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Why Can’T Tyrone Write: Reconceptualizing Flower And Hayes For African-American Adolescent Male Writers, Kimberly J. Stormer 2017 Missouri State University - Springfield

Why Can’T Tyrone Write: Reconceptualizing Flower And Hayes For African-American Adolescent Male Writers, Kimberly J. Stormer

Middle Grades Review

Using qualitative methods and a case study design, the perceptions and writing processes of three African-American eighth grade males were explored. Data were derived from semi-structured and informal interviews; and document analysis. The study concluded that the perceptions of the three participants’ writing processes did not adhere to the steps depicted by the cognitive process model of writing (Flower and Hayes, 1981) that has become a dominant model for describing the composing processes of students. Recommendations are made for altering the Flower and Hayes model to depict how these three, African-American eighth graders perceive school writing.


"That Sh*T Is Rude!" Religion, Picture Books, And Social Narratives In Middle School, Denise Davila, Allison Volz 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

"That Sh*T Is Rude!" Religion, Picture Books, And Social Narratives In Middle School, Denise Davila, Allison Volz

Middle Grades Review

While the U.S. has a divisive history around the separation of church and state in public school, current national and state teaching standards do include curricular objectives related to the study of religion. This paper focuses on the ways a diverse group of sixth-grade public schoolchildren engaged with religious content in their English Language Arts class. Specifically, it examines the kinds of narratives the children constructed in response to diverse works of public art and children’s picturebooks, including Mora’s (2012) The Beautiful Lady: Our Lady of Guadalupe / La hermosa señora: Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe (Señora), and Garza ...


Quantifying The Level Of Inquiry In A Reformed Introductory Geology Lab Course, Elizabeth Moss, Cinzia Cervato 2017 Iowa State University

Quantifying The Level Of Inquiry In A Reformed Introductory Geology Lab Course, Elizabeth Moss, Cinzia Cervato

Cinzia Cervato

As part of a campus-wide effort to transform introductory science courses to be more engaging and more accurately convey the excitement of discovery in science, the curriculum of an introductory physical geology lab course was redesigned. What had been a series of “cookbook” lab activities was transformed into a sequence of activities based on scientific inquiry and cooperative learning. The first two semesters were spent developing and implementing the new lab activities, and two more semesters were spent refining them. In the second semester of each of these two phases, students enrolled in the lab completed a 15-question version of ...


Historical Empathy: Judging The People Of The Past In A Secondary Social Studies Classroom, Thomas D. Ellenwood Jr. 2017 University of Toledo

Historical Empathy: Judging The People Of The Past In A Secondary Social Studies Classroom, Thomas D. Ellenwood Jr.

Learning to Teach

Historical empathy is a structural element of the study of history that needs to be taught in every secondary history classroom. It is important not only for the sake of accuracy in our studies, but also because helping students develop historical empathy has been proven to help improve their historical understanding and increase their interest in the study of history. Instructional strategies like reading and interpreting primary sources, role-playing, and engaging in writing that requires empathetic understanding have been found to be the most beneficial in fostering historical empathy in the classroom. It is also imperative to teach students how ...


A Progression Of Discourse In The Science Classroom, Jennifer Wiesen 2017 University of Toledo

A Progression Of Discourse In The Science Classroom, Jennifer Wiesen

Learning to Teach

The framework of the NGSS requires the development of skills central to the field of science. Scientific discourse is necessary for developing these skills, but the use of discourse is absent from many science classrooms. Possible reasons for this could be that teachers do not know how to incorporate methods into their classroom. This manuscript addresses methods that can be used to develop the discursive skills necessary for students to participate in activities central to science. Methods are described in a progression from introductory vocabulary use and explanation of ideas, discussion skills, and finally, the integration of skills to perform ...


Argumentation In The High School Science Classroom: Underutilized And Misunderstood, Jillian R. Richmond 2017 University of Toledo

Argumentation In The High School Science Classroom: Underutilized And Misunderstood, Jillian R. Richmond

Learning to Teach

Argumentation is a crucial part of discourse in the scientific field, but is rarely found in the science classroom. This raises the questions of why teachers are not using argumentation, as well as what benefits argumentation provides in the science classroom. Argumentation is not widely used in the science education field due to lack of teacher knowledge about integration techniques and teachers’ fear of unruly class discussions. However, research shows that students benefit in many ways from argumentation based learning by allowing students to work through real world problems to develop higher level thinking skills. This paper discusses the importance ...


Scientific Inquiry And The Impact On Classroom Environment, Heather K. Leckie 2017 The University of Toledo

Scientific Inquiry And The Impact On Classroom Environment, Heather K. Leckie

Learning to Teach

Scientific inquiry is an instructional strategy that requires students to engage in scientific problem solving by identifying a problem, designing an investigation, and supporting conclusions with evidence. The demand for the use of inquiry in the classroom is shown by the number of national and state standards that include inquiry as a requirement. Depending on the topic, inquiry in the classroom can range from structured to open. A classroom that engages in scientific inquiry creates an environment where students feel confident taking risks, collaborating, supporting conclusions with evidence and considering different positions. This article examines the foundations of scientific inquiry ...


Project-Based Learning As An Alternative To The Pedagogy Of Poverty In Low-Income Schools, Shannon N. Giesige 2017 University of Toledo

Project-Based Learning As An Alternative To The Pedagogy Of Poverty In Low-Income Schools, Shannon N. Giesige

Learning to Teach

The pedagogy of poverty is a phrase coined by Martin Haberman in 1991 to describe the didactic teacher-centered learning that takes place in most urban, low-income schools. This form of teaching is based on assumptions that teachers, administrators, and parents make about the students they are teaching and the students’ goals, aims and capabilities. This manuscript discusses why teachers turn to the pedagogy of poverty and how project-based learning offers a workable alternative in a low-income, urban environment. It examines how project-based learning can improve student self-efficacy and academic performance, as well as exploring what this method asks of teachers.


Making Scientific Inquiry Activities Accessible To Students With Autism, Alonna Ackerman 2017 University of Toledo

Making Scientific Inquiry Activities Accessible To Students With Autism, Alonna Ackerman

Learning to Teach

In light of the major trend within science education of focusing on inquiry-based activities, students with autism may face difficulties in the classroom due to barriers such as problems with communication, social situations, and desire for routine (Hedges et al., 2014). Though research regarding inquiry-based science education for students with autism is scarce, explicit instruction appears to be a promising option for elementary students (Knight et al., 2012). Additionally, Applied Behavior Analysis and Self-Regulated Strategy Development have proven useful in other content areas (Casey et al., 2014; Ryan et al., 2011; Szapacs, 2006). Extrapolating from this data, the author discusses ...


Using More Sophisticated Technology To Teach Mathematics, Maurice H. Young III 2017 University of Toledo

Using More Sophisticated Technology To Teach Mathematics, Maurice H. Young Iii

Learning to Teach

Over time, the debate about using technology in the classroom has evolved as much as the technology itself. Not only has the role of technology grown and shifted in the classroom, but also the level of technological sophistication has changed the way these tools are used. Employing these tools in the mathematics classroom allows students to no longer take a somewhat passive role, treating technology as either their master or servant. Rather, these tools allow the technology to become the students’ partner or an extension of themselves. In addition, students can now engage in the role of active learners by ...


Striving For A Conceptual Understanding Of Mathematics For All Students, Jessica Marie Kuohn 2017 University of Toledo

Striving For A Conceptual Understanding Of Mathematics For All Students, Jessica Marie Kuohn

Learning to Teach

The process of learning to learn mathematics starts with an educational approach of allowing the students to discover mathematical concepts. This discovery enforces conceptual understanding in mathematics and eliminates the need for rote memorization of procedures and formulas. For this teaching style to be successful, educators must be willing give students control of their own learning. By allowing students to process mathematical concepts individually, teachers help them make real-life connections and build their knowledge of mathematics collectively and across all grades levels.


The Risks Of Using Homework In Middle Grades Math Classes, Alaina C. Hem 2017 University of Toledo

The Risks Of Using Homework In Middle Grades Math Classes, Alaina C. Hem

Learning to Teach

The assigning of homework is a widely used practice in education. However, requiring it comes with several risks. First, many students have very different levels of parent involvement at home, meaning that some are at a disadvantage in terms of completing homework. Similarly, differences in resources at home affect students’ abilities to complete their homework. Language barriers and disabilities are also factors that can cause difficulties for students when they are at home and beyond the help of the teacher. In addition, homework can be very stressful for all parties involved. Before assigning homework, teachers should carefully consider the diverse ...


Preparing Students To Write In Professional Environments, Andrew Sanctis 2017 University of Toledo

Preparing Students To Write In Professional Environments, Andrew Sanctis

Learning to Teach

American businesses annually spend billions of dollars in efforts to improve their employees’ writing abilities in the workplace. Current methods of writing instruction are not adequately preparing students for professional environments, and in order to alleviate these issues, adaptations must be made in secondary classrooms to foster writing self-efficacy and mastery. Through the use of reflective writing activities, meaningful assignments, and lesson plans incorporating technology, teachers can help students develop as writers and better prepare them for the workforce.


Using Elements Of Hip-Hop To Promote Student Engagement, Edward McDaniel Jr. 2017 University of Toledo

Using Elements Of Hip-Hop To Promote Student Engagement, Edward Mcdaniel Jr.

Learning to Teach

Incorporating hip-hop into the classroom is an effective way to increase the engagement of students, especially in urban schools. The use of hip-hop in education has become more popular in recent years and is a tool that could potentially benefit many teachers. Several studies were looked at that showed positive outcomes when teachers communicated and interacted with their students in a culturally congruent manner. By incorporating hip-hop while student teaching, this author observed a noticeable increase in student engagement.


The Writing Problem: Teacher Self-Efficacy And Instruction, Catherine Haskins 2017 University of Toledo

The Writing Problem: Teacher Self-Efficacy And Instruction, Catherine Haskins

Learning to Teach

Writing is a struggle for many secondary students. The Common Core State Standards and state testing cause an increased focus on writing, but there has been little improvement in performance. The writing problem is no longer an English Language Arts (ELA) problem. All content areas need to work to improve student writing ability. This article explores two causes of low student writing ability: low teacher self-efficacy and ineffective teacher education programs. In order for students to become better writers, teachers not only need to become better writers, but also believe that they are better writers. And teacher education programs need ...


Decoding Skills: How These Skills Are The Answer To The Reading Problem That Affects Most Students, Laura J. Guenin 2017 Mrs.

Decoding Skills: How These Skills Are The Answer To The Reading Problem That Affects Most Students, Laura J. Guenin

Learning to Teach

Decoding skills are the answer to major reading issues for students. This report examines different ways that decoding words can effectively increase a student’s reading comprehension level, and analyzes particular decoding strategies for teachers to implement with their students. This will help each student to enhance their own ability to comprehend what he or she is reading. It also compares two different teaching approaches. One uses decoding strategies and the other is a whole language approach that only deals with words in context. This document also shares the research on decoding that explains how students can decode unfamiliar words ...


Assessing Concerns And Leading Pedagogical Innovation In Higher Education: A Case Study Of The Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School Of Business, Kamla Mungal, Gour C. Saha 2017 Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business, The University of the West Indies

Assessing Concerns And Leading Pedagogical Innovation In Higher Education: A Case Study Of The Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School Of Business, Kamla Mungal, Gour C. Saha

Journal of Curriculum, Teaching, Learning and Leadership in Education

Studies of pedagogical innovation indicate that the implementation process is enhanced by addressing teachers’ concerns. Institutions address teacher preparedness mainly from the perspectives of their preparation and institutional support, without recognising teachers’ mental state and particular implementation concerns. This paper adopts the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) to examine the Stages of Concern (SoC) of faculty involved in the implementation of pedagogical reform. The standardized 35-item SoC questionnaire was sent online to 152 faculty members and 31 responses were obtained. The study found the faculty body had high levels of self-concerns, low levels of impact concerns and a willingness to ...


Are Audience Response Systems Worth The Cost? Comparing Question-Driven Teaching Strategies For Emergency Medical Technician Education, Lauren M. Maloney, James P. Dilger, Paul A. Werfel, Linda M. Cimino 2017 Stony Brook University School of Medicine

Are Audience Response Systems Worth The Cost? Comparing Question-Driven Teaching Strategies For Emergency Medical Technician Education, Lauren M. Maloney, James P. Dilger, Paul A. Werfel, Linda M. Cimino

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: As Emergency Medical Technician educators develop curricula to meet new national educational standards, effective teaching strategies validated for course content and unique student demographics are warranted. Three methods for answering multiple choice questions presented during lectures were compared: a) Audience Response System (ARS, clickers), b) hand-raising-with-eyes-closed (no-cost option), and c) passive response (no-cost option). The purpose was to determine if using the ARS resulted in improved exam scores. Method: 113 Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) students participated in this cross-over, block randomized, controlled trial, which was incorporated into their Cardiac Emergencies and Pulmonary Emergencies course lectures. Students took pretests, immediate ...


Developing Multicultural Self-Awareness Through A Transformative Learning Experience, Cynthia Bezard, Sara A. Shaw 2017 Basic Academy of International Studies

Developing Multicultural Self-Awareness Through A Transformative Learning Experience, Cynthia Bezard, Sara A. Shaw

Journal of Research in Technical Careers

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the ways that a change in perspective can create a better understanding of cultural identity. This study addressed: (1) How does a self-awareness transformative learning experience develop critical cultural competence in career and technical education instructors? (2) How does the practice of critical reflection construct career and technical education instructors’ ability to develop self-awareness of critical cultural competence? (3) How does involvement in critical discourse construct career and technical education instructors’ ability to develop self-awareness of critical cultural competence? A three-phase professional development experience rooted in multicultural education provided key ...


Small Schools And The Issue Of Race, Linda C. Powell 2017 Teachers College, Columbia University

Small Schools And The Issue Of Race, Linda C. Powell

Occasional Paper Series

Bank Street College of Education, in conjunction with the Consortium on Chicago School Research did a study of small schools in Chicago. This paper examines one element of the findings in depth - the interaction of race and school size. Powell argues that small schools are by their very nature an anti-racist intervention.


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