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A Progression Of Discourse In The Science Classroom, Jennifer Wiesen 2017 University of Toledo

A Progression Of Discourse In The Science Classroom, Jennifer Wiesen

Learning to Teach

The framework of the NGSS requires the development of skills central to the field of science. Scientific discourse is necessary for developing these skills, but the use of discourse is absent from many science classrooms. Possible reasons for this could be that teachers do not know how to incorporate methods into their classroom. This manuscript addresses methods that can be used to develop the discursive skills necessary for students to participate in activities central to science. Methods are described in a progression from introductory vocabulary use and explanation of ideas, discussion skills, and finally, the integration of skills to perform ...


Argumentation In The High School Science Classroom: Underutilized And Misunderstood, Jillian R. Richmond 2017 University of Toledo

Argumentation In The High School Science Classroom: Underutilized And Misunderstood, Jillian R. Richmond

Learning to Teach

Argumentation is a crucial part of discourse in the scientific field, but is rarely found in the science classroom. This raises the questions of why teachers are not using argumentation, as well as what benefits argumentation provides in the science classroom. Argumentation is not widely used in the science education field due to lack of teacher knowledge about integration techniques and teachers’ fear of unruly class discussions. However, research shows that students benefit in many ways from argumentation based learning by allowing students to work through real world problems to develop higher level thinking skills. This paper discusses the importance ...


Scientific Inquiry And The Impact On Classroom Environment, Heather K. Leckie 2017 The University of Toledo

Scientific Inquiry And The Impact On Classroom Environment, Heather K. Leckie

Learning to Teach

Scientific inquiry is an instructional strategy that requires students to engage in scientific problem solving by identifying a problem, designing an investigation, and supporting conclusions with evidence. The demand for the use of inquiry in the classroom is shown by the number of national and state standards that include inquiry as a requirement. Depending on the topic, inquiry in the classroom can range from structured to open. A classroom that engages in scientific inquiry creates an environment where students feel confident taking risks, collaborating, supporting conclusions with evidence and considering different positions. This article examines the foundations of scientific inquiry ...


Project-Based Learning As An Alternative To The Pedagogy Of Poverty In Low-Income Schools, Shannon N. Giesige 2017 University of Toledo

Project-Based Learning As An Alternative To The Pedagogy Of Poverty In Low-Income Schools, Shannon N. Giesige

Learning to Teach

The pedagogy of poverty is a phrase coined by Martin Haberman in 1991 to describe the didactic teacher-centered learning that takes place in most urban, low-income schools. This form of teaching is based on assumptions that teachers, administrators, and parents make about the students they are teaching and the students’ goals, aims and capabilities. This manuscript discusses why teachers turn to the pedagogy of poverty and how project-based learning offers a workable alternative in a low-income, urban environment. It examines how project-based learning can improve student self-efficacy and academic performance, as well as exploring what this method asks of teachers.


Making Scientific Inquiry Activities Accessible To Students With Autism, Alonna Ackerman 2017 University of Toledo

Making Scientific Inquiry Activities Accessible To Students With Autism, Alonna Ackerman

Learning to Teach

In light of the major trend within science education of focusing on inquiry-based activities, students with autism may face difficulties in the classroom due to barriers such as problems with communication, social situations, and desire for routine (Hedges et al., 2014). Though research regarding inquiry-based science education for students with autism is scarce, explicit instruction appears to be a promising option for elementary students (Knight et al., 2012). Additionally, Applied Behavior Analysis and Self-Regulated Strategy Development have proven useful in other content areas (Casey et al., 2014; Ryan et al., 2011; Szapacs, 2006). Extrapolating from this data, the author discusses ...


Using More Sophisticated Technology To Teach Mathematics, Maurice H. Young III 2017 University of Toledo

Using More Sophisticated Technology To Teach Mathematics, Maurice H. Young Iii

Learning to Teach

Over time, the debate about using technology in the classroom has evolved as much as the technology itself. Not only has the role of technology grown and shifted in the classroom, but also the level of technological sophistication has changed the way these tools are used. Employing these tools in the mathematics classroom allows students to no longer take a somewhat passive role, treating technology as either their master or servant. Rather, these tools allow the technology to become the students’ partner or an extension of themselves. In addition, students can now engage in the role of active learners by ...


Striving For A Conceptual Understanding Of Mathematics For All Students, Jessica Marie Kuohn 2017 University of Toledo

Striving For A Conceptual Understanding Of Mathematics For All Students, Jessica Marie Kuohn

Learning to Teach

The process of learning to learn mathematics starts with an educational approach of allowing the students to discover mathematical concepts. This discovery enforces conceptual understanding in mathematics and eliminates the need for rote memorization of procedures and formulas. For this teaching style to be successful, educators must be willing give students control of their own learning. By allowing students to process mathematical concepts individually, teachers help them make real-life connections and build their knowledge of mathematics collectively and across all grades levels.


The Risks Of Using Homework In Middle Grades Math Classes, Alaina C. Hem 2017 University of Toledo

The Risks Of Using Homework In Middle Grades Math Classes, Alaina C. Hem

Learning to Teach

The assigning of homework is a widely used practice in education. However, requiring it comes with several risks. First, many students have very different levels of parent involvement at home, meaning that some are at a disadvantage in terms of completing homework. Similarly, differences in resources at home affect students’ abilities to complete their homework. Language barriers and disabilities are also factors that can cause difficulties for students when they are at home and beyond the help of the teacher. In addition, homework can be very stressful for all parties involved. Before assigning homework, teachers should carefully consider the diverse ...


Preparing Students To Write In Professional Environments, Andrew Sanctis 2017 University of Toledo

Preparing Students To Write In Professional Environments, Andrew Sanctis

Learning to Teach

American businesses annually spend billions of dollars in efforts to improve their employees’ writing abilities in the workplace. Current methods of writing instruction are not adequately preparing students for professional environments, and in order to alleviate these issues, adaptations must be made in secondary classrooms to foster writing self-efficacy and mastery. Through the use of reflective writing activities, meaningful assignments, and lesson plans incorporating technology, teachers can help students develop as writers and better prepare them for the workforce.


Using Elements Of Hip-Hop To Promote Student Engagement, Edward McDaniel Jr. 2017 University of Toledo

Using Elements Of Hip-Hop To Promote Student Engagement, Edward Mcdaniel Jr.

Learning to Teach

Incorporating hip-hop into the classroom is an effective way to increase the engagement of students, especially in urban schools. The use of hip-hop in education has become more popular in recent years and is a tool that could potentially benefit many teachers. Several studies were looked at that showed positive outcomes when teachers communicated and interacted with their students in a culturally congruent manner. By incorporating hip-hop while student teaching, this author observed a noticeable increase in student engagement.


The Writing Problem: Teacher Self-Efficacy And Instruction, Catherine Haskins 2017 University of Toledo

The Writing Problem: Teacher Self-Efficacy And Instruction, Catherine Haskins

Learning to Teach

Writing is a struggle for many secondary students. The Common Core State Standards and state testing cause an increased focus on writing, but there has been little improvement in performance. The writing problem is no longer an English Language Arts (ELA) problem. All content areas need to work to improve student writing ability. This article explores two causes of low student writing ability: low teacher self-efficacy and ineffective teacher education programs. In order for students to become better writers, teachers not only need to become better writers, but also believe that they are better writers. And teacher education programs need ...


Decoding Skills: How These Skills Are The Answer To The Reading Problem That Affects Most Students, Laura J. Guenin 2017 Mrs.

Decoding Skills: How These Skills Are The Answer To The Reading Problem That Affects Most Students, Laura J. Guenin

Learning to Teach

Decoding skills are the answer to major reading issues for students. This report examines different ways that decoding words can effectively increase a student’s reading comprehension level, and analyzes particular decoding strategies for teachers to implement with their students. This will help each student to enhance their own ability to comprehend what he or she is reading. It also compares two different teaching approaches. One uses decoding strategies and the other is a whole language approach that only deals with words in context. This document also shares the research on decoding that explains how students can decode unfamiliar words ...


The Core Of Professional Growth In Work-Related Teacher Education, Leena Aarto-Pesonen, Päivi Tynjälä 2017 University of Jyväskylä

The Core Of Professional Growth In Work-Related Teacher Education, Leena Aarto-Pesonen, Päivi Tynjälä

The Qualitative Report

This paper presents a Glaserian grounded theory study of adult students’ holistic professional growth in a two-year tailored, work-related, teacher qualification program in physical education. The data consisted of reflective learning diaries, interviews and the written texts of 20 adult students. The data analysis followed the stages of Glaserian grounded theory analysis with substantive and theoretical coding processes carried out using the constant comparative method. The article presents the emotional core and its properties (criticality, ethicality and empowerment) of physical education teacher students’ professional growth. In addition, the article introduces a substantive theory of a process of adult students’ multifaceted ...


Professional Learning Outcomes That Teachers Experience As A Result Of Implementing A Community-Based Instruction Program: A Qualitative Case Study, Suzan Radwan 2017 Rowan University

Professional Learning Outcomes That Teachers Experience As A Result Of Implementing A Community-Based Instruction Program: A Qualitative Case Study, Suzan Radwan

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative instrumental case study was to explore the professional learning outcomes of teachers as they implement community-based instruction programs for students with disabilities in a New Jersey school district. The study was viewed through the theoretical lens of disabilities studies in education, which posits that the term disability is a socially constructed concept that leads to the systematic social and environmental disadvantage of people with disabilities.

The sample included public school teachers who have participated in a community-based instruction program for students with disabilities in Mountainview Public Schools in New Jersey. Data collection methods included semi-structured ...


Developing Multicultural Self-Awareness Through A Transformative Learning Experience, Cynthia Bezard, Sara A. Shaw 2017 Basic Academy of International Studies

Developing Multicultural Self-Awareness Through A Transformative Learning Experience, Cynthia Bezard, Sara A. Shaw

Journal of Research in Technical Careers

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the ways that a change in perspective can create a better understanding of cultural identity. This study addressed: (1) How does a self-awareness transformative learning experience develop critical cultural competence in career and technical education instructors? (2) How does the practice of critical reflection construct career and technical education instructors’ ability to develop self-awareness of critical cultural competence? (3) How does involvement in critical discourse construct career and technical education instructors’ ability to develop self-awareness of critical cultural competence? A three-phase professional development experience rooted in multicultural education provided key ...


A Look At Minimizing Student Loan Debt, While Maximizing Advanced Educational Opportunities, Karla Bradford 2017 Kennesaw State University

A Look At Minimizing Student Loan Debt, While Maximizing Advanced Educational Opportunities, Karla Bradford

The Siegel Institute Journal of Applied Ethics

Poverty is a reality for many who obtain a degree of higher education and enter the workforce immediately after graduation. Funding an education for many may lead to student loan debt that is often virtually impossible to repay. This often leads many to believe that the debt incurred from obtaining a degree of higher education may not be worth the gain. The purpose of this paper is explore several articles that report on higher education as it relates to poverty, student loan debt, and salary pay scales for degrees and professional trade certifications. While investigating those related themes, this paper ...


School Enrolment And Attendance For Children With Disabilities In Kenya: An Examination Of Household Survey Data, Peter Moyi 2017 University of South Carolina, Columbia

School Enrolment And Attendance For Children With Disabilities In Kenya: An Examination Of Household Survey Data, Peter Moyi

FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education

While evidence confirms that children with disabilities face significant obstacles to schooling, especially in low-income countries like Kenya, there is limited empirical research on which to develop policy. The government of Kenya has long neglected the plight of people with disabilities. Despite numerous policy recommendations from the various education commissions, few, if any, have been fully implemented. Despite the rich information that may inform policy, household surveys are an overlooked source of data on children with disabilities. Therefore, using two sources of household survey data, this paper examines school enrolment and attendance patterns for children with disabilities in Kenya. The ...


Science Theater As Steam: A Case Study Of "Save It Now", Christopher D. Davidson, Willard Simms 2017 Theatre of Will

Science Theater As Steam: A Case Study Of "Save It Now", Christopher D. Davidson, Willard Simms

The STEAM Journal

What are the markers of a successful STEAM program? How and when can educators be reasonably sure that an interdisciplinary unit or project, rich in both the sciences and the arts, has delivered on its implicit promise – by adding value to a student’s education in ways that are beyond the scope of traditional discipline-specific learning? I attempt to address this question with a case study of Theatre of Will’s “Save It Now,” a pilot program for 4th, 5th and 6th graders at eight Los Angeles public schools that integrates theater arts, music and the STEM ...


Creating Steam With Design Thinking: Beyond Stem And Arts Integration, Danah Henriksen 2017 Arizona State University

Creating Steam With Design Thinking: Beyond Stem And Arts Integration, Danah Henriksen

The STEAM Journal

This article suggests the value in a broad view of STEAM beyond arts-integration, as well as the potential of design thinking for STEAM. Despite much interest in STEAM it is often challenging for many teachers to integrate into their teaching of school subject matter. I suggest that as an interdisciplinary crossroads, design thinking provides a natural bridge between the arts, sciences, and other subjects. In this it can offer guiding flexible structure and in-road for teachers to design STEAM-based lessons, and to incorporate as an integrated aspect of students’ STEAM learning. I discuss an example of an elementary Spanish teacher ...


Using Steam To Increase Engagement And Literacy Across Disciplines, Robert L. Long II, Stephen S. Davis 2017 Carson-Newman University

Using Steam To Increase Engagement And Literacy Across Disciplines, Robert L. Long Ii, Stephen S. Davis

The STEAM Journal

This paper explores STEAM as a solution to improving student engagement and helping students improve functional literacy across the curriculum. While STEM is a fairly established approach to curriculum, researchers and practitioners are continuing to develop and understand STEAM and its place in school curriculum. It is important that educators foster this holistic approach to education and strive to participate in active research associated with STEAM. It is also most advantageous for stakeholders to understand the importance of arts integration and its use to support collaboration, innovation, and creativity within students. Key strategies can be used to support arts integration ...


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