurately approximate joint loading and the corresponding muscle contributions during a movement.

The purpose of the present study was to examine ...


Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Development of an effective human metaphase chromosome analysis algorithm can optimize expert time usage by increasing the efficiency of many clinical diagnosis processes. Although many methods exist in the literature, they are only applicable for limited morphological variations and are specific to the staining method used during cell preparation. They are also highly influenced by irregular chromosome boundaries as well as the presence of artifacts such as premature sister chromatid separation.

Therefore an algorithm is proposed in this research which can operate with any morphological variation of the chromosome across images from multiple staining methods. The proposed algorithm is capable ...


Application Of Limited Mixing In The Hele-Shaw Geometry In Fabrication Of Janus Hydrogels, Md Mahmudur Rahman 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Application Of Limited Mixing In The Hele-Shaw Geometry In Fabrication Of Janus Hydrogels, Md Mahmudur Rahman

Md Mahmudur Rahman

It is widely accepted that cells behave differently responding to the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM). Such observations were made by culturing cells on hydrogel substrates of tunable stiffness. However, it was recently proposed that cells may sense how strongly they are tethered to ECM, not the local stiffness of ECM. To investigate both hypotheses, we developed a method to fabricate Janus polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels. We squeeze two drops of different concentrations in the Hele-Shaw geometry to generate radial Stokes flow. When the drops coalesce, limited mixing occurs at the interface due to the narrow confinement, and diffusion normal ...


Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Blast Wave Transmission Through A Surrogate Head, Yi Hua, Praveen Akula, Linxia Gu, Jeff Berg, Carl A. Nelson 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Blast Wave Transmission Through A Surrogate Head, Yi Hua, Praveen Akula, Linxia Gu, Jeff Berg, Carl A. Nelson

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

This work is to develop an experiment-validated numerical model to elucidate the wave transmission mechanisms through a surrogate head under blast loading. Repeated shock tube tests were conducted on a surrogate head, i.e., water-filled polycarbonate shell. Surface strain on the skull simulant and pressure inside the brain simulant were recorded at multiple locations. A numerical model was developed to capture the shock wave propagation within the shock tube and the fluid-structure interaction between the shock wave and the surrogate head. The obtained numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements. The experiment-validated numerical model was then used to further ...


Mathematically Modeling Fetal Electrocardiograms, Samuel Estes, Kiersten Utsey, Erick Kalobwe 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mathematically Modeling Fetal Electrocardiograms, Samuel Estes, Kiersten Utsey, Erick Kalobwe

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Abstract

Some of the most common and fatal birth defects are those related to the heart. In adults, possible heart conditions are often identified through the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG). However, due to the presence of other signals and noise in the recording, fetal eletrocardiography has not yet proven effective in diagnosing these defects. This paper develops a mathematical model of three-dimensional heart vector trajectories, which was used to generate synthetic maternal and fetal ECG signals. The dipole model is a useful simplification in which the electrical activity of the heart is viewed as a single time-varying vector originating ...


Developing Defined And Scalable 3d Culture Systems For Culturing Human Pluripotent Stem Cells At High Densities, Yuguo Lei, Daeun Jeong, Jifang Xiao, David V. Schaffer 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Developing Defined And Scalable 3d Culture Systems For Culturing Human Pluripotent Stem Cells At High Densities, Yuguo Lei, Daeun Jeong, Jifang Xiao, David V. Schaffer

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)—including embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)—are very promising candidates for cell therapies, tissue engineering, high throughput pharmacology screens, and toxicity testing. These applications require large numbers of high quality cells; however, scalable production of human pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives at a high density and under well-defined conditions has been a challenge. We recently reported a simple, efficient, fully defined, scalable, and good manufacturing practice (GMP) compatible 3D culture system based on a thermoreversible hydrogel for hPSC expansion and differentiation. Here, we describe additional design rationale and characterization ...


Team Omnimouse, Derek J. Halman, Josh B. Porter, Steven A. Silver, Ian S. Stemper 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Team Omnimouse, Derek J. Halman, Josh B. Porter, Steven A. Silver, Ian S. Stemper

Computer Engineering

INFORMATION, DATA, FIGURES AND DRAWINGS EMBODIED IN THIS DOCUMENT ARE STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ARE SUPPLIED ON THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THEY WILL NOT BE DISCLOSED TO THIRD PARTIES WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE PLUS.


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes 2014 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Mr To Ultrasound Registration For Image-Guided Prostate Biopsy, Yue Sun 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Mr To Ultrasound Registration For Image-Guided Prostate Biopsy, Yue Sun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is the standard approach for diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, due to the lack of image contrast of prostate tumors, it often results in false negatives. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been considered to be a promising imaging modality for noninvasive identification of PCa, since it can provide a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of early stage PCa. Our main objective is to develop a registration method of 3D MR-TRUS images, allowing generation of volumetric 3D maps of targets identified in 3D MR images to be biopsied using 3D TRUS images ...


A Study Of Ciliary Beating In Chlamydomonas, Xin Li 2014 Syracuse University

A Study Of Ciliary Beating In Chlamydomonas, Xin Li

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The goal of this research is to understand how a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas-reinhardtii, responds to red light (670nm) and sound waves, by monitoring the beating frequency of its two cilia, which control cell motility. Ciliary beating frequency (BF) is proportional to the production of ATP, mainly generated by photosynthesis. A photosynthesis inhibitor, 3-(3-, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU) decreases ATP production by photosynthesis. I used DCMU as a tool to analyze the red light effect on BF.

In the process of studying the effect of red light, I unexpectedly discovered experimental conditions for unstable ciliary beating (as shown in ...


Investigating The Shelf Life Of Benzoyl Peroxide Coated Nozzles For Bone Cement Application, Alysen Leigh Demzik 2014 Syracuse University

Investigating The Shelf Life Of Benzoyl Peroxide Coated Nozzles For Bone Cement Application, Alysen Leigh Demzik

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Two-solution bone cements (TSBC) were developed to address the limitations of current powder-liquid bone cements, however are characterized by a limited shelf life due to spontaneous free radical polymerization. As a solution to pre-polymerization concerns, the initiator benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was removed from the cement solution and incorporated into a thin film coating within the static mixing nozzle, allowing the BPO to integrate with the TSBC as it is mixed for use. Only short-term storage of BPO-coated nozzles and the subsequent effects on bone cement properties is known. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time ...


Preterm Birth: Prediction, Prevention, Care, Brandon Wesley Alleman 2014 University of Iowa

Preterm Birth: Prediction, Prevention, Care, Brandon Wesley Alleman

Theses and Dissertations

Preterm birth (PTB) is defined as birth before 37 weeks gestational age. PTB is a common outcome and one that may be increasing in prevalence with serious individual and public health implications both immediately and long term. While PTB is a pregnancy specific outcome it is more appropriately viewed as the culmination of risk factors present both before pregnancy and possibly in past generations. This thesis attempts to review the implications, risk factors and current prevention strategies directed at PTB while placing it in an intergenerational and life cycle context. Three novel investigations are presented and their consequences are discussed ...


Application Of Limited Mixing In The Hele-Shaw Geometry In Fabrication Of Janus Hydrogels, Md Mahmudur Rahman 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Application Of Limited Mixing In The Hele-Shaw Geometry In Fabrication Of Janus Hydrogels, Md Mahmudur Rahman

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

It is widely accepted that cells behave differently responding to the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM). Such observations were made by culturing cells on hydrogel substrates of tunable stiffness. However, it was recently proposed that cells may sense how strongly they are tethered to ECM, not the local stiffness of ECM. To investigate both hypotheses, we developed a method to fabricate Janus polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels. We squeeze two drops of different concentrations in the Hele-Shaw geometry to generate radial Stokes flow. When the drops coalesce, limited mixing occurs at the interface due to the narrow confinement, and diffusion normal ...


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