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Toward A Multimodal Computer-Aided Diagnostic Tool For Alzheimer’S Disease Conversion, Danilo Pena, Jessika Suescun, Mya Schiess, Timothy M. Ellmore, Luca Giancardo, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2022 University of Texas Health Science Center

Toward A Multimodal Computer-Aided Diagnostic Tool For Alzheimer’S Disease Conversion, Danilo Pena, Jessika Suescun, Mya Schiess, Timothy M. Ellmore, Luca Giancardo, Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

Publications and Research

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is one of the leading sources of morbidity and mortality in the aging population AD cardinal symptoms include memory and executive function impairment that profoundly alters a patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living. People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) exhibit many of the early clinical symptoms of patients with AD and have a high chance of converting to AD in their lifetime. Diagnostic criteria rely on clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many groups are working to help automate this process to improve the clinical workflow. Current …


Modulation Of Brain Tissue Transport And Endothelial Glycocalyx And Tight Junctions Of The Blood-Brain Barrier By Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Yifan Xia 2022 CUNY City College

Modulation Of Brain Tissue Transport And Endothelial Glycocalyx And Tight Junctions Of The Blood-Brain Barrier By Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Yifan Xia

Dissertations and Theses

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive approach to treat a broad range of brain disorders and to enhance memory and cognition in healthy individuals. In addition to directly acting on neurons by modulating the membrane potential, inducing neuronal polarization and changing cortical excitability in the brain to achieve its therapeutic effects, prior studies found that tDCS can transiently enhance the permeability (P) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the interface between blood circulation and brain tissue. Brain extracellular space (ECS) is a narrow microenvironment which surrounds every cell in the central nervous system (CNS). ECS occupies ~20% of brain …


Multimodal Ultrasound Imaging For Improved Metastatic Lymph Node Detection, Sidhartha Jandhyala 2022 Dartmouth College

Multimodal Ultrasound Imaging For Improved Metastatic Lymph Node Detection, Sidhartha Jandhyala

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is complex in nature due to the variety of organs located in the head and neck region. Knowing the metastatic state of the lymph nodes is paramount in accurately staging and treating HNSCC patients. Currently, metastatic lymph node detection involves the use of magnetic resonance imaging and/or x-ray computed tomography, followed by biopsies for histological confirmation. The main diagnostic criteria is the size of the nodes; however, current imaging methods are not 100% accurate due natural lymph node variability. Ultrasound imaging is able to provide …


Phase-Changing Nanodroplets As Nanotheranostic Platform For Combination Cancer Therapy, Catalina-Paula Spatarelu 2022 Dartmouth College

Phase-Changing Nanodroplets As Nanotheranostic Platform For Combination Cancer Therapy, Catalina-Paula Spatarelu

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Cancer is a cluster of diseases, and 1.8 million Americans are newly diagnosed each year. Treatment issues such as drug instability, the occurrence of severe side effects, as well as resistance make the need for solutions to improve conventional methods, like chemotherapy, apparent. Nano-sized drug-delivery platforms, particles loaded with therapeutic molecules that escape the immune system clearance and accumulate at the tumor site, were proposed as one of these solutions. Despite the expansion of the field, several aspects still need to be addressed: inconsistent delivery of the drugs, inability of measuring the effective dose being delivered to the tumor, lack …


Segmentation Of Intracranial Structures From Noncontrast Ct Images With Deep Learning, Evan Porter 2022 Wayne State University

Segmentation Of Intracranial Structures From Noncontrast Ct Images With Deep Learning, Evan Porter

Wayne State University Dissertations

Presented in this work is an investigation of the application of artificially intelligent algorithms, namely deep learning, to generate segmentations for the application in functional avoidance radiotherapy treatment planning. Specific applications of deep learning for functional avoidance include generating hippocampus segmentations from computed tomography (CT) images and generating synthetic pulmonary perfusion images from four-dimensional CT (4DCT).A single institution dataset of 390 patients treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery was created. From these patients, the hippocampus was manually segmented on the high-resolution MR image and used for the development of the data processing methodology and model testing. It was determined that …


Characterizing The Internal Porous Structure Of Equine Proximal Sesamoid Bones Subjected To Race Training Using Fast Fourier Transforms, Joseph Erik Davis 2022 University of Kentucky

Characterizing The Internal Porous Structure Of Equine Proximal Sesamoid Bones Subjected To Race Training Using Fast Fourier Transforms, Joseph Erik Davis

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The equine racing industry is one of the main proponents in Kentucky’s economic infrastructure. In this industry there has come a need to investigate the nature of the proximal sesamoid bone (PSB). Breakdowns involving the PSBs are the leading cause in racehorse deaths in the industry, with still little known about what causes this bone to fracture. This study seeks to shed insight by investigating the internal structure of the PSB. Using microCT scanning, the internal porous structure was captured. From there, noticeable differences in the pores were noticed and quantified using fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis.

The dominant peak …


Biomedical Applications Of Lanthanide Nanomaterials, For Imaging, Sensing And Therapy, Qize Zhang, Stephen O'Brien, Jan Grimm 2022 CUNY City College

Biomedical Applications Of Lanthanide Nanomaterials, For Imaging, Sensing And Therapy, Qize Zhang, Stephen O'Brien, Jan Grimm

Publications and Research

The application of nanomaterials made of rare earth elements within biomedical sciences continues to make significant progress. The rare earth elements, also called the lanthanides, play an essential role in modern life through materials and electronics. As we learn more about their utility, function, and underlying physics, we can contemplate extending their applications to biomedicine. This particularly applies to diagnosis and radiation therapy due to their relatively unique features, such as an ultra-wide Stokes shift in the luminescence, variable magnetism and potentially tunable properties, due to the library of lanthanides available and their multivalent oxidation state chemistry. The ability to …


Gan-Based Super-Resolution And Segmentation Of Retinal Layers In Optical Coherence Tomography Scans, Paria Jeihouni 2022 West Virginia University

Gan-Based Super-Resolution And Segmentation Of Retinal Layers In Optical Coherence Tomography Scans, Paria Jeihouni

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been identified as a noninvasive and cost-effective imaging modality for identifying potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's diagnosis and progress detection. Current hypotheses indicate that retinal layer thickness, which can be assessed via OCT scans, is an efficient biomarker for identifying Alzheimer's disease. Due to factors such as speckle noise, a small target region, and unfavorable imaging conditions manual segmentation of retina layers is a challenging task. Therefore, as a reasonable first step, this study focuses on automatically segmenting retinal layers to separate them for subsequent investigations. Another important challenge commonly faced is the lack of clarity …


Towards Fluoro-Free Interventions: Using Radial Intracardiac Ultrasound For Vascular Navigation, Hareem Nisar, Leah Groves, Leandro Cardarelli-Leite, Terry M Peters, Elvis C.S. Chen 2022 Western University

Towards Fluoro-Free Interventions: Using Radial Intracardiac Ultrasound For Vascular Navigation, Hareem Nisar, Leah Groves, Leandro Cardarelli-Leite, Terry M Peters, Elvis C.S. Chen

Robarts Imaging Publications

Transcatheter cardio-vascular interventions have the advantage of patient safety,reduced surgery time, and minimal trauma to the patient's body. Transcathetherinterventions, which are performed percutaneously, suffer from the lack of direct line-of-sight with the surgical tools and the patient anatomy. Therefore, such interventionalprocedures rely heavily on image guidance for navigating towards and deliveringtherapy at the target site. Vascular navigation via the inferior vena cava (IVC), from thegroin to the heart, is an imperative part of most transcatheter cardiovascularinterventions such as valve repair surgeries and ablation therapy. Traditionally, the IVCis navigated using fluoroscopic techniques such as angiography or CT venography.These X-ray based techniques …


Advancing Combined Radiological And Optical Scanning For Breast-Conserving Surgery Margin Guidance, Samuel Stewart Streeter 2022 Dartmouth College

Advancing Combined Radiological And Optical Scanning For Breast-Conserving Surgery Margin Guidance, Samuel Stewart Streeter

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide, and standard-of-care for early-stage disease typically involves a lumpectomy or breast-conserving surgery (BCS). BCS involves the local resection of cancerous tissue, while sparring as much healthy tissue as possible. State-of-the-art methods for intraoperatively evaluating BCS margins are limited. Approximately 20% of BCS cases result in a tissue resection with cancer at or near the resection surface (i.e., a positive margin). A two-fold increase in ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence is associated with the presence of one or more positive margins. Consequently, positive margins often necessitate costly re-excision procedures to …


Deep Learning Approach To Improved Image Quality For Medical Diagnostics, Olivia Loesch, Katie Leyba, Halyley Chan, Craig Goergen 2021 Purdue University

Deep Learning Approach To Improved Image Quality For Medical Diagnostics, Olivia Loesch, Katie Leyba, Halyley Chan, Craig Goergen

Discovery Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Research Internship

The United Nation’s health-related Sustainable Development Goals are difficult to achieve in low- and middle-income countries due to workforce shortages and inadequate health surveillance systems. However, with the growth of artificial intelligence (AI) and computer algorithms, it is possible to apply AI to healthcare technologies to improve progress towards these UN standards. This project aims at using and improving computer algorithms and deep learning to aid in the extraction of important structural and functional information from murine carotid artery ultrasound and photoacoustic images. First, we created a large database of simulated photoacoustic images to optimize the algorithms. These images were …


Inter-Subject Correlation While Listening To Minimalist Music: A Study Of Electrophysiological And Behavioral Responses To Steve Reich’S Piano Phase, Tysen Dauer, Duc T. Nguyen, Nick Gang, Jacek P. Dmochowski, Jonathan Berger, Blair Kaneshiro 2021 Stanford University

Inter-Subject Correlation While Listening To Minimalist Music: A Study Of Electrophysiological And Behavioral Responses To Steve Reich’S Piano Phase, Tysen Dauer, Duc T. Nguyen, Nick Gang, Jacek P. Dmochowski, Jonathan Berger, Blair Kaneshiro

Publications and Research

Musical minimalism utilizes the temporal manipulation of restricted collections of rhythmic, melodic, and/or harmonic materials. One example, Steve Reich’s Piano Phase, offers listeners readily audible formal structure with unpredictable events at the local level. For example, pattern recurrences may generate strong expectations which are violated by small temporal and pitch deviations. A hyper-detailed listening strategy prompted by these minute deviations stands in contrast to the type of listening engagement typically cultivated around functional tonal Western music. Recent research has suggested that the inter-subject correlation (ISC) of electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to natural audio-visual stimuli objectively indexes a state of “engagement,” demonstrating …


Design Of Miniaturized Antipodal Vivaldi Antennas And A Microwave Head Imaging System For The Detection Of Blood Clots In The Brain, Farhana Parveen 2021 University of Central Florida

Design Of Miniaturized Antipodal Vivaldi Antennas And A Microwave Head Imaging System For The Detection Of Blood Clots In The Brain, Farhana Parveen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Traditional brain imaging modalities, for example, MRI, CT scan, X-ray, etc. can provide precise and high-resolution images of the brain for diagnosing lesions, tumors or clots inside the brain. However, these modalities require bulky and expensive test setups accessible only at specialized diagnostic centers, and hence may not be suitable or affordable to many patients. Furthermore, the inherent health risks limit the usability of these modalities for frequent monitoring. Microwave imaging is deemed a promising alternative due to its being cost-effective, portable, non-ionizing, non-intrusive. Therefore, this work aims to design an effective microwave head imaging system for the detection of …


Time-Lapse Observation Of Sarcomeric Addition In Hypertrophic Models Based On A Tissue Like Cardiomyocyte Culture, Ailin Wei 2021 Clemson University

Time-Lapse Observation Of Sarcomeric Addition In Hypertrophic Models Based On A Tissue Like Cardiomyocyte Culture, Ailin Wei

All Dissertations

Cardiac hypertrophy is the response of the heart to increased mechanical stress exerted on the heart. In a hypertrophic heart, the muscles elongate or/and thicken with cardiomyocytes growing sizes. It is assumed that cardiomyocytes elongate by adding sarcomeres in series; the cardiomyocytes thicken with the addition of sarcomeres in the parallel position.

In this study, a tissue-like culture model was achieved with step-like ICDs. Uniaxial static stretch has been applied to our unique culture model for studying mechanical-load-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertrophic responses of these cardiomyocytes have been confirmed on transcriptional and translational levels in our tissue-like model. The two-photon excitation …


Generation, Analysis, And Evaluation Of Patient-Specific, Osteoligamentous, Spine Meshes, Austin R. Tapp 2021 Old Dominion University

Generation, Analysis, And Evaluation Of Patient-Specific, Osteoligamentous, Spine Meshes, Austin R. Tapp

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Scoliosis, an abnormal curvature of the spine, is traditionally corrected with bracing treatments or by a highly invasive posterior spinal fusion (PSF) operation. These correction strategies are constrained by current imaging modalities, which fail to elucidate the soft tissue anatomy that is known to play a critical role in spinal stiffness and overall structure. Osteoligamentous segmentations of the spinal column offer a foundation for downstream finite element (FE) studies seeking to optimize bracing treatments or determine ideal surgical approaches.

This thesis presents methods for automatically and semi-automatically segmenting vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues of the spinal column using X-ray computed …


Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy Of 3d Orientation And Anisotropic Wobble Using A Polarized Vortex Point Spread Function, Tianben Ding, Matthew D. Lew 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy Of 3d Orientation And Anisotropic Wobble Using A Polarized Vortex Point Spread Function, Tianben Ding, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Within condensed matter, single fluorophores are sensitive probes of their chemical environments, but it is difficult to use their limited photon budget to image precisely their positions, 3D orientations, and rotational diffusion simultaneously. We demonstrate the polarized vortex point spread function (PSF) for measuring these parameters, including characterizing the anisotropy of a molecule’s wobble, simultaneously from a single image. Even when imaging dim emitters (∼500 photons detected), the polarized vortex PSF can obtain 12 nm localization precision, 4°–8° orientation precision, and 26° wobble precision. We use the vortex PSF to measure the emission anisotropy of fluorescent beads, the wobble dynamics …


Correlation Of Acute Radiation Dermatitis To Tissue Oxygenation In Radiation Therapy Treated Breast Cancer Subjects, Edwin Alexander Robledo 2021 Florida International University

Correlation Of Acute Radiation Dermatitis To Tissue Oxygenation In Radiation Therapy Treated Breast Cancer Subjects, Edwin Alexander Robledo

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over 95% of radiation therapy (RT) treated breast cancer subjects undergo an adverse skin reaction known as radiation dermatitis (RD). Assessment of severity or grading of RD is clinically visual and hence subjective. Our objective is to determine sub-clinical tissue oxygenation (StO2) changes in response to RT treatment in breast cancer subjects using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging and correlate these changes to RD grading. A WIRB approved 6-8 week longitudinal pilot study was carried out on 10 RT-treated subjects at Miami Cancer Institute. Significant changes (p < 0.05) in StO2 of irradiated and contralateral chest wall and axilla regions with weeks of …


Dataset Of Concurrent Eeg, Ecg, And Behavior With Multiple Doses Of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation, Nigel Gebodh, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Abhishek Datta, Marom Bikson 2021 CUNY City College

Dataset Of Concurrent Eeg, Ecg, And Behavior With Multiple Doses Of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation, Nigel Gebodh, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Abhishek Datta, Marom Bikson

Publications and Research

We present a dataset combining human-participant high-density electroencephalography (EEG) with physiological and continuous behavioral metrics during transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Data include within participant application of nine High-Definition tES (HD-tES) types, targeting three cortical regions (frontal, motor, parietal) with three stimulation waveforms (DC, 5 Hz, 30 Hz); more than 783 total stimulation trials over 62 sessions with EEG, physiological (ECG, EOG), and continuous behavioral vigilance/alertness metrics. Experiment 1 and 2 consisted of participants performing a continuous vigilance/alertness task over three 70-minute and two 70.5-minute sessions, respectively. Demographic data were collected, as well as self-reported wellness questionnaires before and after each …


Pairwise Correlation Analysis Of The Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Adni) Dataset Reveals Significant Feature Correlation, Erik D. Huckvale, Matthew W. Hodgman, Brianna B. Greenwood, Devorah O. Stucki, Katrisa M. Ward, Mark T. W. Ebbert, John S. K. Kauwe, The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, The Alzheimer’s Disease Metabolomics Consortium, Justin B. Miller 2021 University of Kentucky

Pairwise Correlation Analysis Of The Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Adni) Dataset Reveals Significant Feature Correlation, Erik D. Huckvale, Matthew W. Hodgman, Brianna B. Greenwood, Devorah O. Stucki, Katrisa M. Ward, Mark T. W. Ebbert, John S. K. Kauwe, The Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, The Alzheimer’S Disease Metabolomics Consortium, Justin B. Miller

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) contains extensive patient measurements (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], biometrics, RNA expression, etc.) from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases and controls that have recently been used by machine learning algorithms to evaluate AD onset and progression. While using a variety of biomarkers is essential to AD research, highly correlated input features can significantly decrease machine learning model generalizability and performance. Additionally, redundant features unnecessarily increase computational time and resources necessary to train predictive models. Therefore, we used 49,288 biomarkers and 793,600 extracted MRI features to assess feature correlation within the ADNI dataset to determine the …


Artificial Image Objects For Classification Of Breast Cancer Biomarkers With Transcriptome Sequencing Data And Convolutional Neural Network Algorithms, Xiangning Chen, Daniel G. Chen, Zhongming Zhao, Justin M. Balko, Jingchun Chen 2021 LLC

Artificial Image Objects For Classification Of Breast Cancer Biomarkers With Transcriptome Sequencing Data And Convolutional Neural Network Algorithms, Xiangning Chen, Daniel G. Chen, Zhongming Zhao, Justin M. Balko, Jingchun Chen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Transcriptome sequencing has been broadly available in clinical studies. However, it remains a challenge to utilize these data effectively for clinical applications due to the high dimension of the data and the highly correlated expression between individual genes. Methods: We proposed a method to transform RNA sequencing data into artificial image objects (AIOs) and applied convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithms to classify these AIOs. With the AIO technique, we considered each gene as a pixel in an image and its expression level as pixel intensity. Using the GSE96058 (n = 2976), GSE81538 (n = 405), and GSE163882 (n = …


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