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In-Vivo Ct Dosimetry During Virtual Colonoscopy, Jonathon W. Mueller 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

In-Vivo Ct Dosimetry During Virtual Colonoscopy, Jonathon W. Mueller

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a minimally invasive means for identifying colorectal polyps and colorectal lesions by insufflating a patient’s bowel, applying contrast agent via rectal catheter, and performing multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans. The technique is recommended for colonic health screening by the American Cancer Society but not funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) partially because of potential risks from radiation exposure. To date, no in‐vivo organ dose measurements have been performed for MDCT scans; thus, the accuracy of any current dose estimates is currently unknown.

In this study, two TLDs were affixed to ...


Applications Of Nanoparticle Image Velocimetry In Nanofluids, Sara Salim Haque 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Applications Of Nanoparticle Image Velocimetry In Nanofluids, Sara Salim Haque

Masters Theses

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is an optical technique used for the visualization of fluid flow. PIV can be combined with other techniques to enhance the analysis of fluid flow. A novel far-field plasmonic resonance enhanced nanoparticle-seeded Particle Image Velocimetry (nPIV) has been demonstrated to measure the velocity in a micro channel. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles have been used to seed the flow. By using Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), plasmonic resonance enhanced light scattering has been calculated for spherical silver nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 15 nm to 200 nm in two media: water and air. The diffraction-limited plasmonic resonance enhanced ...


Seasonal Initial Concentrations And In-Field Decay Rates Of Escherichia Coli And Bovine Bacteroidetes In Beef Cattle Manure, Jiangwei Liu 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Seasonal Initial Concentrations And In-Field Decay Rates Of Escherichia Coli And Bovine Bacteroidetes In Beef Cattle Manure, Jiangwei Liu

Masters Theses

Eight naturally deposited beef cow manure patties were sampled during summer (July 19 to August 9, 2010), fall (October 26 to November 19, 2010), winter (January 14 to February 18, 2011), and spring (May 5-27, 2011) to determine whether hypothesized seasonal differences existed in the initial concentrations and decay rates of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and bovine Bacteroidetes (BoBac). E. coli concentrations were estimated as culturable colony forming units (CFU) and with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting the 23S ribosomal gene. BoBac was quantified with a qPCR assay targeting a 16S ribosomal gene sequence associated with cattle ...


Zein Nanospheres For Gene Delivery, Mary C. Regier 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Zein Nanospheres For Gene Delivery, Mary C. Regier

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Particulates incorporating DNA provide for protection and sustained release of DNA, and thus are promising candidates for DNA delivery systems. Among the routes of administration for gene delivery, the oral route is perhaps the most appealing as it is associated with patient comfort and compliance and allows for targeting to intestinal targets for therapeutic and vaccination applications. With the goal of realizing the potential of an oral DNA delivery system, zein, a hydrophobic protein from corn that is biocompatible and degraded enzymatically, was investigated. This thesis describes the formulation of zein nanospheres encapsulating DNA by a coacervation technique and their ...


An Inexpensive Method For Creating Paste To Be Used In Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Kirra Marie Sankey 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

An Inexpensive Method For Creating Paste To Be Used In Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Kirra Marie Sankey

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

Microfluidic devices are diagnostic tools that are small, portable, and inexpensive. This makes them ideally suited for resource-limited settings. To construct a 3D device, each layer of patterned paper is stacked using double-sided tape with holes corresponding to the pattern. It is necessary to have a paste to fill the holes in the tape and provide a medium for the fluid to wick through. The powder used to make the paste is very expensive and must be bought in bulk (an estimated $1121 - $1231), so it is not convenient for the Biomedical (BMED) department to use. This project was ...


Ischemia Impairs Vasodilation In Skeletal Muscle Resistance Artery, Kyle Remington Struthers 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Ischemia Impairs Vasodilation In Skeletal Muscle Resistance Artery, Kyle Remington Struthers

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Functional vasodilation in arterioles is impaired with chronic ischemia. We sought to examine the impact of chronic ischemia and age on skeletal muscle resistance artery function. To examine the impact of chronic ischemia, the femoral artery was resected from young (2-3mo) and adult (6-7mo) mice and the profunda femoris artery diameter was measured at rest and following gracilis muscle contraction 14 days later using intravital microscopy. Functional vasodilation was significantly impaired in ischemic mice (14.4±4.6% vs. 137.8±14.3%, p<0.0001 n=8) and non-ischemic adult mice (103.0±9.4% vs. 137.8±14.3%, p=0.05 n=10). In order to analyze the cellular mechanisms of the impairment, a protocol was developed to apply pharmacological agents to the experimental preparation while maintaining tissue homeostasis. Endothelial and smooth muscle dependent vasodilation were impaired with ischemia, 39.6 ± 13.6% vs. 80.5 ± 11.4% and 43.0 ± 11.7% vs. 85.1 ± 10.5%, respectively. From this data, it can be supported that smooth muscle dysfunction is the reason for the observed impairment in arterial vasodilation.


Unveiling The Molecular Mechanisms Regulating The Activation Of The Erbb Family Receptors At Atomic Resolution Through Molecular Modeling And Simulations, Andrew Shih 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Unveiling The Molecular Mechanisms Regulating The Activation Of The Erbb Family Receptors At Atomic Resolution Through Molecular Modeling And Simulations, Andrew Shih

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The EGFR/ErbB/HER family of kinases contains four homologous receptor tyrosine kinases that are important regulatory elements in key signaling pathways. To elucidate the atomistic mechanisms of dimerization-dependent activation in the ErbB family, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the intracellular kinase domains of the four members of the ErbB family (those with known kinase activity), namely EGFR, ErbB2 (HER2) and ErbB4 (HER4) as well as ErbB3 (HER3), an assumed pseudokinase, in different molecular contexts: monomer vs. dimer, wildtype vs. mutant. Using bioinformatics and fluctuation analyses of the molecular dynamics trajectories, we relate sequence similarities to correspondence of ...


A Comparative Study Of Total Hemoglobin Measurement Technology: Noninvasive Pulse Co-Oximetry And Conventional Methods, Jared S. Ruckman 2011 University of Connecticut

A Comparative Study Of Total Hemoglobin Measurement Technology: Noninvasive Pulse Co-Oximetry And Conventional Methods, Jared S. Ruckman

Master's Theses

Hemoglobin can be measured on a variety of devices using different principles of operation. Noninvasive pulse CO-oximetry represents the latest development in hemoglobin measuring technology. The technology uses principles similar to pulse oximetry to measure total hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, reduced oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin. Similar to the introduction of pulse oximetry to the medical field, pulse CO-oximetry has been met with skepticism. Since the technology is noninvasive and provides continuous monitoring in comparison to invasive and discrete techniques used in other methods, CO-oximetry purportedly provides an advantage in patient care. The purpose of this research is threefold: (a) to review the ...


Mammary Epithelial Cell Growth On A Three-Dimensional Scaffold In An Operating Bioreactor, Melissa Marie DaValle 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Mammary Epithelial Cell Growth On A Three-Dimensional Scaffold In An Operating Bioreactor, Melissa Marie Davalle

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Mammary epithelial cells are highly efficient secreting cells. With genetic engineering, the uses of these cells could be endless. Research is being conducted on these cells to determine their full potential to the biotech industry.

This paper investigates whether bovine epithelial mammary cells can survive in glutaraldehyde-treated gelatin tubes in an operating bioreactor. Many bioreactors were developed and tested to suit the needs of the cells. Procedures were created and carried out to ensure sterility of the bioreactors. Bovine mammary epithelial cells were implanted in the bioreactors and samples of their growth were taken over time.


Modeling Of Human Hand Motion In A Maya Environment, Andrew M. Quinn, Aeshan Ali, Tessa Taylor, Quincy Beasley 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Modeling Of Human Hand Motion In A Maya Environment, Andrew M. Quinn, Aeshan Ali, Tessa Taylor, Quincy Beasley

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Maternal Diet On Fetal Development, Catherine Wilcox 2011 Syracuse University

The Effect Of Maternal Diet On Fetal Development, Catherine Wilcox

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Using mice as a model system, this study aimed to compare the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), high sugar diet (HSD) and a control diet (CD) on fetal growth and development at the time of birth (post-natal day 0 or PND 0), post-natal day 7 (PND 7) and post-natal day 14 (PND 14). Published literature has documented the effects of a negative in-utero environment on fetal development, but currently there is limited research regarding the continued effects on development after birth. Mouse pups were harvested and then imaged in 3-D using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system. Total ...


A Study Of Osteocyte Apoptosis By Region And Quadrant In Murine Cortical Bone, Jessica Kristen Chan 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

A Study Of Osteocyte Apoptosis By Region And Quadrant In Murine Cortical Bone, Jessica Kristen Chan

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

A Study of Osteocyte Apoptosis by Region and Quadrant in Murine Cortical Bone

Jessica Kristen Chan

Osteocytes undergo apoptosis to spatially and temporally initiate bone remodeling. This study investigates the distribution of apoptotic osteocytes within different quadrants and regions of cortical bone and compares the frequency of osteocyte apoptosis to regional factors associated with bone remodeling. Specifically, the quantity of apoptosis was compared to levels of the bone morphagenic protein antagonists noggin and gremlin. Samples of unloaded right tibial bone obtained from C57/Bl/6 mice underwent TUNEL staining for apoptotic osteocytes and were counterstained with methyl green to ...


Sar Map Of Gel Phantom In A 64mhz Mri Birdcage By Fiber-Optic Thermometry And Fdtd Simulation, Chirag Mukesh Patel 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Sar Map Of Gel Phantom In A 64mhz Mri Birdcage By Fiber-Optic Thermometry And Fdtd Simulation, Chirag Mukesh Patel

Master's Theses and Project Reports

As implantable medical devices are being used more often to treat medical problems for which pharmaceuticals don’t suffice, it is important to understand their interactions with commonly used medical modalities. The interactions between medical implants and Magnetic Resonance Imaging machines have proven to be a risk for patients with implants.

Implanted medical devices with elongated metallic components can create harmful levels of local heating in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) environment [1]. The heating of a biological medium under MRI is monitored via the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR, defined as power absorbed per unit mass (W/kg), can ...


New Tools For Monitoring Gamma Camera Uniformity, Brad K. Lofton 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

New Tools For Monitoring Gamma Camera Uniformity, Brad K. Lofton

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Detector uniformity is a fundamental performance characteristic of all modern gamma camera systems, and ensuring a stable, uniform detector response is critical for maintaining clinical images that are free of artifact. For these reasons, the assessment of detector uniformity is one of the most common activities associated with a successful clinical quality assurance program in gamma camera imaging. The evaluation of this parameter, however, is often unclear because it is highly dependent upon acquisition conditions, reviewer expertise, and the application of somewhat arbitrary limits that do not characterize the spatial location of the non-uniformities. Furthermore, as the goal of any ...


Assessment Of Morphology And Hemodynamics In Normal And Remodeled Microvasculature With Parameter Sensitivity Analysis, Shilpi Ghosh 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Assessment Of Morphology And Hemodynamics In Normal And Remodeled Microvasculature With Parameter Sensitivity Analysis, Shilpi Ghosh

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The goal of this study was to compare the morphological and hemodynamic characteristics of normal and remodeled vascular networks in the mouse gracilis muscle. To this end, previously developed models to assess flows and vascular branching were used to assess the normal and remodeled microcirculatory networks. The analysis revealed that the average individual vessel flow rates for vessels of similar caliber and total volumetric flow rates in the networks do not change for vessels of the same caliber after remodeling. Connectivity changes and average diameters primarily change in the larger arterioles after remodeling. A few correlations could be made between ...


Fracture Of Bone Using Microindentation, Séverine Vennin 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Fracture Of Bone Using Microindentation, Séverine Vennin

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Osteoporosis is a current disease which is especially of concern to post-menopausal women. It is characterized by a decrease of bone density and an increase in the risk of fracture. Interest in the fracture mechanisms with respect to the underlying biological structure of the bone is of great interest to researchers in this field. In this thesis, a new method based on microindentation on rat femurs was developed to determine the relation between the viscoelastic and the fracture properties of bone. The main goal is to measure the viscoelastic properties by using a dynamic mechanical analysis indentation method and then ...


Modeling Of Loose Contamination Scenarios To Predict The Amount Of Contamination Removed, Duriem Calderin Morales 2010 Florida International University

Modeling Of Loose Contamination Scenarios To Predict The Amount Of Contamination Removed, Duriem Calderin Morales

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to evaluate the influence of the factors identified by the Johnson, Kendall and Robert’s theory that affect the strength of the detachment force necessary to remove a particle of contaminant from a surface, and the roughness of the surface in which the contaminant is present, on predicting the efficiency of removal of loose contamination. Two methods were used to reach this objective: the first method consisted of quantifying the contamination by weight and the second method of quantifying the contamination by counting alpha and gamma particles. As a result, it was determined that ...


The Gel Documentation System: A Cornerstone To The Implementation Of The Introduction To Biotechnology And Introduction To Bioinformatics Cross-Disciplinary Course Series, Marcy Kelly, Gregory Lampard, Constance Knapp 2010 Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, Pace University

The Gel Documentation System: A Cornerstone To The Implementation Of The Introduction To Biotechnology And Introduction To Bioinformatics Cross-Disciplinary Course Series, Marcy Kelly, Gregory Lampard, Constance Knapp

Cornerstone 3 Reports : Interdisciplinary Informatics

No abstract provided.


Waste To Work Using Eccrine Sweat Battery Modules To Enhance Pedestrian Safety, Lauren J. Vesty 2010 Syracuse University

Waste To Work Using Eccrine Sweat Battery Modules To Enhance Pedestrian Safety, Lauren J. Vesty

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

There is a need for increased pedestrian visibility. Improved athletic clothing with built in visibility features would enhance a roadside athlete’s safety. This experiment aims to create such an athletic shirt, while incorporating wearable biotechnology. A sweat battery that produced a voltage of 0.49 V and a current of 5.16 mA was created to power the visibility aspects of the shirt. The battery uses an aluminum anode, a carbon cathode, a sponge block as the container and semi-permeable membrane, and the body’s eccrine sweat as the electrolyte solution. The battery cells were arranged into blocks to ...


Nanoindentation Of Bio- And Geo-Mineralized Composites: Contribution Of Microstructure And Composition, Sara E. Campbell 2010 University of Colorado Boulder

Nanoindentation Of Bio- And Geo-Mineralized Composites: Contribution Of Microstructure And Composition, Sara E. Campbell

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Bio-mineralized composite tissues, such as bone and teeth, are heterogeneous in both mineral composition and crystallinity. These tissues are altered throughout life by aging, wear, microfracture, and various disease states (e.g., osteoporosis), and are then further altered geologically after death by fossilization to create geo-mineralized tissues. Bone and enamel exhibit a wide range of mechanical responses at nanometer-length scales, where large-scale porosity and macro-structural variation are not factors. Some variability seen in mineralized tissues can be attributed to the amount of mineral; where a general increase in mechanical properties occurs with increasing mineral volume fraction. However, a large range ...


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