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Multi-Vehicle Systems and Air Traffic Control Commons

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R2u2: Monitoring And Diagnosis Of Security Threats For Unmanned Aerial Systems, Patrick Moosbrugger, Kristin Y. Rozier, Johann Schumann 2017 Vienna University of Technology

R2u2: Monitoring And Diagnosis Of Security Threats For Unmanned Aerial Systems, Patrick Moosbrugger, Kristin Y. Rozier, Johann Schumann

Aerospace Engineering Publications

We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, Realizable, Responsive, Unobtrusive Unit for runtime system analysis, now including security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from on-board components such as the GPS, the ground control station, other sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for Linear and Metric Temporal Logics ...


Adopting Unmanned Flight Operations Into Controlled Airspace, Jennah C. Perry, Johnny Young, Jacqueline Luedtke, Benjamin Cook, Holly Hughes, Allison M. Little, Kyle Wilkerson 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Adopting Unmanned Flight Operations Into Controlled Airspace, Jennah C. Perry, Johnny Young, Jacqueline Luedtke, Benjamin Cook, Holly Hughes, Allison M. Little, Kyle Wilkerson

Publications

Unmanned aircraft activity is becoming more common within the National Airspace System (NAS) and is expected to dominate the NAS in the near future. Specific procedures for adopting unmanned aircraft into the National Airspace System (NAS).

A variation of the Military Grid Reference System was developed and digitally overlaid onto the radar display. To incorporate this grid system, a customized flight plan database was created for the storage of operator submitted flight plans. Instead of verbal communication, a computer chat system is used for communication because of the low altitude operations in the field.

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has ...


Utilizing Guided Simulation In Conjunction With Digital Learning Tools In Air Traffic Control Training To Enhance Learning At The Collegiate Level, Allison Little, Benjamin Cook, Holly Hughes, Kyle Wilkerson 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Utilizing Guided Simulation In Conjunction With Digital Learning Tools In Air Traffic Control Training To Enhance Learning At The Collegiate Level, Allison Little, Benjamin Cook, Holly Hughes, Kyle Wilkerson

Discovery Day - Prescott

Students in an air traffic control program are required to learn and apply advance knowledge and skills in a limited time frame. All students learn at different rates as well as through different learning styles. Swivl is a video capture tool designed to enhance student learning by allowing students to refer back to their individual classroom lab training session videos via an online portal. Swivl is being utilized in two ATC lab courses. During this research, two technological shortcomings were discovered: (1) Swivl lacks the ability to capture audio from the COA’s existing communication software and (2) Swivl cannot ...


Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Operations Into The National Airspace System, Benjamin Cook, Holly Hughes, Kyle Wilkerson, Allison Little 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Operations Into The National Airspace System, Benjamin Cook, Holly Hughes, Kyle Wilkerson, Allison Little

Discovery Day - Prescott

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are expected to dominate the National Airspace System (NAS) in the near future. One particular barrier preventing the integration of unmanned aircraft into the NAS is the lack of standardized procedures for distinguishing and communicating with remote UAS operators. In preparation for adopting unmanned flight operations into a complex control system, it is important to identify solutions to effectively control UAS in the NAS. To achieve simultaneous safe manned and unmanned aircraft operations in the NAS, the Joint UAS and ATC Team (JUAT) at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) are developing a system that could be used ...


Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Operations Into The National Airspace System, Benjamin Cook, Holly Hughes, Allison Little, Kyle Wilkerson, Jennah C. Perry, Johnny Young, Jacqueline Luedtke 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Operations Into The National Airspace System, Benjamin Cook, Holly Hughes, Allison Little, Kyle Wilkerson, Jennah C. Perry, Johnny Young, Jacqueline Luedtke

Publications

Commercial unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are expected to dominate the National Airspace System (NAS) in the years to come. One particular barrier preventing integration of UAS into the NAS is the lack of standardized procedures for separating aircraft and communicating with ATC. In preparation for adopting unmanned flight operations into a complex control system, it is important to identify solutions to effectively control UAS in the NAS.

The Joint UAS and ATC Team (JUAT) group has designed several simulated ATC scenarios in order to determine effective solutions for integration. Through the use of digitized radar display overlays that replicate the ...


Image And Information Fusion Experiments With A Software-Defined Multi-Spectral Imaging System For Aviation And Marine Sensor Networks, Sam B. Siewert, Matthew Demi Vis, Ryan Claus, Ramnarayan Krishnamurthy, Surjith B. Singh, Akshay K. Singh, Shivasankar Gunasekaran 2017 Sam B Siewert , Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, College of Engineering

Image And Information Fusion Experiments With A Software-Defined Multi-Spectral Imaging System For Aviation And Marine Sensor Networks, Sam B. Siewert, Matthew Demi Vis, Ryan Claus, Ramnarayan Krishnamurthy, Surjith B. Singh, Akshay K. Singh, Shivasankar Gunasekaran

Publications

The availability of Internet, line-of-sight and satellite identification and surveillance information as well as low-power, low-cost embedded systems-on-a-chip and a wide range of visible to long-wave infrared cameras prompted Embry Riddle Aeronautical University to collaborate with the University of Alaska Arctic Domain Awareness Center (ADAC) in summer 2016 to prototype a camera system we call the SDMSI (Software-Defined Multi-spectral Imager). The concept for the camera system from the start has been to build a sensor node that is drop-in-place for simple roof, marine, pole-mount, or buoy-mounts. After several years of component testing, the integrated SDMSI is now being tested, first ...


Accuracy Of Flight Delays Caused By Low Ceilings And Visibilities At Chicago’S Midway And O’Hare International Airports, Kerry Blodgett 2016 Iowa State University

Accuracy Of Flight Delays Caused By Low Ceilings And Visibilities At Chicago’S Midway And O’Hare International Airports, Kerry Blodgett

Meteorology Senior Theses

In 2013 the Federal Aviation Administration found that over 28,000 flights were delayed out of the Chicago’s Midway and O’Hare International Airports and that 69% of flights are delayed by weather. This paper examines the accuracy of flight delays caused by low ceilings and visibilities from November 2015 to March 2016. Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts were used to determine the cause of delays while Automated Surface Observing System was used to determine the accuracy of each flight delay. It was found that low ceilings and visibilities caused 75% of the flights delayed by weather and that 13% of ...


Spaceways: Airspace In Outer Space, Scott Haeffelin 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Spaceways: Airspace In Outer Space, Scott Haeffelin

Space Traffic Management Conference

Forecasted future demand in space travel is driving the need for the development of space traffic management. Currently, orbital space traffic is mostly unregulated with internationally agreed upon best practices and self-interest driving space operators to avoid collisions with other spacecraft. This paper explores the future of space travel by presenting a concept of creating “airspace in space” or spaceways to manage the ever growing volumes of space traffic. Spaceways are analogous to airspace for aircraft with the goal of increasing levels of safety and reducing probabilities of collision. These goals can be achieved by creating traffic rules, defining valuable ...


Air Traffic Impact Analysis Design For A Suborbital Point-To-Point Passenger Transport Concept, Tanja Luchkova, Sven Kaltenhaeuser, Frank Morlang 2016 German Aerospace Center

Air Traffic Impact Analysis Design For A Suborbital Point-To-Point Passenger Transport Concept, Tanja Luchkova, Sven Kaltenhaeuser, Frank Morlang

Space Traffic Management Conference

Space flight activities are growing on an international level, thereby creating an evident need for a safe and efficient integration of space vehicle operations into the air traffic system. For concepts like very high-speed intercontinental passenger transport via suborbital point-2-point flights, as it is proposed by the DLR SpaceLiner, this integration issue is becoming especially relevant. As part of a case study approach to analyse the effects of space vehicle operations on air traffic and to evaluate mitigation strategies and optimized ATM integration, a traffic impact analysis has been prepared and conducted for the SpaceLiner return trajectory towards a European ...


Specification: The Biggest Bottleneck In Formal Methods And Autonomy, Kristin Yvonne Rozier 2016 Iowa State University

Specification: The Biggest Bottleneck In Formal Methods And Autonomy, Kristin Yvonne Rozier

Aerospace Engineering Conference Papers, Presentations and Posters

Advancement of AI-enhanced control in autonomous systems stands on the shoulders of formal methods, which make possible the rigorous safety analysis autonomous systems require. An aircraft cannot operate autonomously unless it has design-time reasoning to ensure correct operation of the autopilot and runtime reasoning to ensure system health management, or the ability to detect and respond to off-nominal situations. Formal methods are highly dependent on the specifications over which they reason; there is no escaping the “garbage in, garbage out” reality. Specification is difficult, unglamorous, and arguably the biggest bottleneck facing verification and validation of aerospace, and other, autonomous systems ...


Guidance Of Multi-Agent Fixed-Wing Aircraft Using A Moving Mesh Method, A Ram (Bella) Kim 2016 Iowa State University

Guidance Of Multi-Agent Fixed-Wing Aircraft Using A Moving Mesh Method, A Ram (Bella) Kim

A Ram (Bella) Kim

This paper presents a novel guidance logic for multi-agent fixed-wing unmanned aerial systems using a moving mesh method. The moving mesh method is originally designed for use in the adaptive numerical solution of partial differential equations, where a high proportion of mesh points are placed in the regions of large solution variations and few points in the rest of the domain. In this work, the positions of the aircraft are considered as mesh nodes connected to form a triangular mesh in two spatial dimensions. The outer aircraft positions are planned with the reference point algorithm. This logic provides the outer ...


Runtime Analysis With R2u2: A Tool Exhibition Report, Johann Schumann, Patrick Moosbrugger, Kristin Yvonne Rozier 2016 NASA Ames Research Center

Runtime Analysis With R2u2: A Tool Exhibition Report, Johann Schumann, Patrick Moosbrugger, Kristin Yvonne Rozier

Aerospace Engineering Conference Papers, Presentations and Posters

We present R2U2 (Realizable, Responsive, Unobtrusive Unit), a hardware-supported tool and framework for the continuous monitoring of safety-critical and embedded cyber-physical systems. With the widespread advent of autonomous systems such as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), satellites, rovers, and cars, real-time, on-board decision making requires unobtrusive monitoring of properties for safety, performance, security, and system health. R2U2 models combine past-time and future-time Metric Temporal Logic, “mission time” Linear Temporal Logic, probabilistic reasoning with Bayesian Networks, and model-based prognostics.

The R2U2 monitoring engine can be instantiated as a hardware solution, running on an FPGA, or as a software component. The FPGA realization ...


Model Checking At Scale: Automated Air Traffic Control Design Space Exploration, Marco Gario, Alessandro Cimatti, Cristian Mattarei, Stefano Tonetta, Kristin Yvonne Rozier 2016 Fondazione Bruno Kessler

Model Checking At Scale: Automated Air Traffic Control Design Space Exploration, Marco Gario, Alessandro Cimatti, Cristian Mattarei, Stefano Tonetta, Kristin Yvonne Rozier

Aerospace Engineering Conference Papers, Presentations and Posters

Many possible solutions, differing in the assumptions and implementations of the components in use, are usually in competition during early design stages. Deciding which solution to adopt requires considering several trade-offs. Model checking represents a possible way of comparing such designs, however, when the number of designs is large, building and validating so many models may be intractable.

During our collaboration with NASA, we faced the challenge of considering a design space with more than 20,000 designs for the NextGen air traffic control system. To deal with this problem, we introduce a compositional, modular, parameterized approach combining model checking ...


A Hybrid Tabu/Scatter Search Algorithm For Simulation-Based Optimization Of Multi-Objective Runway Operations Scheduling, Bulent Soykan 2016 Old Dominion University

A Hybrid Tabu/Scatter Search Algorithm For Simulation-Based Optimization Of Multi-Objective Runway Operations Scheduling, Bulent Soykan

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

As air traffic continues to increase, air traffic flow management is becoming more challenging to effectively and efficiently utilize airport capacity without compromising safety, environmental and economic requirements. Since runways are often the primary limiting factor in airport capacity, runway operations scheduling emerge as an important problem to be solved to alleviate flight delays and air traffic congestion while reducing unnecessary fuel consumption and negative environmental impacts. However, even a moderately sized real-life runway operations scheduling problem tends to be too complex to be solved by analytical methods, where all mathematical models for this problem belong to the complexity class ...


Safte-Vat Functionality Effects On Flight Instructors' Situation Awareness And Instrument Student Pilots' Performance During Ftd Training, Rafael E. Abreu Vega 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Safte-Vat Functionality Effects On Flight Instructors' Situation Awareness And Instrument Student Pilots' Performance During Ftd Training, Rafael E. Abreu Vega

Dissertations and Theses

SAFTE-VAT is a virtual air traffic control systems that adds the capability to integrate automated air traffic control functionality and generate semiautonomous and autonomous air traffic to the Frasca 172S level 6 plus FTD to improve behavioral fidelity and to facilitate flight instructors the capacity to focus more on instructing student pilots instead of role-playing ATC duties. While SAFTE-VAT may offer a more realistic ATC interaction experience onboard the FTD that may result in a positive transfer of training increase, the effects on flight instructors’ situation awareness and overall student pilot performance are uncertain. In this small study, flight instructors ...


Software Defined Multi-Spectral Imaging For Arctic Sensor Networks, Sam B. Siewert, Matthew Demi Vis, Ryan Claus, Vivek Angoth, Karthikeyan Mani, Kenrick Mock, Surjith B. Singh, Saurav Srivistava, Chris Wagner 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, College of Engineering

Software Defined Multi-Spectral Imaging For Arctic Sensor Networks, Sam B. Siewert, Matthew Demi Vis, Ryan Claus, Vivek Angoth, Karthikeyan Mani, Kenrick Mock, Surjith B. Singh, Saurav Srivistava, Chris Wagner

Publications

Availability of off-the-shelf infrared sensors combined with high definition visible cameras has made possible the construction of a Software Defined Multi-Spectral Imager (SDMSI) combining long-wave, near-infrared and visible imaging. The SDMSI requires a real-time embedded processor to fuse images and to create real-time depth maps for opportunistic uplink in sensor networks. Researchers at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University working with University of Alaska Anchorage at the Arctic Domain Awareness Center and the University of Colorado Boulder have built several versions of a low-cost drop-in-place SDMSI to test alternatives for power efficient image fusion. The SDMSI is intended for use in field ...


Geolocation Of Rf Emitters Using A Low-Cost Uav-Based Approach, Michael A. Magers 2016 Air Force Institute of Technology

Geolocation Of Rf Emitters Using A Low-Cost Uav-Based Approach, Michael A. Magers

Theses and Dissertations

The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in both military and civilian settings has prompted great interest in finding new and innovative ways to utilize these tools. One such application is to locate ground-based radio emitters from a UAV platform. The goal of this research is to study the feasibility of a low-cost (on the order of $1000) UAV geolocation platform. To accomplish this goal, a series of both real-world flight testing and computer simulated scenarios were conducted. Simulations for different sensor uncertainties and approach path scenarios such as loiter and button hook patterns were investigated. Results showed that a ...


Toward Automated Aerial Refueling: Relative Navigation With Structure From Motion, Kevin W. Colson 2016 Air Force Institute of Technology

Toward Automated Aerial Refueling: Relative Navigation With Structure From Motion, Kevin W. Colson

Theses and Dissertations

The USAF's use of UAS has expanded from reconnaissance to hunter/killer missions. As the UAS mission further expands into aerial combat, better performance and larger payloads will have a negative correlation with range and loiter times. Additionally, the Air Force Future Operating Concept calls for \formations of uninhabited refueling aircraft...[that] enable refueling operations partway inside threat areas." However, a lack of accurate relative positioning information prevents the ability to safely maintain close formation flight and contact between a tanker and a UAS. The inclusion of cutting edge vision systems on present refueling platforms may provide the information ...


Use Of A Small Unmanned Aerial System For The Sr-530 Mudslide Incident Near Oso, Washington, Robin Murphy, Brittany Duncan, Tyler Collins, Justin Kendrick, Patrick Lohman, Tamara Palmer, Frank Sanborn 2016 Texas A&M University

Use Of A Small Unmanned Aerial System For The Sr-530 Mudslide Incident Near Oso, Washington, Robin Murphy, Brittany Duncan, Tyler Collins, Justin Kendrick, Patrick Lohman, Tamara Palmer, Frank Sanborn

CSE Journal Articles

The Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue deployed three commercially available small unmanned aerial systems (SUASs)—an AirRobot AR100B quadrotor, an Insitu Scan Eagle, and a PrecisionHawk Lancaster—to the 2014 SR-530 Washington State mudslides. The purpose of the flights was to allow geologists and hydrologists to assess the eminent risk of loss of life to responders from further slides and flooding, as well as to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the event. The AirRobot AR100B in conjunction with PrecisionHawk postprocessing software created two-dimensional (2D) and 3D reconstructions of the inaccessible “moonscape” region of the slide and provided engineers ...


Design And Implementation Of A Unified Command And Control Architecture For Multiple Cooperative Unmanned Vehicles Utilizing Commercial Off The Shelf Components, Jeremy Gray 2015 Air Force Institute of Technology

Design And Implementation Of A Unified Command And Control Architecture For Multiple Cooperative Unmanned Vehicles Utilizing Commercial Off The Shelf Components, Jeremy Gray

Theses and Dissertations

Small unmanned systems provide great utility to military applications due to their portable and expendable design. These systems are, however, costly to develop, produce, and maintain, making it desirable to integrate available commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. This research investigates the integration of COTS components through the development of a modular unified command and control (C2) architecture for heterogeneous and homogeneous vehicle teams to accomplish formation flocking and communication relay scenarios. A vehicle agnostic architecture was developed to be applied across different vehicle platforms, different vehicle combination, and different cooperative missions. COTS components consisting primarily of open source hardware ...


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