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Multi-Vehicle Systems and Air Traffic Control Commons

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R2u2: Monitoring And Diagnosis Of Security Threats For Unmanned Aerial Systems, Johann Schumann, Patrick Moosbrugger, Kristin Yvonne Rozier 2015 NASA Ames Research Center

R2u2: Monitoring And Diagnosis Of Security Threats For Unmanned Aerial Systems, Johann Schumann, Patrick Moosbrugger, Kristin Yvonne Rozier

Kristin Yvonne Rozier

We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, Realizable, Responsive, Unobtrusive Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of ...


Sub-Orbital Spaceflight – An Addition To Our Multi-Modal Transportation System, Scott Haeffelin 2015 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Sub-Orbital Spaceflight – An Addition To Our Multi-Modal Transportation System, Scott Haeffelin

Space Traffic Management Conference

The number of commercial spaceflights will be increasing by orders of magnitude over the next several decades. The current volume of space traffic can be managed on a case-by-case basis and there is little impact to the National Airspace System (NAS). This will change as more spaceports become operational, commercial sub-orbital flight companies begin serving their customers and as the cost of these flights begin to decrease. Current regulatory paths seek to allow the flexibility in the regulations for this industry to flourish while also maintaining a high standard of safety. There are, however, many nearsighted and old fashioned assumptions ...


Space Data Integrator (Sdi) And Space Program Integrated Data And Estimated Risk (Spider): Proof-Of-Concept Software Solution For Integrating Launch And Reentry Vehicles Into The National Airspace System (Nas), Devin D. Dickens 2015 Millennium Engineering and Integration Company

Space Data Integrator (Sdi) And Space Program Integrated Data And Estimated Risk (Spider): Proof-Of-Concept Software Solution For Integrating Launch And Reentry Vehicles Into The National Airspace System (Nas), Devin D. Dickens

Space Traffic Management Conference

The Space Data Integrator (SDI) Project is the initial step to satisfy the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) strategic initiative to integrate commercial space launch and reentry vehicles into the National Airspace System. The project addresses the needs for greater situational awareness and monitoring, and increased response capability during non-nominal and catastrophic incidents during space operations.

The initial phase of this project leverages current FAA systems, and provide an initial demonstration of capability that will provide for state data from a commercial reentry vehicle to be ingested into a the FAA Traffic Flow Management System, and displayed on Traffic Situation Displays ...


Adaptive Automation Design And Implementation, Jason M. Bindewald 2015 Air Force Institute of Technology

Adaptive Automation Design And Implementation, Jason M. Bindewald

Theses and Dissertations

Automations allow us to reduce the need for humans in certain environments, such as auto-pilot features on unmanned aerial vehicles. However, some situations still require human intervention. Adaptive automation is a research field that enables computer systems to adjust the amount of automation by taking over tasks from or giving tasks back to the user. This research develops processes and insights for adaptive automation designers to take theoretical adaptive automation ideas and develop them into real-world adaptive automation system. These allow developers to design better automation systems that recognize the limits of computers systems, enabling better designs for systems in ...


A Bent-Pipe Microwave Wireless Power Transfer Spacecraft For Relay To Unserved Regions, Jeremy Straub 2015 SelectedWorks

A Bent-Pipe Microwave Wireless Power Transfer Spacecraft For Relay To Unserved Regions, Jeremy Straub

Jeremy Straub

This paper seeks to begin a discussion about the efficacy of using a ‘bent pipe’ transmission concept (familiar to those in the communications satellite arena) for power transfer. It presents the ‘bent pipe’ concept and provides a brief qualitative consideration of the benefits of this approach. It also begins the process of quantitatively considering the efficacy of a ‘bent pipe’ mission by exploring the trade space related to frequency, antenna size and altitude.


An Intermittency Model For Predicting Roughness Induced Transition, Xuan Ge, Paul A. Durbin 2015 Iowa State University

An Intermittency Model For Predicting Roughness Induced Transition, Xuan Ge, Paul A. Durbin

Aerospace Engineering Publications

An intermittency transport equation for RANS modeling, formulated in local variables, is extended for roughness-induced transition. To predict roughness effects in the fully turbulent boundary layer, published boundary conditions for k and ω are used. They depend on the equivalent sand-grain roughness height, and account for the effective displacement of wall distance origin. Similarly in our approach, wall distance in the transition model for smooth surfaces is modified by an effective origin, which depends on equivalent sand-grain roughness. Flat plate test cases are computed to show that the proposed model is able to predict transition onset in agreement with a ...


Autonomous Navigation And Control Of Unmanned Aerial Systems In The National Airspace, Michael Hlas, Jeremy Straub, Eunjin Kim 2015 SelectedWorks

Autonomous Navigation And Control Of Unmanned Aerial Systems In The National Airspace, Michael Hlas, Jeremy Straub, Eunjin Kim

Jeremy Straub

Pilotless aircraft known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used extensively for military and intelligence purposes. This includes situations where the mission area is too dangerous for a pilot to fly, the length of the mission is longer than a pilot could stay awake or aircraft are used as cruise missiles that crash into their target. With the decreasing cost and miniaturization of computers, it has become possible to build UAVs that are small and inexpensive making them accessible to businesses, law enforcement, hobbyists and the general public.


Thinking Rather Than Panicking About The Current Drone Threat, Tom Foley, Tyrone Groh 2015 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Thinking Rather Than Panicking About The Current Drone Threat, Tom Foley, Tyrone Groh

Aviation / Aeronautics / Aerospace International Research Conference

Originally titled "UAS Threats in Sport Venues," the authors opted to expand their focus to better to all threats from UASs, and to encourage better preparation for and responses to such threats. Foley and Groh discuss different strategies.


Intelligent Water Drops Algorithm For Coordinating Between Cluster Spacecraft In A Communications-Denied Environment, Jeremy Straub 2015 SelectedWorks

Intelligent Water Drops Algorithm For Coordinating Between Cluster Spacecraft In A Communications-Denied Environment, Jeremy Straub

Jeremy Straub

This paper presents a modification of Shah-Hosseini’s Intelligent Water Drops (IWD) technique that can be utilized for collaborative control of multiple spacecraft in environments where communications are limited, intermittent or denied. It presents Shah- Hosseini’s base IWD algorithm as well as refinements thereof, which simplify it, making it more suitable for more computationally constrained environments (such as small spacecraft and UAVs). A framework for testing the proposed approach as well as several implementation impediments are discussed.


Remote Spacecraft Attitude Control By Coulomb Charging, Daan Stevenson 2015 University of Colorado Boulder

Remote Spacecraft Attitude Control By Coulomb Charging, Daan Stevenson

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The possibility of inter-spacecraft collisions is a serious concern at Geosynchronous altitudes, where many high-value assets operate in proximity to countless debris objects whose orbits experience no natural means of decay. The ability to rendezvous with these derelict satellites would enable active debris removal by servicing or repositioning missions, but docking procedures are generally inhibited by the large rotational momenta of uncontrolled satellites. Therefore, a contactless means of reducing the rotation rate of objects in the space environment is desired. This dissertation investigates the viability of Coulomb charging to achieve such remote spacecraft attitude control. If a servicing craft imposes ...


Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations, Stephen Andrew O'Keefe 2015 University of Colorado Boulder

Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations, Stephen Andrew O'Keefe

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their ...


Comparing Different Functional Allocations In Automated Air Traffic Control Design, Cristian Mattarei, Alessandro Cimatti, Marco Gario, Stefano Tonetta, Kristin Yvonne Rozier 2014 Fondazione Bruno Kessler

Comparing Different Functional Allocations In Automated Air Traffic Control Design, Cristian Mattarei, Alessandro Cimatti, Marco Gario, Stefano Tonetta, Kristin Yvonne Rozier

Kristin Yvonne Rozier

In the early phases of the design of safety-critical systems, we need the ability to analyze the safety of different design solutions, comparing how different functional allocations impact the overall reliability of the system. To achieve this goal, we can apply formal techniques ranging from model checking to model-based fault-tree analysis. Using the results of the verification and safety analysis, we can compare different solutions and provide the domain experts with information on the strengths and weaknesses of each solution. In this paper, we consider NASA's early designs and functional allocation hypotheses for the next air traffic control system ...


Optimal Collision Avoidance Trajectories For Unmanned/Remotely Piloted Aircraft, Nathan E. Smith 2014 Air Force Institute of Technology

Optimal Collision Avoidance Trajectories For Unmanned/Remotely Piloted Aircraft, Nathan E. Smith

Theses and Dissertations

The post-911 environment has punctuated the force-multiplying capabilities that Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) provides combatant commanders at all echelons on the battlefield. Not only have unmanned aircraft systems made near-revolutionary impacts on the battlefield, their utility and proliferation in law enforcement, homeland security, humanitarian operations, and commercial applications have likewise increased at a rapid rate. As such, under the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, the United States Congress tasked the FAA to provide for the safe integration of civil unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system (NAS) as soon as practicable, but not later ...


Formal Specification And Verification Of A Coordination Protocol For An Automated Air Traffic Control System, Yang Zhao, Kristin Yvonne Rozier 2014 University of California, Riverside

Formal Specification And Verification Of A Coordination Protocol For An Automated Air Traffic Control System, Yang Zhao, Kristin Yvonne Rozier

Kristin Yvonne Rozier

Safe separation between aircraft is the primary consideration in air traffic control. To achieve the required level of assurance for this safety-critical application, the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC) proposes three levels of conflict detection and resolution. Recently, a high-level operational concept was proposed to define the cooperation between components in the AAC. However, the proposed coordination protocol has not been formally studied. We use formal verification techniques to ensure there are no potentially catastrophic design flaws remaining in the AAC design before the next stage of production.

We formalize the high-level operational concept, which was previously described only in natural ...


The Critical Role Of Cubesat Spacecraft In A Multi-Tier Mission For Mars Exploration, Jeremy Straub 2014 SelectedWorks

The Critical Role Of Cubesat Spacecraft In A Multi-Tier Mission For Mars Exploration, Jeremy Straub

Jeremy Straub

A multi-tier architecture is under development (with similar craft heterogeneity to Fink's work on ‘tier scalable’ missions) which will facilitate autonomous local control of multiple heterogeneous craft. This mission architecture has been developed with a Mars mission in mind and has included CubeSats in a variety of critical mission roles.

Two concepts will be presented: the addition of CubeSats to a larger-scale multi-tier mission, where the CubeSats serve a supporting role and a mission driven by CubeSat orbital capabilities. In the first, CubeSats are utilized to augment the area of spatial coverage that can be obtained and the temporal ...


Faa Letter In Response To White House Letter Regarding Faa Changes To Air Traffic Control Specialist Hiring Process, Tim Brady, Gregory McGuirk 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Faa Letter In Response To White House Letter Regarding Faa Changes To Air Traffic Control Specialist Hiring Process, Tim Brady, Gregory Mcguirk

Publications

On July 18, 2014, you submitted a letter to President Obama regarding the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) recent changes to the Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) hiring process. You expressed concern with the FAA's decision to implement a single all sources hiring strategy and, as a result, you feel that it has disadvantaged graduates who successfully completed the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) program, such as xxx. You also expressed concern with the implementation of the Biographical Assessment. Your letter was forwarded by the White House to our agency to address your concerns.


Probabilistic Model Checking For Comparative Analysis Of Automated Air Traffic Control Systems, Yang Zhao, Kristin Y. Rozier 2014 Microsoft, Inc.

Probabilistic Model Checking For Comparative Analysis Of Automated Air Traffic Control Systems, Yang Zhao, Kristin Y. Rozier

Kristin Yvonne Rozier

Ensuring aircraft stay safely separated is the primary consideration in air traffic control. To achieve the required level of assurance for this safety-critical application, the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC) proposes a network of components providing multiple levels of separation assurance, including conflict detection and resolution. In our previous work, we conducted a formal study of this concept including specification, validation, and verification utilizing the NuSMV and CadenceSMV model checkers to ensure there are no potentially catastrophic design flaws remaining in the AAC design before the next stage of production. In this paper, we extend that work to include probabilistic model ...


Fault Tree Analysis For Safety/Security Verification In Aviation Software, Andrew J. Kornecki, Mingye Liu 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Fault Tree Analysis For Safety/Security Verification In Aviation Software, Andrew J. Kornecki, Mingye Liu

Andrew J. Kornecki

The Next Generation Air Traffic Management system (NextGen) is a blueprint of the future National Airspace System. Supporting NextGen is a nation-wide Aviation Simulation Network (ASN), which allows integration of a variety of real-time simulations to facilitate development and validation of the NextGen software by simulating a wide range of operational scenarios. The ASN system is an environment, including both simulated and human-in-the-loop real-life components (pilots and air traffic controllers).Real Time Distributed Simulation (RTDS) developed at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, a suite of applications providing low and medium fidelity en-route simulation capabilities, is one of the simulations contributing to the ...


Development Of A Master Of Software Assurance Reference Curriculum, Andrew J. Kornecki, James McDonald, Julia H. Allen, Mark Ardis, Nancy Mead, Richard Linger, Thomas B. Hilburn 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Development Of A Master Of Software Assurance Reference Curriculum, Andrew J. Kornecki, James Mcdonald, Julia H. Allen, Mark Ardis, Nancy Mead, Richard Linger, Thomas B. Hilburn

Andrew J. Kornecki

The Next Generation Air Traffic Management system (NextGen) is a blueprint of the future National Airspace System. Supporting NextGen is a nation-wide Aviation Simulation Network (ASN), which allows integration of a variety of real-time simulations to facilitate development and validation of the NextGen software by simulating a wide range of operational scenarios. The ASN system is an environment, including both simulated and human-in-the-loop real-life components (pilots and air traffic controllers).Real Time Distributed Simulation (RTDS) developed at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, a suite of applications providing low and medium fidelity en-route simulation capabilities, is one of the simulations contributing to the ...


Ecological Interface Design: Control Space Robustness In Future Trajectory-Based Air Traffic Control Decision Support, Rolf Klomp, Clark Borst, Max Mulder, Gesa Praetorius 2014 Delft University of Technology

Ecological Interface Design: Control Space Robustness In Future Trajectory-Based Air Traffic Control Decision Support, Rolf Klomp, Clark Borst, Max Mulder, Gesa Praetorius

Gesa Praetorius

The current evolution of the Air Traffic Management system towards trajectory-based operations is foreseen to bring large changes to the work domain of the Air Traffic Controller. Although this new form of Air Traffic Control leans heavily on the introduction of advanced automation, the general consensus is that the human must remain actively involved in the decision-making loop, and retain the ultimate responsibility for the safety of operations. These responsibilities, together with the complexities of the new task, require the development of innovative decision support tools. In previous research, and following the principles of Ecological Interface Design, a constraint-based decision ...


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