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Direct Current Electrokinetic Particle Transport In Micro/Nano-Fluidics, Ye Ai 2011 Old Dominion University

Direct Current Electrokinetic Particle Transport In Micro/Nano-Fluidics, Ye Ai

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Electrokinetics has been widely used to propel and manipulate particles in micro/nano-fluidics. The first part of this dissertation focuses on numerical and experimental studies of direct current (DC) electrokinetic particle transport in microfluidics, with emphasis on dielectrophoretic (DEP) effect. Especially, the electrokinetic transports of spherical particles in a converging-diverging microchannel and an L-shaped microchannel, and cylindrical algal cells in a straight microchannel have been numerically and experimentally studied. The numerical predictions are in quantitative agreement with our own and other researchers' experimental results. It has been demonstrated that the DC DEP effect, neglected in existing numerical models, plays an ...


Manipulating Particles For Micro- And Nano-Fluidics Via Floating Electrodes And Diffusiophoresis, Sinan Eren Yalcin 2011 Old Dominion University

Manipulating Particles For Micro- And Nano-Fluidics Via Floating Electrodes And Diffusiophoresis, Sinan Eren Yalcin

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The ability to accurately control micro- and nano-particles in a liquid is fundamentally useful for many applications in biology, medicine, pharmacology, tissue engineering, and microelectronics. Therefore, first particle manipulations are experimentally studied using electrodes attached to the bottom of a straight microchannel under an imposed DC or AC electric field. In contrast to a dielectric microchannel possessing a nearly-uniform surface charge, a floating electrode is polarized under the imposed electric field.

The purpose is to create a non-uniform distribution of the induced surface charge, with a zero-net-surface charge along the floating electrode's surface. Such a field, in turn, generates ...


Conical Probe Calibration And Wind Tunnel Data Analysis Of The Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment, Samson Siu Truong 2011 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Conical Probe Calibration And Wind Tunnel Data Analysis Of The Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment, Samson Siu Truong

Aerospace Engineering

For a multi-hole test probe undergoing wind tunnel tests, the resulting data needs to be analyzed for any significant trends. These trends include relating the pressure distributions, the geometric orientation, and the local velocity vector to one another. However, experimental runs always involve some sort of error. As a result, a calibration procedure is required to compensate for this error. For this case, it is the misalignment bias angles resulting from the distortion associated with the angularity of the test probe or the local velocity vector. Through a series of calibration steps presented here, the angular biases are determined and ...


Surface Geometry And Heat Flux Effect On Thin Wire Nucleate Pool Boiling Of Subcooled Water In Microgravity, Troy Munro, Andrew Fassman 2011 Utah State University

Surface Geometry And Heat Flux Effect On Thin Wire Nucleate Pool Boiling Of Subcooled Water In Microgravity, Troy Munro, Andrew Fassman

Presentations

The motivation of this nucleate boiling research is to understand the effects of surface geometry and heat flux as applied to a thin wire heater. This will further the understanding of the fundamental behaviors of boiling onset, steady state heat transfer, and bubble dynamics with respect to nucleate boiling with the goal of creating efficient thermal management systems for future space applications. Using three different thin platinum wire geometries and five different power levels, subcooled water was boiled over a period of approximately 30 seconds for 15 parabolic arcs to simulate microgravity. To represent the trends in bubbles behavior across ...


Scale Modeling Of Cessna 172, Chee-woon Kim 2011 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Scale Modeling Of Cessna 172, Chee-Woon Kim

Aerospace Engineering

This report describes how the scale-model aircraft can be built when the Reynolds number is out of range for using dynamic similitude method. Due to lack of time and budget for designing an actual model for testing, Cessna 172 was used to calculate the size of the temporary scale-model aircraft. The method that was used for this project was matching aerodynamic coefficients such as drag coefficient or lift coefficient of the prototype and the model. Based on this method, the takeoff distance, landing distance and the rate of climb of the model came out to be 218 ft, 91 ft ...


Performance Characterization Of A Novel Plasma Thruster To Provide A Revolutionary Operationally Responsive Space Capability With Micro- And Nano-Satellites, John-David C. De la Harpe 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Performance Characterization Of A Novel Plasma Thruster To Provide A Revolutionary Operationally Responsive Space Capability With Micro- And Nano-Satellites, John-David C. De La Harpe

Theses and Dissertations

Few options currently exist to provide propulsion for extremely small satellites due to design constraints on power, volume, and weight. However, future operation will require a capability to conduct orbital maneuvers, momentum dumping, and precision pointing for these low cost satellites. The research presented here represents the first effort to operate and quantify the performance of a new micro plasma thruster design which provides a novel solution to these disparate competing constraints. The thruster in this study represents a deviation from traditional circular Hall thruster design practices, because it eschews a central magnetic circuit, which results in nearly parallel electric ...


Time Resolved Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Measurement Of A Centrifugally Loaded Buoyant Jet, Firas Benhassen 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Time Resolved Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Measurement Of A Centrifugally Loaded Buoyant Jet, Firas Benhassen

Theses and Dissertations

The combustion process within the Ultra-Compact Combustor (UCC) occurs in the circumferential direction. The presence of variable flow density within the circumferential cavity introduces significant buoyancy issues. On the other hand, G-loading caused by the presence of centrifugal forces, ensures the circulation of the flow in the circumferential cavity and enhances the completion of the combustion process before allowing the exit of the hot gases to the main flow. The coupling between buoyancy and high G-loading is what predominately influences the behavior of the flow within the UCC. In order to better understand the combustion process within the UCC, three ...


Ch-47d Rotating System Fault Sensing For Condition Based Maintenance, Stephen M. Dickerson 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Ch-47d Rotating System Fault Sensing For Condition Based Maintenance, Stephen M. Dickerson

Theses and Dissertations

The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated the use of maintenance practices based on component condition rather than component time in service or age. This new practice is known as Condition Based Maintenance, and it relies on accurate detection and identification of material deficiencies in system components. Rotor system components in rotary-wing aircraft can be difficult to monitor due to the rotational environment experienced by the sensors and the difficulty of signal transmission. Current methods are able to detect the existence of a fault in the rotor system but cannot link the vibrations experienced in the airframe to a specific ...


Optimized Dual Expander Aerospike Rocket, Joshua N. Hall 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Optimized Dual Expander Aerospike Rocket, Joshua N. Hall

Theses and Dissertations

Research at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) focused on designing a cryogenic dual-expander aerospike nozzle (DEAN) upper stage rocket engine to produce 50,000 pounds-force (222.4 kilo-Newtons) vacuum thrust, 464 seconds of vacuum specific impulse and a thrust-to-weight ratio of 106.5. The use of dual expander cycles improves engine reliability, maximizes efficiency, and eliminates some catastrophic failure modes. An upper stage engine with an aerospike nozzle is shorter and lighter than an equivalent performing conventional bell nozzle upper stage engine. Previous research focused on first developing a feasible closed DEAN design model and secondly expanding the ...


Osculating Relative Orbit Elements Resulting From Chief Eccentricity And J2 Perturbing Forces, Joshuah A. Hess 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Osculating Relative Orbit Elements Resulting From Chief Eccentricity And J2 Perturbing Forces, Joshuah A. Hess

Theses and Dissertations

Relative orbit elements (ROEs) based on a circular chief satellite orbit are erroneous when applied to a perturbed,non-circular reference orbit. In those situations, the ROEs will encounter geometric instability and drift. To counter this, a set of time-variant ROEs have been derived to describe the relative orbit for both the unperturbed, elliptical chief, and the perturbed, circular chief. A highly coupled relationship is found that describes the relative trajectory to higher accuracy when compared to numerical integration. To show the applicability of the ROEs to formation design, methods to initialize a stationary relative orbit are detailed and an algorithm ...


Small Internal Combustion Engine Testing For A Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft, Isseyas H. Mengistu 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Small Internal Combustion Engine Testing For A Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft, Isseyas H. Mengistu

Theses and Dissertations

Efficient operation of a hybrid-electric propulsion system (HEPS) powering a small remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA) requires that a controller have accurate and detailed engine and electric motor performance data. Many small internal combustion engines (ICEs) currently used on various small RPA were designed for use by the recreational hobbyist radio-control (R/C) aircraft market. Often, the manufacturers of these engines do not make accurate and reliable detailed engine performance data available for their engines. A dynamometer testing stand was assembled to test various small ICEs. These engines were tested with automotive unleaded gasoline (the manufacturer's recommended fuel) using the dynamometer ...


Cubesat Packaged Electrospray Thruster Evaluation For Enhanced Operationally Responsive Space Capabilities, Scott T. Ober 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Cubesat Packaged Electrospray Thruster Evaluation For Enhanced Operationally Responsive Space Capabilities, Scott T. Ober

Theses and Dissertations

A new specialized electrospray thruster with a potential to be used with a 3-U CubeSat was operated. The key difference in this thruster from traditional colloid thrusters is the porous stainless steel surface used for the emission sites. With this porous surface the actual location and number of the Taylor cones formations vary with changing fuel flow. The understanding of these formations is discussed with low, moderate, and high flow rates. The limitations of the experiment and observed system response are discussed. Due to these limitations, the colloid thruster was only able to operate in the low mass flow rate ...


Optimization Of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems For Small Remotely-Piloted Aircraft, Todd A. Rotramel 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Optimization Of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems For Small Remotely-Piloted Aircraft, Todd A. Rotramel

Theses and Dissertations

Small electric-powered remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA) used by today's warfighters for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions lack desired endurance and loiter times, while the acoustics and thermal signatures of those configured with internal combustion engines (ICE) may make them unpractical for ISR. Outfitting RPA with parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems (H-EPS) would meet the military's needs by combining the advantages of both systems while reducing fuel consumption and environmental impacts. An analysis tool was created, using constrained static optimization, to size the H-EPS components. Based on the RPA's required power and velocity for the endurance phase, an electric ...


Coupling Vanishing Point Tracking With Inertial Navigation To Estimate Attitude In A Structured Environment, Dayvid Prahl 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Coupling Vanishing Point Tracking With Inertial Navigation To Estimate Attitude In A Structured Environment, Dayvid Prahl

Theses and Dissertations

This research aims to obtain accurate and stable estimates of a vehicle's attitude by coupling consumer-grade inertial and optical sensors. This goal is pursued by first modeling both inertial and optical sensors and then developing a technique for identifying vanishing points in perspective images of a structured environment. The inertial and optical processes are then coupled to enable each one to aid the other. The vanishing point measurements are combined with the inertial data in an extended Kalman filter to produce overall attitude estimates. This technique is experimentally demonstrated in an indoor corridor setting using a motion profile designed ...


Experimental Measurements Of Store Separation Using Dry Ice Models In A Subsonic Flow, Michael C. Paul 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Experimental Measurements Of Store Separation Using Dry Ice Models In A Subsonic Flow, Michael C. Paul

Theses and Dissertations

Testing free-drop store separation from a cavity in wind tunnels proves a difficult task because the models are typically destroyed during the test. Furthermore, there is potential for damage to wind tunnel components. Prior work has shown that small dry ice models released within the test section do not cause damage to the AFIT pressure-vacuum wind tunnel components or vacuum chamber. Rather, the dry ice models break apart and sublimate harmlessly into gaseous carbon dioxide. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether dry ice models might prove useful in free-drop store separation testing. A generic aircraft cavity was constructed ...


Vision Aided Inertial Navigation System Augmented With A Coded Aperture, Jamie R. Morrison 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Vision Aided Inertial Navigation System Augmented With A Coded Aperture, Jamie R. Morrison

Theses and Dissertations

Navigation through an indoor environment is a formidable challenge for an autonomous micro air vehicle. One solution is a vision aided inertial navigation system using depth-from-defocus to determine heading and depth to features in the scene. Depth-from-defocus uses a focal blur pattern to estimate depth. As depth increases, the observable change in the focal blur is generally reduced. Consequently, as the depth of a feature to be measured increases, the measurement performance decreases. The Fresnel zone plate, used as an aperture, introduces multiple focal planes. Interference between the multiple focal planes produce changes in the aperture that extend the depth ...


Multiple Integrated Navigation Sensors For Improving Occupancy Grid Fastslam, Christopher P. Weyers 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Multiple Integrated Navigation Sensors For Improving Occupancy Grid Fastslam, Christopher P. Weyers

Theses and Dissertations

An autonomous vehicle must accurately observe its location within the environment to interact with objects and accomplish its mission. When its environment is unknown, the vehicle must construct a map detailing its surroundings while using it to maintain an accurate location. Such a vehicle is faced with the circularly defined Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) problem. However difficult, SLAM is a critical component of autonomous vehicle exploration with applications to search and rescue. To current knowledge, this research presents the first SLAM solution to integrate stereo cameras, inertial measurements, and vehicle odometry into a Multiple Integrated Navigation Sensor (MINS) path ...


Airborne Wind Energy: Implementation And Design For The U.S. Air Force, Troy L. Cahoon 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Airborne Wind Energy: Implementation And Design For The U.S. Air Force, Troy L. Cahoon

Theses and Dissertations

Excitement among researchers about Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) technology matches DoD aims to advance and employ renewable energy. AWE seeks to cost-effectively tap the vast supply of wind energy available at altitudes high above the reach of conventional, ground-based wind turbines (e.g. 500-12,000m). This paper explores viability and implementation of AWE technology for fulfilling USAF energy needs. Characteristics, potential, and developmental status of the AWE resource are presented. A design tool for a rotor-based AWE system is developed, facilitating the analysis of blade performance to simplify design and provide the best efficiencies for a range of conditions. USAF ...


Analysis Of Flow Migration In An Ultra-Compact Combustor, Brian T. Bohan 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Analysis Of Flow Migration In An Ultra-Compact Combustor, Brian T. Bohan

Theses and Dissertations

One of the major efforts for turbine engine research is to improve the thrust to weight of the system. One novel concept for accomplishing this is the use of an Ultra-Compact Combustor (UCC). The UCC attempts to shorten the overall combustion length (thereby reducing weight) by performing the combustion in the circumferential direction along the outside diameter of the core flowpath. One of the major benefits of this design is enhanced combustion due to the establishment of a high-g field in the circumferential cavity. AFIT and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have been teamed for several years in understanding ...


High Frequency Direction Finding Using Structurally Integrated Antennas On A Large Airborne Platform, Clair F. Corbin 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

High Frequency Direction Finding Using Structurally Integrated Antennas On A Large Airborne Platform, Clair F. Corbin

Theses and Dissertations

Estimating the angle of arrival (AOA) of a high frequency (HF) signal, 2-32 MHz, is challenging, especially if the antenna array is installed on a platform with dimensions on the order of one wavelength. Accurate AOA estimates are necessary for search and rescue operations and geolocating RF emitters of interest. This research examines the performance of a direction finding (DF) system using structurally integrated (SI) antennas installed on an airborne platform which allows the aircraft structure to become the receiving element. Two simulated DF systems are analyzed at 4 and 11 MHz. The relationship between the number of SI antennas ...


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